You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.
For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).
American Ornithologists' Union (1886). The code of nomenclature and check-list of North American birds adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union. New York: American Ornithologists' Union.
American Ornithologists' Union (1899). Ninth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union check-list of North American birds. Auk 16:97-133.
American Ornithologists' Union (1957). Check-list of North American Birds, 5th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.
American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds. 6th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.
American Ornithologists' Union (1995). Fortieth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 112:819-830.
American Ornithologists' Union (1998). Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.
American Ornithologists' Union. (1895). Checklist of North American birds. Second ed. Washington, D.C.: Am. Ornithol. Union.
American Ornithologists' Union. (1910). Check-list of North American birds. 3rd ed. New York: Am. Ornithol. Union.
American Ornithologists' Union. (1931). Check-list of North American birds, 4th ed. Lancaster, PA: Am. Ornithol. Union.
Andrew, R. J. (1956). The aggressive and courtship behaviour of certain Emberizines. Behaviour 10 (3/4):255-308. doi: 10.1163/156853956x00183. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853956x00183
Baicich, P. J., and C. Harrison. (1997). A Guide to the Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
Bailey, H. H. (1913). The birds of Virginia. Lynchburg, Virginia: J.P. Bell Co.
Bayard, T. S. (2010). Testing the role of social cues in Saltmarsh Sparrow habitat selection decisions. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
Bayard, T. S., and C. S. Elphick. (2010). How area sensitivity in birds is studied. Conservation Biology 24 (4):938-947. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01480.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01480.x
Bayard, T. S., and C. S. Elphick. (2010). Using spatial point-pattern assessment to understand the social and environmental mechanisms that drive avian habitat selection. Auk 127 (3):485-494. doi: 10.1525/auk.2010.09089. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2010.09089
Bayard, T. S., and C. S. Elphick. (2011). Planning for sea-level rise: Quantifying patterns of Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) nest flooding under current sea-level conditions. Auk 128 (2):393-403. doi: 10.1525/auk.2011.10178. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2011.10178
Beecher, W. J. (1951). Adaptations for food-getting in the American blackbirds. Auk 68:411-440.
Beecher, W. J. (1955). Late Pleistocene isolation in salt-marsh sparrows. Ecology 36 (1):23-28.
Benoit, L. K. and R. A. Askins. (2002). Relationship between habitat area and the distribution of tidal marsh birds. Wilson Bulletin 114 (3):314-323.
Benvenuti, B., J. Walsh, K. M. O'Brien, M. J. Ducey, and A. I. Kovach. (2018). Annual variation in the offspring sex ratio of Saltmarsh Sparrows supports Fisher's hypothesis. Auk 135:342–358. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-17-148.1
BirdLife International. (2016). Ammospiza caudacuta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22721129A94699828. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22721129A94699828.en. Downloaded on 02 June 2017. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22721129A94699828.en
Birkhead, T. R. and A. P. Moller. (1992). Sperm competition in birds: evolutionary causes and consequences. NY: Academic Press.
Bishop, L. B. (1901). A new Sharp-tailed Finch from North Carolina. Auk 18:269-270.
Borowske, A. C. (2015). Effects of life history strategies on annual events and processes in the lives of tidal marsh sparrows. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
Borowske, A., C. Gjerdrum, and C. Elphick. (2017). Timing of migration and prebasic molt in tidal marsh sparrows with different breeding strategies: Comparisons among sexes and species. Auk 134 (1):51-64. doi: 10.1642/auk-16-116.1. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-16-116.1
Borowske, A., C. R. Field, K. J. Ruskin, and C. S. Elphick. In press. Consequences of breeding system for body condition and survival throughout the annual cycle of tidal marsh sparrows. Journal of Avian Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01529 https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01529
Borror, D. J. 1961. Songs of finches (Fringillidae) of eastern North America. Ohio Journal of Science 61:161-174.
Bowman, R. I. (1961). Morphological differentiation and adaptation in the Galapagos finches. Vol. 58, University of California Publ. Zool. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Boyle, W. J., Jr. (2011). The Birds of New Jersey: Status and Distribution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Brewster, W. (1906). The Birds of the Cambridge Region of Massachusetts. Memoirs of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 4, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Brown, N. C. (1880). Ammodromus [sic] caudacutus a summer resident in southern Maine. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 5:52
Bull, J. (1964). Birds of the New York area. New York: Harper and Row.
Burley, N. T., D. A. Enstrom, and L. Chitwood. (1994). Extra-pair relations in Zebra Finches: Differential male success results from female tactics. Animal Behaviour 48 (5):1031-1041. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1994.1336. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1994.1336
Byers, C., J. Curson, and J. Olsson. (1995). Sparrows and Buntings: A Guide to the Sparrows and Buntings of North America and the World. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, USA.
Carter, J. H. and J. F. Parnell. (1976). TV tower kills in eastern North Carolina. Chat 40:1-9.
