Pandion haliaetus



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).

Adamus, P. R. (1987). Atlas of Breeding Birds in Maine, 1978-1983. Augusta: Maine Dept. Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.

Adamus, P. R., K. Larsen, G. Gillson and C. R. Miller (2001). Oregon breeding bird atlas, CD-ROM. Oregon Field Ornithol., Eugene, OR.

Allen, P. E., L. J. Goodrich and K. L. Bildstein. (1996). Within- and among-year effects of cold fronts on migrating raptors at Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania, 1934-1991. Auk no. 113 (2):329-338.

Alt, K. L. (1980). Ecology of the breeding Bald Eagle and Osprey in the Grand Teton-Yellowstone National Parks complex. Master's Thesis, Montana State Univ., Bozeman.

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union.

Ames, P. L. and G. S. Mersereau. (1964). Some factors in the decline of the Osprey in Connecticut. Auk no. 81:173-185.

Anderson, C. M., J. S. Harrison and T. L. Maechtle. (2015). The Osprey nest excluder for cellular towers: A case study aimed at reducing nest site conflicts and bird strike hazards around airports, Raptor Research Foundation Annual Meeting. Sacramento, CA.

Anderson, D. W. and J. J. Hickey. (1972). "Eggshell changes in certain North American birds." In Proceedings of the XVth International Ornitholological Congress., edited by K. H. Voous, 514-540. Leiden: P. J. Brill.

Anderson, D. W., T. H. Suchanek, C. A. Eagles-Smith and T. M. Cahill Jr. (2008c). Mercury residues and productivity in Osprey and grebes from a mine-dominated ecosystem. Ecological Applications no. 18 (8):A227-A238.

Austin-Smith, P. J. and G. Rhodenizer. (1983). Ospreys relocate nests from power poles to substitute sites. Can. Field-Nat. no. 97:315-319.

Baker, K. (1993). Identification guide to European non-passerines, BTO Guide 24. Thetford, UK: British Trust for Ornithology.

Baril, L. M., D. W. Smith, T. Drummer and T. M. Koel. (2013). Implications of cutthroat trout declines for breeding Ospreys and Bald Eagles at Yellowstone Lake. Journal of Raptor Research no. 47 (3):234-245.

Barradas, R. D. (1984). Activities of wintering population of Ospreys at the reservoir Miguel Aleman, Oaxaca, Mexico. Unpubl. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico. [In Spanish.].

Barrett, N. M. (1998d). "Osprey." In Colorado breeding bird atlas., edited by H. E. Kingery, 104-105. Denver: Colorado Bird Atlas Partnership and Colorado Div. Wildl.

Bechard, M. J. and C. Márquez-Reyes. (2003). Mortality of wintering Ospreys and other birds at aquaculture facilities in Colombia. Journal of Raptor Research no. 37 (4):292-298.

Bechard, M. J., C. Márquez-Reyes and H. F. Lopez-Arévalo. (2007). "The threat of Central and South American aquacultural facilities to Ospreys and other piscivorous birds." In Neotropical raptors, edited by K. Bildstein, D. R. Barber and A. Zimmerman, 78-87. Orwigsburg: Hawk Mountain Sanctuary.

Becker, J. J. (1985e). Pandion lovensis, a new species of Osprey from the late Miocene of Florida. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. no. 98:314-320.

Beddow, T. E. (1990). Recovery of the east Tennessee Osprey population. Migrant no. 61:92-94.

Bedrosian, B. E., S. L. Cain, S. Wolff and D. J. Craighead. (2015). Migratory pathways, timing, and home ranges of southern Greater Yellowstone Osprey. Journal of Raptor Research no. 49 (3):325-332.

Bent, A. C. (1937b). Life histories of North American birds of prey, Part 1. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. no. 167.

Berry, J. D. and C. J. Henny. (1995). Osprey polygyny in Wyoming. J. Raptor Res. no. 29:279-281.

