Snowy Owl

Bubo scandiacus



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).

Literature Cited

Evans, D. L. (1980a). Vocalizations and territorial behavior of wintering Snowy Owls. American Birds 34:748-749.

Taylor, P. S. (1973a). Breeding behavior of the Snowy Owl. Living Bird 12:137-154.

Watson, A. (1957b). The behaviour, breeding, and food-ecology of the Snowy Owl Nyctea scandiaca. Ibis 99:419-462.

Additional References

ACIA. (2004). Impacts of a warming climate: Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game. State of Alaska special status species 2011.

Alerstam, T. (1982). Fågelflyttning. Lund: Signum.

American Ornithologists' Union (1998). Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.

Andrews, P. (1990a). Owls, caves and fossils. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Audubon, J. J. (1840d). The birds of America (1967 reprint). New York, NY: Dover Publ., Inc.

Baicich, P. J. and C. J. O. Harrison. (2005). Nests, eggs, and nestlings of North American birds. 2 ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bailey, A. M. (1948). Birds of Arctic Alaska. Colorado Mus. Nat. Hist., Popular Series 8.

Banks, R. C., C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., J. D. Rising, and D. F. Stotz. (2003). Forty-fourth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 120 (3):923-931.

Barth, E. K. (1950). Efter fjallugglor pa Hardangervidda. Fauna och Flora 1950:235-242.

Beamer, L. H. (1937). Observations on the food habits of the Snowy Owl. Canadian Field-Naturalist 51:59-60.

Bendire, C. E. (1892b). Life histories of North American birds with special reference to their breeding habits and eggs. U.S. Nat. Mus. Spec. Bull. 1.

Bent, A. C. (1938b). Life histories of North American Birds of Prey (Part 2). Orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. (170):viii-482.

Berlanga, H., J. A. Kennedy, T. D. Rich, M. C. Arizmendi, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, G. S. Butcher, A. R. Couturier, A. A. Dayer, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, M. Gustafson, E. Iñigo-Elias, E. A. Krebs, A. O. Panjabi, V. Rodriguez Contreras, K. V. Rosenberg, J. M. Ruth, E. Santana Castellón, R. Ma. Vidal and T. Will. (2010b). Saving our shared birds: Partners in Flight tri-national vision for landbird conservation. Ithaca: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology.

BirdLife International. Nyctea Scandiaca. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2004). Available from

BirdLife International. Species fact sheet: Bubo scandiacus (2013a). Available from

Blotzheim, U. N. Glutz Von and K. Bauer. (1980). Handbuch der Vogel Mitteleuropas. Vol. 9. Wiesbaden, West Germany: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.

Bortolotti, G. R., M. J. Stoffel and I. Galvan. (2011). Wintering Snowy Owls Bubo scandiacus integrate plumage colour, behaviour and their environment to maximize efficacy of visual displays. Ibis 153 (1):134-142.

Bostwick, K. S., and M. J. Brady (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of wing feather taxis in birds: Macroevolutionary patterns of genetic drift? Auk 119:943-954.

Boxall, P. C. and M. R. Lein. (1982a). Feeding ecology of Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) wintering in S. Alberta. Arctic 35:282-290.

Boxall, P. C. and M. R. Lein. (1982b). Possible courtship behavior of Snowy Owls in winter. Wilson Bulletin 94:79-81.

Boxall, P. C. and M. R. Lein. (1982c). Territoriality and habitat selection of female Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) in winter. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2344-2350.

Boxall, P. C. and M. R. Lein. (1989). Time budgets and activity of wintering Snowy Owls. Journal of Field Ornithology 60 (1):20-29.

Brackney, A. W. and R. J. King. (1991). Population shifts by Snowy Owls on the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska. Abstract. In Alaska Bird Conference and Workshop. Anchorage.

Brandt, H. (1942). Alaska bird trails: an Expedition by dog sled to the delta of the Yukon River at Hooper Bay. Cleveland: The Bird Research Foundation.