Catchpole, C. K. (1982). The evolution of bird sounds in relation to mating and spacing behavior. In Acoustic communication in birds, edited by D. E. Kroodsma, E. H. Miller and H. Ouellet, 297-319. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
Chalfoun, A. D., and T. E. Martin. (2007). Assessments of habitat preferences and quality depend on spatial scale and metrics of fitness. Journal of Applied Ecology 44 (5):983-992. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01352.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01352.x
Chapman, F. M. 1910. Notes on the plumage of North American sparrows. Bird-Lore 12:16-18.
Chesser, R. T., K. J. Burns, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen Jr., D. F. Stotz, B. M. Winger, and K. Winker (2018). Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society's Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 135:798–813. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-18-62.1
Chu, P. (2012). Actions of the Michigan Bird Records Committee for 2012. Report of Michigan Bird Records Committee. Michigan Birds and Natural History 19:283-326.
Clark, G.A., Jr. (1999). Birds of Storrs, Connecticut, and Vicinity, 3rd edition. Natchuag Ornithological Society, Storrs, CT.
Correll, M. D., W. A. Wiest, T. P. Hodgman, W. G. Shriver, C. S. Elphick, B. J. McGill, K. M. O'Brien, and B. J. Olsen. (2017). Predictors of specialist avifaunal decline in coastal marshes. Conservation Biology 31 (1):172-182. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12797. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12797
Cristol, D. A., F. M. Smith, C. W. Varian-Ramos, and B. D. Watts. (2011). Mercury levels of Nelson's and Saltmarsh sparrows at wintering grounds in Virginia, USA. Ecotoxicology 20 (8):1773-1779. doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0710-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0710-5
Crosby, S. C., D. F. Sax, M. E. Palmer, H. S. Booth, L. A. Deegan, M. D. Bertness, and H. M. Leslie. (2016). Salt marsh persistence is threatened by predicted sea-level rise. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 181:93-99. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.08.018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.08.018
Cruickshank, A. D. (1942). Birds around New York City. Handbook Series no. 13, New York: American Mus. Nat. Hist.
Davidson, L. M. (2010). Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). In 2nd Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia (W. G. Ellison, Ed.). John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. pp. 388-389.
DeRagon, W. R. (1988). Breeding ecology of Seaside and Sharp-tailed sparrows in Rhode Island salt marshes. Master's Thesis, Univ. Rhode Island, Kingston.
Derrickson, K. C. 1987. Yearly and situational changes in the estimate of repertoire size in Northern Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos). Auk 104:198-207.
Dettmers, R., and K. V. Rosenberg. (2000). Partners in Flight bird conservation plan for the southern New England (physiographic area 09), version 1.0. American Bird Conservancy, Washington, DC.
DiQuinzio, D. A., P. W. C. Paton, and W. R. Eddleman. (2001). Site fidelity, philopatry, and survival of promiscuous Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows in Rhode Island. Auk 118 (4):888-899. doi: 10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0888:sfpaso]2.0.co;2. https://doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0888:sfpaso]2.0.co;2
DiQuinzio, D. A., P. W. C. Paton, and W. R. Eddleman. (2002). Nesting ecology of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows in a tidally restricted salt marsh. Wetlands 22 (1):179-185. doi: 10.1672/0277-5212(2002)022[0179:neosst]2.0.co;2. https://doi.org/10.1672/0277-5212(2002)022[0179:neosst]2.0.co;2
Duvall, A. J. (1937). Birds observed on the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. Auk 54:461.
Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13:73-360.
Dwight, Jr., J. (1896). The Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) and its geographical races. Auk 13:271-278.
Elliott, J. J. (1962). Sharp-tailed and Seaside Sparrows on Long Island, New York. Kingbird 12:115-123.
Elphick, C. S., S. Meiman, and M. A. Rubega. (2015). Tidal-flow restoration provides little nesting habitat for a globally vulnerable saltmarsh bird. Restoration Ecology 23 (4):439-446. doi: 10.1111/rec.12194. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12194
Emlen, S. T. (1976). Lek organization and mating strategies in the bullfrog. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 1:283-313.
Emlen, S. T. and L. W. Oring. (1977). Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215-223.
Enders, F. and W. Post. (1971). White-spotting in the genus Ammospiza and other grassland sparrows. Bird-Banding 42:210-219.
England, M. E. (1989). The breeding biology and status of the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) on Long Island, New York. Master's thesis, Long Island University, Brookville, NY.