Bider, J. R. and D. M. Bird. (1983). "Distribution and densities of Osprey populations in the Great Whale region of Quebec." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 223-230. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Bierregaard, R. O., A. B. David, L. Gibson, R. S. Kennedy, A. F. Poole, M. S. Scheibel and J. Victoria. (2014a). Post-DDT recovery of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations in southern New England and Long Island, New York, 1970–2013. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):361-374.

Bierregaard, R. O., A. F. Poole and B. E. Washburn. (2014b). Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in the 21st century: Populations, migration, management, and research priorities. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):301-308.

Birkhead, T. R. and C. M. Lessels. (1988). Copulation behaviour of the Osprey. Anim. Behav. no. 36:1672-1682.

Blanco, G. and R. Rodriguez-Estrella. (1999). Reduced sexual plumage dimorphism in Ospreys from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ibis no. 141:489-506.

Blincow, J. (1994). Osprey carrying partly eaten prey on migration. Br. Birds no. 87:335.

Blus, L. J., C. J. Henny, C. J. Stafford and R. A. Grove. (1987). Persistence of DDT and metabolites in wildlife from Washington state orchards. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 16:467-476.

Bostwick, K. S. and M. J. Brady (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of wing feather taxis in birds: Macroevolutionary patterns of genetic drift? Auk 119 (4):943-954.

Bowman, R., G. V. N. Powell, J. A. Hovis, N. C. Kline and T. Wilmers. (1989). Variations in reproductive success between subpopulations of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in south Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. no. 44:245-250.

Brake, A. J., H. A. Wilson, R. Leong and A. M. Fish. (2014). Status of Ospreys nesting on San Francisco Bay. Western Birds no. 45:190-198.

Bretagnolle, V. and J. C. Thibault. (1993). Communicative behavior in breeding Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus): description and relationship of signals to life history. Auk no. 110:736-751.

Bretagnolle, V., J. C. Thibault and J. M. Dominici. (1994). Field identification of individual Ospreys using head marking pattern. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 58 (1):175-178.

Brodkorb, P. (1964a). Catalogue of fossil birds: Part 2 (Anseriformes through Galliformes). Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. no. 8 (3):246.

Brown, R.D. (1984e). Carolina Raptor Center's Osprey reintroduction project in Piedmont, North Carolina. Paper read at Southeastern U.S. and Caribbean Osprey symposium, at Sanibel Island, FL.

Bruderer, B. and A. Boldt. (2001). Flight characteristics of birds: I. radar measurements of speeds. Ibis no. 143 (2):178-204.

Bustamante, J. (1995). Duration of the post-fledging period of Ospreys at Loch Garten, Scotland. Bird Study no. 42:31-36.

Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser and M. C. E. McNall (1990). The birds of British Columbia, Vol. 2. Diurnal birds of prey through woodpeckers. Victoria: R. Br. Columbia Mus.

Candler, G. L. and P. L. Kennedy. (1995). Flight strategies of migrating Osprey: fasting vs. foraging. J. Raptor Res. no. 29:85-92.

Carrier, W. D. and W. E. Melquist. (1976). The use of a rotor-winged aircraft in conducting nesting surveys of Ospreys in northern Idaho. Raptor Res. no. 10:77-83.

Carroll, J. R. (1988b). "Osprey, Pandion haliaetus." In Bull's birds of New York State., edited by E. Levine, 178-180. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.

Carss, D. N. and J. D. Godfrey. (1996). Accuracy of estimating the species and size of Osprey prey: a test of methods. J. Raptor Res. no. 30:57-61.

Cartron, J. L. E. (2000). Status and productivity of Ospreys along the eastern coast of the Gulf of California. J. Field Ornithol. no. 71:298-309.

Castellanos, A. and A. Ortega-Rubio. (1995). Artificial nesting sites and Ospreys at Ojo de Liebre and Guerrero Negro lagoons, Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. Field Ornithol. no. 66:117-127.

Castellanos, A., F. Salinas, A. Ortega and G. Arnaud. Reproductive performance of a non-migratory Osprey population at Lagunas Ojo de Liebre and Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. Field Ornithol.