Brodkorb, P. (1971). Catalogue of fossil birds, Part 4 (Columbiformes through Piciformes). Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci. 15 (4).

Brooks, W. S. (1915). Notes on birds from east Siberia and arctic Alaska. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 59:361-413.

Burkhardt, D. (1989). UV vision: A bird?s eye view of feathers. Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 164 (6):787-796.

Burton, J. A. (1973a). Owls of the world. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Campbell, R. W. and M. D. MacColl. (1978). Winter foods of Snowy Owls in southwestern British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 42 (1):190-192.

Campbell, R. W. and M. L. Preston. (2009). Wildlife Data Centre: Snowy Owl. Wildlife Afield 6:173-255.

Chamberlin, M. L. (1980). Winter hunting behavior of a Snowy Owl in Michigan. Wilson Bulletin 92 (1):116-120.

Chitty, H. (1950). Canadian Arctic wild life enquiry, 1943-1949: With a summary of results since 1933. Journal of Animal Ecology 19 (2):180-193.

Collett, R. (1921). Norges Fugle. Kristiania: H. Aschehoug.

Cracraft, J. (1981). Toward a phylogenetic classification of the recent birds of the world (Class Aves). Auk 98:681-714.

Cramp, S. (1985a). Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, vol. 4. terns to woodpeckers. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Dement'ev, G. P. and N. A. Gladkov. (1951). Birds of the Soviet Union. Vol. 1. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo "Sovetskaya Nauka".

Detienne, J. C., D. Holt, M. T. Seidensticker and T. Pitz. (2008). Diet of Snowy Owls wintering in west-central Montana, with comparisons to other North American studies. Journal of Raptor Research 42 (3):172-179.

Dial, C. R., S. L. Talbot, G. K. Sage, M. T. Seidensticker and D. W. Holt. (2012). Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Snowy Owl B. scandiacus for use in population genetics, individual identification and parentage studies. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 44 (1):1-12.

Duffy, D. C., B. Beehler and W. Haas. (1976). Snowy Owl steals prey from Marsh Hawk. Auk 93 (4):839-840.

Dufresne, F. (1922). The Snowy Owl-destroyer of game. Bull. Amer. Game Prot. Assoc. 11:11-12.

Earhart, C. M. and N. K. Johnson. (1970). Size dimorphism and food habits of North American owls. Condor 72 (3):251-264.

Ebbinge, B. S. and B. Spaans. (2002). How do Brent Geese (Branta b. bernicla) cope with evil? Complex relationships between predators and prey. Journal für Ornithologie 143 (1):33-42.

eBird. (2012). eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. eBird, Ithaca, New York. Available:

Ellis, D. H. and D. G. Smith. (1993). Preliminary report of extensive Gyrfalcon and Snowy Owl mortality in northern Siberia. Raptor-Link 1 (2):3-4.

Fay, F. H. and T. J. Cade. (1959). An ecological analysis of the avifauna of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. University of California Publications in Zoology 63 (2):73-150.

Fish, Alaska Department of and Game. (2005). Our wealth maintained: A strategy for conserving Alaska?s diverse wildlife and fish resources. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

Fish, Alaska Department of and Game. Community Subsistence Information System. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence (2013). Available from

Fisher, A. K. (1893c). The hawks and owls of the United States in their relation to agriculture. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Ornithology and Mammalogy.

Flieg, G. M. and P. R. Meppiel. (1972). An account of trio nesting by yearling Snowy Owls in captivity. Raptor Research 6 (3):103-103.

Follen, D. and K. Luepke. (1980). Snowy Owl recaptures. Inland Bird Banding 52:60.

Ford, N. L. (1967). A systematic study of the owls based on comparative osteology. Ph.D. diss, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Fuller, M., D. Holt and L. Schueck. (2003). Snowy Owl movements: Variation on the migration theme. Edited by P. Berthold, E. Gwinner and E. Sonnenschein, Avian migration. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gabrielson, I. N., and F. C. Lincoln (1959). The Birds of Alaska. Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, PA, USA.