Field, C. R., A. A. Dayer, and C. S. Elphick. (2017). Landowner behavior can determine the success of conservation strategies for ecosystem migration under sea-level rise. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (34):9134-9139. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1620319114. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620319114
Field, C. R., C. Gjerdrum, and C. S. Elphick. (2016). Forest resistance to sea-level rise prevents landward migration of tidal marsh. Biological Conservation 201:363-369. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.035
Field, C. R., K. J. Ruskin, B. Benvenuti, A. Borowske, J. B. Cohen, L. Garey, T. P. Hodgman, R. A. Kern, E. King, A. R. Kocek, A. I. Kovach, K. M. O’Brien, B. J. Olsen, N. Pau, S. G. Roberts, E. Shelly, W. G. Shriver, J. Walsh, and C. S. Elphick. (2017). Quantifying the importance of geographic replication and representativeness when estimating demographic rates, using a coastal species as a case study. Ecography. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.02424
Field, C. R., T. S. Bayard, C. Gjerdrum, J. M. Hill, S. Meiman, and C. S. Elphick. (2017). High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise. Global Change Biology 23 (5):2058-2070. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13519. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13519
Field, C., and C. S. Elphick. (2014). Sentinels of climate change: Coastal indicators of wildlife and ecosystem change in Long Island Sound. Report to Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection/Environmental Protection Agency, Long Island Sound Study.
Forbush, E. H. (1929). Birds of Massachusetts and other New England states, Part 3: Land birds from sparrows to thrushes. Boston: Mass. Dept. Agric.
Gedan, K. B., and B. R. Silliman. (2009). Patterns of salt marsh loss within coastal regions of North America. In Human impacts on salt marshes: A global perspective (S. R. Silliman, E. D. Grosholz, and M. D. Bertness, Eds.). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. pp. 253-265.
Gedan, K. B., B. R. Silliman, and M. D. Bertness. (2009). Centuries of human-driven change in salt marsh ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science 1:117-141.
Gilbert, G. (1981). Le comportement social du Pinson a Queue Aigue. Master's Thesis, L'Universite Laval, Laval, Quebec.
Gjerdrum, C., C. S. Elphick and M. Rubega. (2005). Nest site selection and nesting success in saltmarsh breeding sparrows: The importance of nest habitat, timing, and study site differences. Condor 107 (4):849-862.
Gjerdrum, C., C. S. Elphick, and M. A. Rubega. (2008). How well can we model numbers and productivity of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus) using habitat features? Auk 125 (3):608-617. doi: 10.1525/auk.2008.07029. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2008.07029
Gjerdrum, C., K. Sullivan-Wiley, E. King, M. A. Rubega, and C. S. Elphick. (2008). Egg and chick fates during tidal flooding of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow nests. Condor 110 (3):579-584. doi: 10.1525/cond.2008.8559. https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2008.8559
Goldstein, D. L. (2006). Osmoregulatory biology of saltmarsh passerines. Studies in Avian Biology 32:110-118.
Goldstein, D. L., J. B. Williams and E. J. Braun. (1990). Osmoregulation in the field by salt-marsh Savannah Sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi. Physiological Zoology 63 (4):669-682.
Grant, G. S. and W. Kirby-Smith. (1992). Heavy snow and cold mortality of Sharp-tailed Sparrows and Marsh Wrens. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 108:145-148.
Grant, P. R. (1986). Ecology and evolution of Darwin’s finches. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Green, H. O. (1935). Nests of the eastern Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Oologist 52:98-101.
Greenberg, R. (2006). Tidal marshes: Home for the few and the highly selected. Pp. 2-9 In Terrestrial Vertebrates of Tidal Marshes: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation (R. Greenberg, J. E. Maldonado, S. Droege, and M. V. McDonald, Eds.). Studies in Avian Biology, no. 32.
Greenberg, R., C. S. Elphick, J. C. Nordby, C. Gjerdrum, H. Spautz, G. Shriver, B. Schmeling, B. Olsen, P. Marra, N. Nur and M. Winter. 2006. Flooding and predation: Trade-offs in the nesting ecology of tidal-marsh sparrows. Studies in Avian Biology (32):96-109.
Greenberg, R., R. Danner, B. Olsen, and D. Luther. (2012). High summer temperature explains bill size variation in Salt Marsh Sparrows. Ecography 35 (2):146-152. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2011.07002.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2011.07002.x
Greenlaw, J. S. (1993). Behavioral and morphological diversification in Sharp-tailed Sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus) of the Atlantic coast. Auk 110 (2):286-303.
Greenlaw, J. S. (2008). Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus. In The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in New York State (K. J. McGowan and K. Corwin, Eds.). Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY, pp. 560-561.
Greenlaw, J. S. 1977. Taxonomic distribution, origin, and evolution of bilateral scratching in ground-feeding birds. Condor 79:426-439.
Greenlaw, J. S. and G. E. Woolfenden. (2007). Wintering distributions and migration of Saltmarsh and Nelson's sharp-tailed sparrows. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119 (3):361-377.
Greenlaw, J. S. and J. D. Rising. (1994). "Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus)." In The birds of North America, No. 112., edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Philadelphia, PA: Acad. Nat. Sci. and Am. Ornithol. Union.