Castrale, J. S. and J. McCall. (1983). Osprey captures mammal at edge of soybean field. Raptor Res. no. 17:92.

Castrale, J. S., E. M. Hopkins and C. E. Keller. (1998a). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Indiana. Indianapolias: Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Chen, D., R. C. Hale and B. D. Watts. (2010). Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Environmental Pollution no. 158 (5):1883-1889.

Christidis, L. and E. Boles. (2008). Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publ.

Clark, K. E. and B. Wurst. (2014). The 2014 Osprey Project in New Jersey. Endangered and Nongame Species Program, N.J. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

Clark, K. E. and C. D. Jenkins. (1993). Status of Ospreys nesting in New Jersey, 1984 through 1993. Rec. New Jersey Birds no. 19:74-77.

Clark, W. S. and B. K. Wheeler. (1987). A Field Guide to Hawks of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Cline, K. W. (1990b). "Raptor nest and roost site management in the Southeast." In Proceedings of the Southeast raptor management symposium and workshop., edited by B. G. Pendleton, Jr M. N. LeFranc, B. A. Millsap, D. L. Krahe, M. A. Madsen and M. A. Knighton, 175-188. Baltimore, MD: Natl. Wildl. Fed.

Cold, C. W. (1993). Adult male osprey killed at nest by Great Horned Owl. Passenger Pigeon no. 55:269-270.

Committee, Montana Bird Distribution. (1996). P. D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 5th ed. Helena: Montana Nat. Heritage Prog. Spec. Publ. no. 3.

Condon, H. T. (1975). Checklist of the birds of Australia. Part 1: Non-passerines. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Corman, T. E. and C. Wise-Gervais. (2005). Arizona breeding bird atlas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Cramp, S. and K. E. L. Simmons. (1980a). Handbook of the birds of Europe and the Middle East and north Africa: the birds of the western Palearctic, Vol. 2. Hawks to bustards. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Cramp, S. and K. E. L. Simmons. (1980b). "Osprey." In The birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 2: hawks to bustards, 265-277. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.

Crouse, Jr., D. G. and A. R. Keith. (1999). A remarkable Osprey flight and first record of Swallow-tailed Kite for Hispaniola. Pitirre no. 12:91.

Danemann, G. D. and J. R. Guzman-Poo. (1992). Notes on the birds of San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico. West. Birds no. 23:11-19.

De Groote, G. (1974). "Utilization of metabolizable energy." In Energy requirements of poultry., edited by R. T. Morris and B. M. Freedman, 113-133. Edinburgh, U.K: Br. Poultry Sci. Ltd.

de Solla, S. R. and P. A. Martin. (2009). PCB accumulation in Osprey exposed to local sources in lake sediment. Environmental Pollution no. 157 (1):347-355.

Decandido, R. (1991). Ecology of Ospreys foraging in migration. Hawk Migr. Assoc. N. Am. Hawk Migr. Stud. no. 16:5-8.

DeCandido, R., Bierregaard, R. O., M. S. Martell and K. L. Bildstein. (2006). Evidence of nocturnal migration by Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in North America and Western Europe. Journal of Raptor Research no. 40 (2):156-158.

Deem, S. L., S. P. Terrell and D. J. Forrester. (1998). A retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of raptors in Florida, 1988-1994. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. no. 29:160-164.

Dement'ev, G. P. and N. A. Gladkov. (1951). Ptitsi Sovietskogo Soyuza [Birds of the Soviet Union], Volume 2. Publishing House Sovietskaya Nauka, Moscow, USSR. [English translation done in 1968 by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel].

Dennis, R. (2008). A life of Ospreys. Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing.

Dennis, T. E. and G. P. Clancy. (2014). The status of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus cristatus) in Australia. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):408-414.

DesGranges, J. L. S. (1996b). "Osprey." In The breeding birds of Quebec: atlas of the breeding birds of southern Québec., edited by J. Gauthier and Y. Aubry, 360-364. Québec Region, Montréal: Assoc. québecoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Prov. of Quebec Soc. for the protection of birds, Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Canada.