Geographic, National. (2002). The magic of Snowy Owls. National Geographic Society 202:104-119.

Gessaman, J. A. (1972). Bioenergetics of the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca). Arctic and Alpine Research 4:223-238.

Gessaman, J. A. (1978). Body temperature and heart rate of the Snowy Owl. Condor 80:243-245.

Gilchrist, H. G. and G. J. Robertson. (2000). Observations of marine birds and mammals wintering at polynyas and ice edges in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 53 (1):61-68.

Gilg, O., B. Sittler, B. Sabard, A. Hurstel, R. Sané, P. Delattre and I. Hanski. (2006a). Functional and numerical responses of four lemming predators in high arctic Greenland. Oikos 113 (2):193-216.

Godfrey, W. E. (1986). The Birds of Canada. Revised Edition. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Gross, A. O. (1944a). Food of the Snowy Owl. Auk 61 (1):1-18.

Gross, A. O. (1947a). Cyclic invasions of the Snowy Owl and the migration of 1945-1946. Auk 64:584-601.

Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K. L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt and T. Yuri. (2008). A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320 (5884):1763-1768.

Hagen, Y. (1960). The Snowy Owl on Hardangervidda in the summer of 1959. Medd. Statens Viltundersøkelser 2 (7):3-25.

Hanson, W. C. (1971). The 1966-1967 Snowy Owl incursion in southeastern Washington and the Pacific Northwest. Condor 73 (1):114-116.

Harrington, C. R. (2003a). Annotated bibliography of Quarternary vertebrates of Northern North America with radio carbon dates. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Harrington, C. R. (2003b). Quarternary vertebrates of Québec: A summary. Geographie Physique et Quarternarie 57 (1):85-94.

Harrison, C. A. (1984a). A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds. Stephen Greene Press, Brattleboro, VT, USA.

Hart, H. C. (1880). Notes on the ornithology of the British Polar Expedition, 1875-6. Zoologist 4:121-129.

Harwood, C. M., B. J. McCaffery, F. J. Broerman and P. A. Liedberg. (2004). A local concentration of Snowy Owls on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in summer 2000. Journal of Raptor Research 38 (3):275-277.

Hohn, E. O. (1973). Winter hunting of Snowy Owls in farmland. Canadian Field-Naturalist 87 (4):468-469.

Holt, D. W. (2006). "Owls." In Arctic wings: Birds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 112-126. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books.

Holt, D. W. and S. A. Zetterberg. (2008). The 2005 to 2006 Snowy Owl irruption migration to western Montana. Northwestern Naturalist 89 (3):145-151.

Holt, D. W. and S. M. Leasure. (1993). "Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)." In The birds of North America, No. 62, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington, DC: Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA; Am. Ornithol. Union.

Holt, D. W., K. Gray, M. T. Maples and M. Korti. (2012). Growth rates, plumage development, and related behaviors of Snowy Owls. Submitted for publication.

Holt, D. W., M. T. Maples, J. L. Petersen-Parret, M. Korti, M. Seidensticker and K. Gray. (2009). Characteristics of nest mounds used by Snowy Owls in Barrow, Alaska, with conservation and management implications. Ardea 97 (4):555-561.

Holt, D. W., R. Berkley, C. Deppe, P. L. Enriquez-Rocha, P. D. Olsen, J. L. Petersen, J. L. Rangel-Salazar, K. P. Segars and K. L. Wood. (1999b). "Snowy Owl." In Handbook of birds of the world, edited by J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott and J. Sargatal, 194-195. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635-653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206-210.

Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1-31.

Ingram, C. (1962). Cannibalism by nestling Short-eared Owls. Auk 79:715.

Irving, L. (1955). Nocturnal decline in the temperature of birds in cold weather. Condor 57:362-365.