Greenlaw, J. S., and W. Post. (2012). Apparent forced mating and female control in Saltmarsh Sparrows. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124 (2):253-264.
Greenlaw, J. S., B. Pranty, and R. Bowman. (2014). The Robertson and Woolfenden Florida bird species: an annotated list. Special Publication no. 8, Florida Ornithological Society.
Grenier, J. L., and R. Greenberg. (2006). Trophic adaptations in sparrows and other vertebrates of tidal marshes. Studies in Avian Biology 32:130-139.
Griffith, S. C., I. P. F. Owens, and K. A. Thuman. (2002). Extra pair paternity in birds: A review of interspecific variation and adaptive function. Molecular Ecology 11 (11):2195-2212. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01613.x. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01613.x
Hanson, A. R. and W. G. Shriver. (2006). Breeding birds of northeast saltmarshes: habitat use and conservation. Studies in Avian Biology 32:141-154.
Harrison, X. A., J. D. Blount, R. Inger, D. R. Norris and S. Bearhop. (2011). Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals. Journal of Animal Ecology 80 (1):4-18. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01740.x/asset/j.1365-2656.2010.01740.x.pdf?v=1&t=ipv0xsc2&s=62023dedcc23dd023db9a1b573abe0f665642091
Hess, G. K., R. L. West, M. V. Barnhill III, and L. M. Fleming (2000). Birds of Delaware. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Hill, C. E., C. Gjerdrum, and C. S. Elphick. (2010). Extreme levels of multiple mating characterize the mating system of the Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). Auk 127 (2):300-307. doi: 10.1525/auk.2009.09055. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.09055
Hill, C. E., S. Tomko, C. Hagen, N. A. Schable, and T. C. Glenn. (2008). Novel microsatellite markers for the Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, Ammodramus caudacutus (Aves: Passeriformes). Molecular Ecology Resources 8 (1):113-115. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01885.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01885.x
Hill, J. M. (2008). Postfledging movement behavior and habitat use of adult female Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
Hill, J. M., and C. S. Elphick. (2011). Are grassland passerines especially susceptible to negative transmitter impacts? Wildlife Society Bulletin 35 (4):362-367. doi: 10.1002/wsb.84. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.84
Hill, J. M., J. Walsh, A. I. Kovach, and C. S. Elphick. (2013). Male-skewed sex ratio in Saltmarsh Sparrow nestlings. Condor 115 (2):411-420. doi: 10.1525/cond.2013.120116. https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2013.120116
Hill, N. P. (1965). The birds of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. New York: William Morrow and Co.
Hill, N. P. (1968). Southern Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammospiza caudacuta diversa [Bishop]). In Life Histories of North American Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Buntings, Towhees, Finches, Sparrows, and Allies (O. L. Austin, Jr., Ed.). U.S. National Museum Bulletin 237, part 2. pp. 812-814.
Hill, N. P. 1968. "Ammospiza caudacuta caudacuta (Gmelin) Eastern Sharp-tailed Sparrow." In Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies., edited by Jr O. L. Austin, 795-812. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. No. 237, pt. 2.
Hill, N. P. 1968. "Sharp-tailed Sparrow subspecies." In Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies, pt. 2., edited by Jr O. L. Austin, 789-819. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 237.
Hodgman, T. P., C. S. Elphick, B. J. Olsen, W. G. Shriver, M. D. Correll, C. R. Field, K. J. Ruskin, and W. A. Wiest. (2015). The conservation of tidal marsh birds: Guiding action at the intersection of our changing land and seascapes. Final report to US Fish and Wildlife Service (Competitive State Wildlife Grant); https://www.tidalmarshbirds.org. https://www.tidalmarshbirds.org
Hodgman, T. P., W. G. Shriver and P. D. Vickery. (2002). Redefining range overlap between the Sharp-tailed Sparrows of coastal New England. Wilson Bulletin 114 (1):38-43.
Howell, A. H. (1932). Florida bird life. New York: Coward-McCann.
Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.
Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1–31.
Humphreys, S., C. S. Elphick, C. Gjerdrum, and M. Rubega. (2007). Testing the function of the domed nests of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Journal of Field Ornithology 78 (2):152-158. doi: 10.1111/j.1557-9263.2007.00098.x. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2007.00098.x
IUCN. (2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. 2001. Categories & Criteria (version 3.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_3_1. Accessed April 2017. http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_3_1
Judd, S. D. 1901. The relation of sparrows to agriculture. U.S. Dep. Agric. Bull. no. 15.
Kern, R. A. (2015). Conservation ecology of tidal marsh sparrows in New Jersey. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
Klicka, J. and G. M. Spellman. (2007). A molecular evaluation of the North American "grassland" sparrow clade. Auk 124:537-551.
Klicka, J., F. K. Barker, K. J. Burns, S. M. Lanyon, I. J. Lovette, J. A. Chaves and Jr. Bryson, R. W. (2014). A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 77:177-182.