DesGranges, J. L., J. Rodrigue, B. Tardif and M. Laperle. (1998). Mercury accumulation and biomagnification in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in the James Bay and Hudson Bay regions of Québec. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 35:330-341.

DeSorbo, C.R., R. Gray and I. Johnson. (2013). Osprey nest abundance, distribution and productivity in Casco Bay: 2012. Gorham: Biodiversity Research Institute.

Dickinson, E. C. and Jr. Remsen, J. V. (2013). The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. 4 ed. Eastbourne: Aves Press.

Douglass, J. F. (1997). Osprey diet includes red squirrel. Mich. Birds Nat. Hist. no. 4:151-152.

Dunne, P., D. Sibley and C. Sutton. (1988). Hawks in flight; the flight identification of North American migrant raptors. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Dunstan, T. C. (1967). A study of Osprey in Itasca County, Minnesota. Master's Thesis, Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion.

Dunstan, T. C. (1974). Feeding activities of Ospreys in Minnesota. Wilson Bull. no. 86:74-76.

Dusi, J. L. (1995). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) feeds on carrion with Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura). Alabama Birdlife no. 41:6-7.

Dwyer, J. F. (2016). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus). Pages 166–167 in The Second Colorado Breeding Bird Atlas (L. E. Wickersham, Ed.). Colorado Bird Atlas Partnership and Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Denver, CO.

Edelstam, C. (1969). Ruggologi eller faglarmas fjaderbyte. Forsking och Framsteg no. 3:25-29.

Edelstam, C. (1984). Patterns of moult in large birds of prey. Ann Zool. Fennici no. 21:271-276.

Edwards Jr., T. C. (1989). The ontogeny of diet selection in fledgling Ospreys. Ecology no. 70 (4):881-896.

Edwards, Jr., T. C. (1988). Temporal variation in prey preference patterns of adult Ospreys. Auk no. 105:244-251.

Edwards, Jr., T. C. (1989b). Similarity in the development of foraging mechanics among sibling Ospreys. Condor no. 91:30-36.

Edwards, T. C. and M. W. Collopy. (1988). Nest tree preference of Ospreys in northcentral Florida. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 52:103-107.

Elliott, J. E. (2005a). Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and stable isotope ratios in pelagic seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 49 (1):89-96.

Elliott, J. E., C. A. Morrissey, C. J. Henny, E. R. Inzunza and P. Shaw. (2007b). Satellite telemetry and prey sampling reveal contaminant sources to Pacific Northwest Ospreys. Ecological Applications no. 17 (4):1223-1233.

Elliott, J. E., L. K. Wilson, C. J. Henny, S. F. Trudeau and F. A. Leighton. (2001b). Assessment of biological effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons in Osprey chicks. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. no. 20:866-879.

Elliott, J. E., M. M. Machmer, L. K. Wilson and C. J. Henny. (2000). Contaminants in Ospreys from the Pacific Northwest; II. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury, 1991-1997. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 38:93-106.

Elliott, J. E., P. A. Martin, T. W. Arnold and P. H. Sinclair. (1994). Organochlorines and, reproductive success of birds in orchard and non-orchard areas of central British Columbia, Canada, 1990-1991. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 26:435-443.

Englund, J. V. and V. L. Greene. (2008). Two-year-old nesting behavior and extra-pair copulation in a reintroduced Osprey population. Journal of Raptor Research no. 42 (2):119-124.

Eriksson, M. O. G. and K. Wallin. (1994). Survival and breeding success of the Osprey in Sweden. Bird Conserv. Int. no. 4:263-277.

Evans, D. (1994b). "Osprey." In Atlas of breeding birds in New Hampshire., edited by C. R. Foss, 42-43. Dover: Audubon Soc. of New Hampshire.

Ewins, P. J. (1994). Artificial nest structures for Ospreys: a construction manual. Toronto, ON: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Ewins, P. J. (1995). "Recovery of Osprey populations in Canada." In Bird trends, edited by C. Hyslop, 14-16. Toronto, ON: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Ewins, P. J. (1996). "The use of artificial nest sites by an increasing population of Osprey in the Canadian Great Lakes basin." In Raptors in human landscapes., edited by D. M. Bird, D. E. Varland and J. J. Negro, 109-123. San Diego, CA: Academic Press Inc.