Irving, L. and J. Krog. (1954). Body temperature of arctic and subarctic birds and mammals. Journal of Applied Physiology 6:667-680.

Irving, L., C. P. McRoy and J. J. Burns. (1970a). Birds observed during a cruise in the ice-covered Bering Sea in March 1968. Condor 72:110-112.

IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Version 2013.2) (2013). Available from

Johnsgard, P. A. (1988a). North American owls: biology and natural history. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Johnson, D. H. (1997c). "Wing loading in 15 species of North American owls." In Biology and conservation of owls of the northern hemisphere: 2nd international symposium, 1997 February 5-9, Winnipeg, MB., edited by J. R. Duncan, D. H. Johnson and T. H. Nicholls, 553-561. St. Paul, MN: Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-190. U.S. Dept. of Agric., For. Serv., North Central For. Exp. Stn.

Josephson, B. (1980). Aging and sexing Snowy Owls. Journal of Field Ornithology 51:149-160.

Karalus, K. E. and A. W. Eckert. (1974). The owls of North America (north of Mexico). Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co.

Karel, H. Voous. (1989). Owls of the Northern Hemisphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Keith, L. B. (1960). Observations on Snowy Owls at Delta, Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist 74:106-112.

Keith, L. B. (1964b). Territoriality among wintering Snowy Owls. Canadian Field-Naturalist 78:17-24.

Kerlinger, P. and M. R. Lein. (1986). Differences in winter range among age-sex classes of Snowy Owls Nyctea scandiaca in North America. Ornis Scandinavica 17:1-7.

Kerlinger, P. and M. R. Lein. (1988a). Causes of mortality, fat condition, and weights of wintering Snowy Owls. Journal of Field Ornithology 59:7-12.

Kerlinger, P. and M. R. Lein. (1988b). Population ecology of Snowy Owls during winter on the Great Plains of North America. Condor 90:866-874.

Kerlinger, P., M. R. Lein and B. J. Sevick. (1985b). Distribution and population fluctations of wintering Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) in North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:1829-1834.

King, B., F. Nayler and F. Wardle. (1966). Feeding and resting behavior of a Snowy Owl in Scilly. British Birds 59 (3):108.

Kirk, D. A., D. Hussell and E. Dunn. (1995a). Raptor population status and trends in Canada. Bird Trends 4:2-9.

Krebs, C. J. (1993). "Are lemmings large Microtus or small reindeer? A review of lemming cycles after 25 years and future recommendations for future work." In The biology of lemmings, edited by N. C. Stenseth and R. Ims, 247-260. London: Academic Press for the Linnean Society of London.

Lein, M. R. and G. A. Webber. (1979). Habitat selection by wintering Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca). Canadian Field-Naturalist 93 (2):176-178.

Lein, M. R. and P. C. Boxall. (1979). Interactions between Snowy and Short-eared owls in winter. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93 (4):411-414.

Levin, S. A., J. E. Levin and R. T. Paine. (1977). Snowy Owl predation on Short-eared Owls. Condor 79 (3):395.

Lind, H. (1993). Different ecology in male and female wintering Snowy Owls Nyctea scandiaca L. in Sweden due to colour and size dimorphism. Ornis Svecica 3 (3-4):147-158.

Lundberg, A. (1979). Residency, migration and a compromise: adaptations to nest-site scarcity and food specialization in three Fennoscandian owl species. Oecologia 41:273-281.

Maher, W. J. (1970a). The Pomarine Jaeger as a Brown Lemming predator in northern Alaska. Wilson Bulletin 82:130-157.

Manniche, A. L. V. (1910). The terrestrial mammals and birds of east Greenland; biological observations. Medd. Grønland 45:1-200.

Manning, T. H., E. O. Höhn and A. H. Macpherson. (1956). The birds of Banks island. Natl. Mus. Can. Bull. 143, Biol. Ser. 48.