Lane, O. P., K. M. O'Brien, D. C. Evers, T. P. Hodgman, A. Major, N. Pau, M. J. Ducey, R. Taylor, and D. Perry. (2011). Mercury in breeding Saltmarsh Sparrows (Ammodramus caudacutus caudacutus). Ecotoxicology 20 (8):1984-1991. doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0740-z. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0740-z
Latham, J. (1782). A general synopsis of birds. Vol. 1 (2). London: Printed for Benj. White.
Levine, E. (1998). Bull's birds of New York State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson (1951). American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits: The Use of Trees, Shrubs, Weeds, and Herbs by Birds and Mammals of the United States. Dover Publications Inc, New York, NY, USA.
Martin, T. E. (1998). Are microhabitat preferences of coexisting species under selection and adaptive? Ecology 79:656-670.
Martin, T. E. 1987. Food as a limit on breeding birds: A life history perspective. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 18:453-487.
McDonald, M. V. and R. Greenberg. (1991). Nest departure calls in female songbirds. Condor 93:365-373.
McKinney, F., K. M. Cheng, and D. J. Bruggers. (1984). Sperm completion and the evolution of animal mating systems. Pp. 423-545 in Sperm competition and the evolution of animal mating systems (R. L. Smith, Ed.). Academic Press Inc., Orlando, FL.
McKinney, F., S. R. Derrickson, and P. Mineau. (1983). Forced copulation in waterfowl. Behaviour 86:250-294.
McLaren, I. (2002). First for Canada: Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow in Nova Scotia. Birder's Journal 11 (3):110-113.
Meiman, S., and C. S. Elphick. (2012). Evaluating habitat-association models for the Saltmarsh Sparrow. Condor 114 (4):856-864. doi: 10.1525/cond.2012.110197. https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2012.110197
Meiman, S., D. Civco, K. Holsinger, and C. S. Elphick. (2012). Comparing habitat models using ground-based and remote sensing data: Saltmarsh Sparrow presence versus nesting. Wetlands 32 (4):725-736. doi: 10.1007/s13157-012-0306-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-012-0306-8
Merriam, T. L. (1979). Feeding ecology and food overlap of two sympatric marsh-inhabiting sparrows (Aves: Ammospiza). Master's thesis, Long Island Univ., Brookville, NY.
Montagna, W. (1940). The Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrows of Popham Beach, Maine. Wilson Bulletin 52:191-197.
Montagna, W. (1942). Additional notes on the Atlantic coast Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Wilson Bulletin 54:256.
Montagna, W. (1942). The Sharp-tailed Sparrows of the Atlantic coast. Wilson Bulletin 54:107-120.
Murray, B. G., Jr. (1969). A comparative study of Le Conte's and Sharp-tailed sparrows. Auk 86:199-231.
Murray, B. G., Jr. 1968. The relationships of sparrows in the genera Ammodramus, Passerherbulus, and Ammospiza, with a description of a hybrid Le Conte's x Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Auk 85:586-593.
Murray, Jr., B. G. (1981). The origins of adaptive interspecific territorialism. Biol. Rev. 56:1-22.
Murray, Jr., B. G. 1971. The ecological consequences of interspecific territorial behavior in birds. Ecology 52:414-423.
Niering, W. A. and R. S. Warren. (1980). Vegetation patterns and processes in New England salt marshes. BioScience 30:301-307.
Nightingale, J., and C. S. Elphick. (2017). Tidal flooding is associated with lower ectoparasite intensity in nests of the Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). Wilson Journal of Ornithology 129 (1):122-130. doi: 10.1676/1559-4491-129.1.122. https://doi.org/10.1676/1559-4491-129.1.122
Norton, A. H. (1897). The Sharp-tailed Sparrows of Maine, with remarks on their distribution and relationship. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist. 2:97-102.
Norton, A. H. (1904). Notes on the finches found in Maine. Journal of Maine Ornithological Society 6:42-47, 53-57.
Norton, A. H. (1927). Nesting of the Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Passerherbulus nelsoni subvirgatus) in Maine. Auk 44 (4):568-570.
Oberholser, H. C. 1917. Notes on the fringilline genus Passerherbulus and its nearest allies. Ohio Journal of Science 17:332-336.
O’Brian, M. (1996). Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). In Atlas of the breeding birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia (C. S. Robbins, ed.). University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA. pp. 402-403.
Palmer, R. S. (1949). Maine Birds. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ. 102:1-579.
Parkes, K. C. (1992). The subspecies of the Sharp-tailed Sparrow and the re-identification of a western Pennsylvania specimen. Pennsylvania Birds 6:13-14.
Pennant, T. (1785). Arctic zoology. Vol. II. London, England: Henry Hughs.
Post, W. (1970). Breeding bird census no. 46: salt marsh. Audubon Field Notes 24:771-772.
Post, W. (1970). Ditched salt marsh. Audubon Field Notes 24 (6):772-773.