Ewins, P. J. (1997). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations in forested areas of North America: changes, their causes and management recommendations. J. Raptor Res. no. 31:138-150.

Ewins, P. J. and C. S. Houston. (1992). Recovery patterns of Ospreys Pandion haliaetus, banded in Canada up to 1989. Can. Field-Nat. no. 106:361-365.

Ewins, P. J. and E. Cousineau. (1994). Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) scavenging fish on ice. J. Raptor Res. no. 28:120.

Ewins, P. J. and M. J. R. Miller. (1995). Measurement error in aerial surveys of Osprey productivity. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 59:333-338.

Ewins, P. J., M. J. R. Miller, M. E. Barker and S. Postupalsky. (1994a). Birds breeding in or beneath Osprey nests in the Great Lakes Basin. Wilson Bulletin no. 106 (4):743-749.

Ewins, P. J., S. Postupalsky, K. D. Hughes and D. V. Weseloh. (1999). Organochlorine contaminant residues and shell thickness of eggs from known-age female Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Michigan during the 1980s. Environ. Pollut. no. 104:295-304.

Ewins, P. J., S. Postupalsky, T. Weise and E. M. Addison. (1995a). "Changes in the status, distribution, and biology of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding along Lake Huron." In The Lake Huron ecosystem: ecology, fisheries, and management., edited by M. Munawar, T. Edsall and J. Leach, 273-290. Amsterdam: SPB Acad. Publ.

Fernandez, G. and J. Fernandez. (1977). "Some instant benefits and long range hopes of color banding Ospreys." In Trans. N. Am. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf., edited by J. Ogden, 89-94. U.S. Natl. Park Serv.

Fields, L. E. and J. E. Pagel. (2016). Osprey occupancy of Mono Lake - Unique habitat in eastern California. Journal of Raptor Research no. 50 (1):97-102.

Fimreite, N. (1971). Effects of dietary methyl mercury on Ring-necked Pheasants, with special reference to reproduction. Can. Wildl. Serv. Occas. Pap. no. 9.

Fisher, P. R., S. F. Newton, H. Tatwany and C. R. Goldspink. (2001). The status and breeding biology of the Osprey in the Middle East. Vogelwelt no. 122:191-204.

Flemming, S. P. and P. C. Smith. (1990). Environmental influences on Osprey foraging in northeastern Nova Scotia. J. Raptor Res. no. 24:64-67.

Flemming, S. P. and R. P. Bancroft. (1990). Bald Eagle attacks Osprey nestling. J. Raptor Res. no. 24:26-27.

Flemming, S. P., P. C. Smith, N. R. Seymour and R. P. Bancroft. (1992). Ospreys use local enhancement and flock foraging to locate prey. Auk no. 109:649-654.

Flook, D. R. and L. S. Forbes. (1983). "Ospreys and water management at Creston, British Columbia." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 281-286. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Florida FIsh and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Florida's breeding bird atlas: A collaborative study of Florida's birdlife 2003.

Floyd, T., C. S. Elphick, G. Chisholm, K. Mack, R. G. Elston, E. M. Ammon and J. D. Boone. (2007). Atlas of the breeding birds of Nevada. Reno and Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press.

Forbes, L. S. (1991). Hunger and food allocation among nestlings of facultatively siblicidal Ospreys. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. no. 29:189-195.

Forsman, D. (1999). The raptors of Europe and the Middle East: a handbook of field identification. London, UK: T & AD Poyser.

French, J. M. (1972). Distribution, abundance, and breeding status of Ospreys in northwestern California. Master's Thesis, California State Univ.-Humboldt, Arcata.

Friedmann, H. (1950a). Birds of North and Middle America, Pt. 2. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. no. 50.

Gabrielson, I. N. and S. G. Jewett. (1940). The birds of Oregon. Corvallis: Oreg. State College Press.