Marthinsen, G., L. Wennerberg, R. Solheim and J. T. Lifjeld. (2009). No phylogeographic structure in the circumpolar Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Conservation Genetics 10 (4):923-933.

McGillivray, W. B. (1987). "Reversed size dimorphism in 10 species of northern owls." In Biology and Conservation of Northern Forest Owls: Symposium Proceedings, February 3-7, Winnipeg, MB., edited by R. W. Nero, R. J. Clark, R. J. Knapton and H. Hamre, 59-66. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-142. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

McRoy, C. P., S. W. Stoker, G. E. Hall and E. Muktoyuk. (1971). Winter observations of mammals and birds St. Matthew Island. Arctic 24 (1):63-65.

Meade, G. M. (1948). The 1945-46 Snowy Owl incursion in New York State. Bird-Banding 19 (2):51-59.

Mebs, T. and W. Scherzinger. (2000). "Snowy Owl." In Die eulen Europa: biolgie, kennzeichen, bestande, edited by T. Mebs and W. Scherzinger, 167-183. Stuttgart: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-Gmbh and Co.

Mendall, H. L. (1944). Food of hawks and owls in Maine. Journal of Wildlife Management 8:198-208.

Menyushina, I. E. (1994a). Interspecies relation of the polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) and the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca L.) during the breeding season in the Vrangel Island. 1. Lutreola 3:15-21.

Menyushina, I. E. (1994b). Interspecies relation of the polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) and the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca L.) during the breeding season in the Vrangel Island. 2. Lutreola 4:8-14.

Menyushina, I. E. (1995). Interspecies relation of the polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) and the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca L.) during the breeding season in the Vrangel Island. 3. Lutreola 5:15-19.

Menyushina, I. E. (1997). "Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) reproduction in relation to lemming population cycles on Wrangel Island." In Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International Symposium, edited by J. R. Duncan, D. H. Johnson and T. H. Nicholls, 572-582. St. Paul: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.

Mikkola, M. (1983). The owls of Europe. Vermillion, SD: Buteo Books.

Miller, F. L. (1987a). Snowy Owl numbers on twelve Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic. Journal of Raptor Research 21 (4):153-157.

Miller, F. L., R. H. Russell and A. Gunn. (1975). Distribution and numbers of Snowy Owls on Melville, Eglinton, and Byam Martin Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada. Raptor Research 9 (3/4):60-64.

Millsap, B. A. and G. T. Allen. (2006). Effects of falconry harvest on wild raptor populations in the United States: Theoretical considerations and management recommendations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34 (5):1392-1400.

Mitchell, M. H. (1947). Snowy Owls in Peal Co., Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 61:68-69.

Morozov, V. V., A. V. Sharikov, V. N. Kalykin and M. N. Ivanov. (2013). The biology of the Snowy Owl at Yugorsky Peninsula, NE Russia. Ornithologia 38:42-53.

Murie, O. J. (1929). Nesting of the Snowy Owl. Condor 31:3-12.

Nagell, B. and I. Frycklund. (1965). The irruption of the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) in Scandinavia in the winters of 1960-1963 and notes on its behavior. Vår Fågelvärld 24 (1):26-55.

Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Oeming, A. F. (1957). Notes on the Barred Owl and the Snowy Owl in Alberta. Blue Jay 15:153-156.

Olson, S. L. (1985d). "The fossil record of birds." In Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner, J. R. King and K. C. Parkes, 79-238. New York: Academic Press.

Parker, G. R. (1974a). A population peak and crash of lemmings and Snowy Owls on South Hampton Island, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 88 (2):151-156.

Parmelee, D. F. (1972). Canada's incredible arctic owls. Beaver no. summer:30-41.

Parmelee, D. F. (1992b). "Snowy Owl." In The birds of North America, no. 10., edited by A. Poole, P. Stettenheim and F. Gill. Washington, D.C: Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA, and Am. Ornithol. Union.