Post, W. (1998). The status of Nelson's and Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed sparrows on Waccasassa Bay, Levy County, Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 26 (1):1-6.
Post, W. 1971. Sharp-tailed Sparrow lays dwarf eggs. Kingbird 21:68.
Post, W. and F. Enders. 1970. The occurrence of Mallophaga on two bird species occupying the same habitat. Ibis 112:539-540.
Post, W. and J. S. Greenlaw. (1975). Seaside Sparrow displays: their function in social organization and habitat. Auk 92:461-492.
Post, W. and J. S. Greenlaw. (1982). Comparative costs of promiscuity and monogamy - a test of reproductive effort theory. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10 (2):101-107.
Post, W. and J. S. Greenlaw. (2006). Nestling diets of coexisting salt marsh sparrows: Opportunism in a food-rich environment. Estuaries and Coasts 29 (5):765-775.
Post, W. and J. S. Greenlaw. (2009). Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.127
Poulson, T. L. (1969). Salt and water balance in Seaside and Sharp-tailed sparrows. Auk 86:473-489.
Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.
Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22:49-89.
Pyle, P., and D. A. Sibley (1992). Juvenal-plumaged Le Conte's Sparrows on migration: Are they being overlooked? Birding 24:70-76.
Pyle, P., and M. McPherson (2017). Why so many white Eared Grebes? Birding 49:58-65. http://www.birdpop.org/docs/pubs/Pyle_and_McPherson_2017_Why_So_Many_White_Eared_Grebes.pdf
Reinert, S. E. (2006). Avian nesting response to tidal-marsh flooding: Literature review and a case for adaptation in the Red-winged Blackbird. Studies in Avian Biology 32:77-95.
Reinert, S. E., F. C. Golet and W. R. DeRagon. (1981). Avian use of ditched and unditched salt marshes in southeastern New England: a preliminary report. Trans. Northeastern Mosquito Control Assoc. 27:1-23.
Ricklefs, R. E. 1967. A graphical method of fitting equations to growth curves. Ecology. 48:978-983.
Ricklefs, R. E., and G. Bloom. (1977). Components of avian breeding productivity. Auk 94 (1):86-96.
Ridgway, R. (1901). The birds of North and Middle America, Part 1. United States National Museum Bulletin 50.
Rising, J. D. (1996). A Guide to the Identification and Natural History of the Sparrows of the United States and Canada. Academic Press, NY, USA.
Rising, J. D. and J. Avise. (1993). An application of genealogical concordance principles to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). Auk 110:844-856.
Robbins, C. S., and E. A. T. Blom (1996). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Roberts, S. G. (2016). Population viability of Seaside and Saltmarsh sparrows in New Jersey. Unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
Roberts, S. G., R. A. Longenecker, M. A. Etterson, K. J. Ruskin, C. S. Elphick, B. J. Olsen, and W. G. Shriver. (2017). Factors that influence vital rates of Seaside and Saltmarsh sparrows in coastal New Jersey, USA. Journal of Field Ornithology 88 (2):115-131. doi: 10.1111/jofo.12199. https://doi.org/10.1111/jofo.12199
Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton, and T. Will (2016). Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee. https://www.partnersinflight.org/resources/the-plan/
Ross, C. C. (1963). Albinism among North American birds. Cassinia 47:2-21.
Rottenborn, S. C., and E. S. Brinkley (eds.). (2007). Virginia’s birdlife: An annotated list. Fourth edition. Virginia Avifauna No. 7, The Virginia Society of Ornithology.
Ruskin, K. J. (2015). Intra- and interspecific variation in demographic rates and niche across the range of a species, the Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine, Orono.
Ruskin, K. J., M. A. Etterson, T. P. Hodgman, A. C. Borowske, J. B. Cohen, C. S. Elphick, C. R. Field, R. A. Kern, E. King, A. R. Kocek, A. I. Kovach, K. M. O'Brien, N. Pau, W. G. Shriver, J. Walsh, and B. J. Olsen. (2017). Seasonal fecundity is not related to geographic position across a species' global range despite a central peak in abundance. Oecologia 183 (1):291-301. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3745-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-016-3745-8
Ruskin, K. J., M. A. Etterson, T. P. Hodgman, A. C. Borowske, J. B. Cohen, C. S. Elphick, C. R. Field, R. A. Longenecker, E. King, A. R. Kocek, A. I. Kovach, K. M. O'Brien, N. Pau, W. G. Shriver, J. Walsh, and B. J. Olsen. (2017). Demographic analysis demonstrates systematic but independent spatial variation in abiotic and biotic stressors across 59 percent of a global species range. Auk 134 (4):903-916. doi: 10.1642/auk-16-230.1. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-16-230.1
Ruskin, K. J., T. P. Hodgman, M. A. Etterson, and B. J. Olsen. (2015). Divergent oviposition preferences of sister species are not driven by nest survival: The evidence for neutrality. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69 (10):1639-1647. doi: 10.1007/s00265-015-1975-0. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-015-1975-0
Sage, J. H., L. B. Bishop and W. P. Bliss. (1913). The birds of Connecticut. Hartford, CN: Bull. no. 20, Connecticut Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv.