Parmelee, D. F., H. A. Stephens and R. H. Schmidt. (1967). The birds of Southeastern Victoria Island and adjacent small islands. Natl. Mus. Can. Bull. 222.

Patterson, J. M. (2007). An analysis of Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) diet during the 2005 to 2006 irruption along the Oregon and Washington coasts. Northwestern Naturalist 88 (1):12-14.

PIFSC. Partners in Flight Science Committee (2013). Population estimates database (Version 2.0) 2013. Available from

Pitelka, F. A. and G. O. Batzli. (1993). "Distribution, abundance, and habitat use by lemmings on the north slope of Alaska." In The biology of lemmings, edited by N. C. Stenseth and R. A. Ims, 213-236. London: Academic Press.

Pitelka, F. A., P. Q. Tomich and G. W. Treichel. (1955a). Breeding behavior of jeagers and owls near Barrow, Alaska. Condor 57:3-18.

Pitelka, F. A., P. Q. Tomich and G. W. Treichel. (1955b). Ecological relations of jeagers and owls as Lemming predators near Barrow, Alaska. Ecological Monographs 25:85-117.

Pleske, T. (1928). Birds of the Eurasian tundra. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 6:111-485.

Poole, E. L. (1938). Weights and wing areas in North American birds. Auk 55 (3):511-517.

Portenko, L. A. (1989). Birds of the Chuckchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island. Volume 2 [translation of Russian text]. Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, USA.

Potapov, E. and R. Sale. (2012). The Snowy Owl. London: T & AD Poyser.

Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

Pyle, P. (1997b). Flight-feather molt patterns and age in North American owls. Colorado Springs, CO: ABA Monogr. Ser. no. 2.

Pyle, P. (2006). Staffelmauser and other adaptive strategies for wing molt in larger birds. Western Birds 37:179-185.

Pyle, P. (2013a). Evolutionary implications of synapomorphic wing-molt sequences among falcons (Falconiformes) and parrots (Psittaciformes). Condor 115 (3):593-602.

Rausch, R. (1950). Observations on a cyclic decline of lemmings (Lemmus) on the Arctic coast of Alaska during the spring of 1949. Arctic 3 (3):166-177.

Reynolds, P. S. and D. M. Lavigne. (1981). Visible and ultraviolet reflectance characteristics of Arctic homeotherms. International Journal of Biometeorology 25 (4):299-308.

Rich, T. D., C. J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P. J. Blancher, M. S. W. Bradstreet, G. S. Butcher, D. W. Demarest, E. H. Dunn, W. C. Hunter, E. E. Iñigo-Elias, J. A. Kennedy, A. M. Martell, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, K. V. Rosenberg, C. M. Rustay, J. S. Wendt, and T. C. Will. (2004). Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Ridgway, R. (1914b). The birds of North and Middle America, Pt. 6. United States National Museum Bulletin 50.

Robbins, M. B. and C. Otte. (2013). The irruptive movement of Snowy Owls (Bubo scandiacus) into Kansas and Missouri during the winter of 2011-2012. Kansas Ornithological Society Bulletin 64 (4):41-44.

Roberts, T. S. (1935). A manual for the identification of the birds of Minnesota and neighboring states. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.

Robertson, G. J. and H. G. Gilchrist. (2003). Wintering Snowy Owls feed on sea ducks in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Raptor Research 37 (2):164-166.

Robinson, M. and C. D. Becker. (1986). Snowy Owls on Fetlar. British Birds 78:228-242.

Romero, L. M., D. W. Holt, M. Maples and J. C. Wingfield. (2006). Corticosterone is not correlated with nest departure in Snowy Owl chicks (Nyctea scandiaca). General and Comparative Endocrinology 149 (2):119-123.

Root, T. R. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Saxby, H. L. (1863). Notes on the Snowy Owl. Zoologist 21:8633-8639.