Salzman, E. (2000). A note on Marsh Sparrow songs with comments by Jon Greenlaw. Kingbird 50:131-138.
Saunders, A. A. 1951. A guide to bird songs. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Shriver, W. G., D. C. Evers, T. P. Hodgman, B. J. MacCulloch, and R. J. Taylor. (2006). Mercury in Sharp-tailed Sparrows breeding in coastal wetlands. Environmental Bioindicators 1 (2):129-135. doi: 10.1080/15555270600695734. https://doi.org/10.1080/15555270600695734
Shriver, W. G., J. P. Gibbs, P. D. Vickery, H. L. Gibbs, T. P. Hodgman, P. T. Jones and C. N. Jacques. 2005. Concordance between morphological and molecular markers in assessing hybridization between sharp-tailed sparrows in New England. Auk 122 (1):94-107.
Shriver, W. G., P. D. Vickery, T. P. Hodgman and J. P. Gibbs. (2007). Flood tides affect breeding ecology of two sympatric sharp-tailed sparrows. Auk 124 (2):552-560.
Shriver, W. G., T. P. Hodgman, J. P. Gibbs and P. D. Vickery. (2004b). Landscape context influences salt marsh bird diversity and area requirements in New England. Biological Conservation 119 (4):545-553.
Shriver, W. G., T. P. Hodgman, J. P. Gibbs, and P. D. Vickery. (2010). Home range sizes and habitat use of Nelson’s and Saltmarsh sparrows. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122 (2):340-345. doi: 10.1676/09-149.1. https://doi.org/10.1676/09-149.1
Sibley, D. 1996. Field identification of the sharp-tailed sparrow complex. Birding 28 (3):196-208.
Sibley, D. A. (1997). Birds of Cape May, second edition. Cape May Bird Observatory, New Jersey Audubon Society, Cape May, NJ, USA.
Sibley, D. A. (2005). A possible specimen record of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) from Michigan, with comments on the reliability of specimen data. North American Birds 59:524-525.
Simmons, K. E. L. (2008). Problems of head-scratching in birds. Ibis 103A:37-49.
Sorenson, L. G. (1994). Forced extra-pair copulation and mate guarding in the White-cheeked Pintail: Timing and trade-offs in an asynchronously breeding duck. Animal Behaviour 48 (3):519-533. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1994.1273. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1994.1273
Sprunt, A., Jr and E. B. Chamberlain. (1970). South Carolina bird life. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press.
Stewart, R. E., and C. S. Robbins. (1958). Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. North American Fauna 62.
Stoddard, H. L. (1962). Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower, 1955-1961. Tall Timbers Res. Stat. Bull. 1.
Stoddard, H. L., and R. A. Norris (1967). Bird casualties at a Leon County, Florida, TV tower: An eleven-year study. Bulletin of the Tall Timbers Research Station 8:1-104.
Stone, W. (1896). The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 43:108-164.
Stone, W. (1937). Bird studies at old Cape May: an ornithology of coastal New Jersey. Philadelphia, PA: Delaware Valley Ornithol. Club.
Streby, H. M., J. M. Refsnider, and D. E. Andersen. (2014). Redefining reproductive success in songbirds: Moving beyond the nest success paradigm. Auk 131 (4):718-726. doi: 10.1642/auk-14-69.1. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-14-69.1
Tattersall, G. J., B. Arnaout, and M. R. E. Symonds. (2016). The evolution of the avian bill as a thermoregulatory organ. Biological Reviews: http://onlinelibrary.wiley/doi: 10.1111/brv.12299. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12299
Tordoff, H. B., and R. M. Mengel (1951). The occurrence and possible significance of a spring molt in Le Conte's Sparrow. Auk 68:519-522.
Tracey, K. F., and J. S. Greenlaw. (2009). Occurrence of Seaside and Sharp-tailed sparrows on the central Gulf Coast of Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 37 (3):75-85.
Trollinger, J. B., and K. K. Reay. (2001). Breeding bird atlas of Virginia, 1985-1989. Special Publication no. 3, The Virginia Society of Ornithology.
Veit, R. R., and W. R. Petersen (1993). The Birds of Massachusetts. Massachussetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA, USA.