Saxby, H. L. (1874). The birds of Shetland. Edinburgh.

Schaanning, H. T. L. (1907). Østfinmarkens fuglefauna. Bergens Mus. Arb. 8:1-98.

Schenker, A. (1978). Höchsalter europaischer Vögel im Zoologischen Garten Basel. Ornithol. Beob. 75:96-97.

Schmidt, N. M., R. A. Ims, T. T. Hoye, O. Gilg, L. H. Hansen, J. Hansen, M. Lund, E. Fuglei, M. C. Forchhammer and B. Sittler. (2012). Response of an arctic predator guild to collapsing lemming cycles. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 279 (1746):4417-4422.

Seidensticker IV, J. C. (1969). Notes on the food requirements of the Snowy Owl. Canadian Field-Naturalist 83 (1):60-61.

Seidensticker, M. T., D. W. Holt, J. Detienne, S. Talbot and K. Gray. (2011). Sexing young Snowy Owls. Journal of Raptor Research 45 (4):281-289.

Sergio, F., I. Newton, L. Marchesi and P. Pedrini. (2006). Ecologically justified charisma: Preservation of top predators delivers biodiversity conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 43 (6):1049-1055.

Shelford, V. E. (1943). The abundance of the Collared Lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus (TR) VAR. Richardsoni Mer.) in the Churchill area, 1929 to 1940. Ecology 24 (4):472-484.

Shelford, V. E. (1945). The relation of Snowy Owl migration to the abundance of the Collared Lemming. Auk 62 (4):592-596.

Shields, M. (1969). Activity cycles of Snowy Owls at Barrow, Alaska. Murrelet 50 (2):14-16.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds: A study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA.

Siegfried, W. R., R. L. Abraham and V. B. Kuechle. (1975). Daily temperature cycles in Barred, Great-horned and Snowy owls. Condor 77:502.

Sinclair, P. H., W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert, and N. L. Hughes (2003). Birds of the Yukon Territory. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Smith, N. (1997e). "Observations of wintering Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) at Logan Airport, East Boston, Massachusetts from 1981-1997." In Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International Symposium, edited by J. R. Duncan, D. H. Johnson and T. H. Nicholls, 591-596. St. Paul: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station.

Smith, T. G. (1973c). The birds of the Holman region, western Victoria Island. Canadian Field-Naturalist 87:35-42.

Snyder, L. L. (1943). The Snowy Owl migration of 1941-42. Wilson Bulletin 55 (1):8-10.

Snyder, N. F. R. and J. W. Wiley. (1976). Sexual size dimorphism in hawks and owls of North America. Ornithological Monographs 20.

Solheim, R. (2011). Moult pattern of primaries and secondaries in Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo). Ornis Norvegica 34:1-9.

Solheim, R. (2012). Wing feather moult and age determination of Snowy Owls Bubo scandiacus. Ornis Norvegica 35:48-67.

Solheim, R., K.-O. Jacobsen, I. J. Øien, T. Aarvak and P. Polojärvi. (2013). Snowy Owl nest failures caused by blackfly attacks on incubating females. Ornis Norvegica 36:1-5.

Steen, J. B., K. E. Erikstad and K. Høidal. (1992). Cryptic behavior in moulting hen Willow Ptarmigan Lagopus l. lagopus during snow melt. Ornis Scandinavica 23 (1):101-104.

Stokkan, K. A. (1992). Energetics and adaptations to cold in ptarmigan in winter. Ornis Scandinavica 23:366-370.

Stone, W. B., J. C. Okoniewski and J. R. Stedelin. (1999b). Poisoning of wildlife with anticoagulant rodenticides in New York. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35:187-193.

Stresemann, E. and V. Stresemann. (1966b). The molt of birds. Journal of Ornithology 107 (Suppl.):1-448.

Sutton, G. M. (1932b). The exploration of Southampton Island. Part II, Zoölogy. Section 2.-The birds of Southampton Island. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 12 (2):1-275.

Sutton, G. M. and D. F. Parmelee. (1956a). Breeding of the Snowy Owl in southeastern Baffin Island. Condor 58:273-282.

Tener, J. S. (1963). Queen Elizabeth island game survey, 1961. In Occasional Paper: Canadian Wildlife Service.

Thaxter, C. (1875). Among the Isles of Shoals. Atlantic Monthly 25:204-213.

Therrien, J.-F., G. Fitzgerald, G. Gauthier and J. Bêty. (2011a). Diet-tissue discrimination factors of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in blood of Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 89 (4):343-347.

Therrien, J.-F., G. Gauthier and J. Bêty. (2011b). An avian terrestrial predator of the Arctic relies on the marine ecosystem during winter. Journal of Avian Biology 42 (4):363-369.

Therrien, J.-F., G. Gauthier and J. Bêty. (2012). Survival and reproduction of adult Snowy Owls tracked by satellite. Journal of Wildlife Management 76 (8):1562-1567.

Thompson, D. Q. (1955). The 1953 lemming emigration at Point Barrow, Alaska. Arctic 8:37-45.

Todd, W. E. C. (1963a). Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and adjacent areas: A distributional list. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Tremblay, J.-P., G. Gauthier, D. Lepage and A. Desrochers. (1997b). Factors affecting nesting success in Greater Snow Geese: Effects of habitat and association with Snowy Owls. Wilson Bulletin 109 (3):449-461.

Tulloch, R. J. (1968). Snowy Owls breeding in Shetland in 1967. British Birds 61:119-132.

Tulloch, R. J. (1969). Snowy Owls breeding in Shetland. British Birds 62 (1):33-36.

Vaughn, R. (1992). In search of Arctic birds. London: T & AD Poyser, Ltd.

Waseneus, E. (1930). Agg av Fjalluggla och berguv. Ornis Fennica 7:47-49.

Weick, F. (2006). Owls Strigiformes. Annotated and illustrated checklist. Berlin and New York: Springer and Heidelberg.

Weir, R. D. (1973). Snowy Owl invasion on Wolf Island, winter 72. Ontario Field Biology 27:3-17.

Wiggins, I. L. (1953). Foraging activities of the Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) during a period of low lemming population. Auk 70:366-367.

Wiklund, C. G. and J. Stigh. (1983). Nest defence and evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism in Snowy Owls Nyctea scandiaca. Ornis Scandinavica 14:58-62.

Wiklund, C. G. and J. Stigh. (1986). Breeding density of Snowy Nyctea scandiaca in relation to food, nest sites and weather. Ornis Scandinavica 17:268-274.

Williams, P. L. and L. G. Frank. (1979). Diet of the Snowy Owl in the absence of small mammals. Condor 81:213-214.

Wink, M. and P. Heidrich. (1999). "Molecular evolution and systematics of the owls (Strigiformes)." In Owls: A guide to the owls of the World, edited by C. König, F. Weick and J. H. Becking, 39-57. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wink, M. and P. Heidrich. (2000). "Molecular systematics of owls (Strigiformes) based on DNA- sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene." In Raptors at risk: proceedings of the V World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Midrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 4-11 August 1998., edited by R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, 819-828. London: Hancock House.

Wink, M., A.-A. El-Sayed, H. Sauer-Gürth and J. Gonzalez. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of owls (Strigiformes) inferred from DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and the nuclear RAG-1 gene. Ardea 97 (4):581-591.

Witherby, H. F., F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and B. W. Tucker. (1952). The handbook of British Birds. rev ed. London: H. F. & G. Witherby.

Young, C. M. (1973). The Snowy Owl migration of 1971-1972 in the Sudbury region of Ontario. American Birds 27 (1):11-12.

Recommended Citation

Holt, D. W., M. D. Larson, N. Smith, D. L. Evans, and D. F. Parmelee (2015). Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.