Walsh, J., A. I. Kovach, K. J. Babbitt, and K. M. O'Brien. (2012). Fine-scale population structure and asymmetrical dispersal in an obligate salt-marsh passerine, the Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). Auk 129 (2):247-258. doi: 10.1525/auk.2012.11153. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2012.11153
Walsh, J., A. I. Kovach, O. P. Lane, K. M. O'Brien, and K. J. Babbitt. (2011). Genetic barcode RFLP analysis of the Nelson’s and Saltmarsh sparrow hybrid zone. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 123 (2):316-322. doi: 10.1676/10-134.1. https://doi.org/10.1676/10-134.1
Walsh, J., B. J. Olsen, K. J. Ruskin, W. G. Shriver, K. M. O'Brien, and A. I. Kovach. (2016). Extrinsic and intrinsic factors influence fitness in an avian hybrid zone. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119 (4):890-903. doi: 10.1111/bij.12837. https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12837
Walsh, J., I. J. Lovette, V. Winder, C. S. Elphick, B. J. Olsen, G. Shriver, and A. I. Kovach. (2017). Subspecies delineation amid phenotypic, geographic and genetic discordance in a songbird. Molecular Ecology 26 (5):1242-1255. doi: 10.1111/mec.14010. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14010
Walsh, J., L. M. Maxwell, and A. I. Kovach (2018). The role of divergent mating strategies, reproductive success, and compatibility in maintaining the Saltmarsh–Nelson’s sparrow hybrid zone. Auk 135:693-705. https://doi.org/10.1642/AUK-17-218.1
Walsh, J., R. J. Rowe, B. J. Olsen, W. G. Shriver, and A. I. Kovach. (2016). Genotype-environment associations support a mosaic hybrid zone between two tidal marsh birds. Ecology and Evolution 6 (1):279-294. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1864. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1864
Walsh, J., V. Elia, R. Kane, and T. Halliwell (1999). Birds of New Jersey. New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ, USA.
Walsh, J., W. G. Shriver, B. J. Olsen, K. M. O'Brien, and A. I. Kovach. (2015). Relationship of phenotypic variation and genetic admixture in the Saltmarsh-Nelson's sparrow hybrid zone. Auk 132 (3):704-716. doi: 10.1642/auk-14-299.1. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-14-299.1
Walsh, J., W. G. Shriver, M. D. Correll, B. J. Olsen, C. S. Elphick, T. P. Hodgman, R. J. Rowe, K. M. O'Brien, and A. I. Kovach. (2017). Temporal shifts in the saltmarsh-Nelson's sparrow hybrid zone revealed by replicated demographic and genetic surveys. Conservation Genetics 18 (2):453-466. doi: 10.1007/s10592-016-0920-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-016-0920-8
Watts, B. D. (2004). A recent breeding record of the Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow in Gloucester County, Virginia. Raven 75:128-131.
Watts, B. D. (2010). Southern range limit for breeding in the Saltmarsh Sparrow. The Center for Conservation Biology, The College of William and Mary. https://www.ccbbirds.org/2010/07/02/southern-range-limit-for-breeding-in-the-saltmarsh-sparrow/
Watts, B. D., and F. M. Smith. (2015). Winter composition of Nelson’s Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni) and Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) mixed flocks in coastal Virginia. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127 (3):387-394.
Wayne, A. T. (1921). Albinism in the Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Passerherbulus caudacutus). Auk 38:604-605.
Wayne, A. T. 1924. Albinism in Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Auk 41:346-347.
Wetmore, A. (1944). Records of Sharp-tailed Sparrows from Maryland and Virginia in the National Museum. Auk 61 (1):132-133.
Wiest, W. A. (2015). Tidal marsh bird conservation in the northeast USA. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
Wiest, W. A., M. D. Correll, B. J. Olsen, C. S. Elphick, T. P. Hodgman, D. R. Curson, and W. G. Shriver. (2016). Population estimates for tidal marsh birds of high conservation concern in the northeastern USA from a design-based survey. Condor 118 (2):274-288. doi: 10.1650/condor-15-30.1. https://doi.org/10.1650/condor-15-30.1
Winder, V. L., A. K. Michaelis, and S. D. Emslie. (2012). Winter survivorship and site fidelity of Nelson’s, Saltmarsh, and Seaside sparrows in North Carolina. Condor 114 (2):421-429. doi: 10.1525/cond.2012.110088. https://doi.org/10.1525/cond.2012.110088
Winder, V. L., and S. D. Emslie. (2012). Mercury in non-breeding sparrows of North Carolina salt marshes. Ecotoxicology 21 (2):325-335. doi: 10.1007/s10646-011-0794-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0794-y
Woolfenden, G. E. (1968). "Ammospiza maritima maritima (Wilson) Northern Seaside Sparrow." In Life histories of North American cardinals, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and their allies, Parts 1-3, edited by O. L. Austin, 819-831. U.S. National Museum Bulletin No. 237.
Woolfenden, G. E. 1956. Comparative breeding behavior of Ammospiza caudacuta and A. maritima. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 10 (2):45-75.
Zink, R. M., and J. C. Avise (1990). Patterns of mitochondrial DNA and allozyme evolution in the avian genus Ammodramus. Systematic Zoology 39:148-161.