Garber, D. P. (1972). Osprey nesting ecology in Lassen and Plumas Counties, California. Master's Thesis, California State Univ., Humboldt, Arcata.

Gessner, D. (2008). Soaring with Fidel: An Osprey odyssey from Cape Cod to Cuba, and beyond. Boston: Beacon Press.

Gieck, C. M. (1991). "Artificial nesting structures for Bald Eagles, Ospreys, and American Kestrels." In Proceedings of the Midwest raptor management symposium and workshop., edited by B. G. Pendleton, 215-221. Sci. Tech. Ser. 15: Natl. Wildl. Fed.

Gilligan, J., D. Rogers, M. Smith, and A. Contreras. (1994). Birds of Oregon: Status and Distribution. Cinclus Publications, McMinnville, OR, USA

Glass, K. A. and B. D. Watts. (2009). Osprey diet composition and quality in high- and low-salinity areas of lower Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Raptor Research no. 43 (1):27-36.

Godfrey, W. E. (1986). The Birds of Canada. Revised Edition. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Green, D. J. and E. A. Krebs. (1995). Courtship-feeding in Ospreys: a criterion for mate assessment? Ibis no. 137:35-43.

Green, D. J. and R. C. Ydenberg. (1994). Energetic expenditure of male Ospreys provisioning natural and manipulated broods. Ardea no. 82:249-262.

Green, R. (1976). Breeding behavior of Ospreys in Scotland. Ibis no. 118:146-149.

Greene, E. (1987). Individuals in an Osprey colony discriminate between high and low quality information. Nature no. 329:239-241.

Greene, E. P., A. E. Greene and B. Freedman. (1983). "Foraging behavior and prey selection by Ospreys in coastal habitats in Nova Scotia, Canada." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 257-267. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Griffiths, C. S. (1994a). Monophyly of the Falconiformes based on syringeal morphology. Auk no. 111 (4):787-805.

Grove, R. A., C. J. Henny, and J. L. Kaiser. (2009). Osprey: Worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 12:25-44

Grubb, Jr., T. C. (1977b). Weather-dependent foraging behavior of some birds wintering in a deciduous woodland: horizontal adjustments. Condor no. 79:271-274.

Grubb, Jr., T. C. (1977c). Why Ospreys hover. Wilson Bull. no. 89:149-150.

Gryta, T. and V. Monga. (2012). "Unflappable raptor puts cell phone carriers on hold." Wall St. Journal.

Guigueno, M. F., K. H. Elliott, J. Levac, M. Wayland and J. E. Elliott. (2012). Differential exposure of alpine Ospreys to mercury: Melting glaciers, hydrology or deposition patterns? Environment International no. 40:24-32.

Hagan, J. M. (1986). Temporal patterns in pre-fledgling survival and brood reduction in an Osprey colony. Condor no. 88:200-205.

Hagan, J. M. and J. R. Walters. (1990). Foraging behavior, reproductive success, and colonial nesting in Ospreys. Auk no. 107:506-521.

Hammer, D. A. and R. M. Hatcher. (1983). "Restoring Osprey populations by hacking preflighted young." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 293-297. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Hauff, P. (1996). "Der Fishadler Pandion haliaetus in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern." In Eagle studies., edited by B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, 17-21. Berlin: World Working Group on Birds of Prey.

Heintzelman, D. S. (1986). The migration of hawks. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

Heinz, G. H. (1979). Methylmercury: reproductive and behavioral effects on three generations of Mallard ducks. J. Wildl. Manage no. 43:394-401.

Heinz, G. H., D. J. Hoffman, J. D. Klimstra, K. R. Stebbins, S. L. Kondrad and C. A. Erwin. (2009a). Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 56 (1):129-138.

Henny, C. J. (1977b). California Ospreys begin incubation at a frozen mountain lake. Bird-Banding no. 48:274.

Henny, C. J. (1977c). "Research, management, status of the Osprey in North America." In Proc. World Conf. Birds of Prey., edited by R. D. Chancellor, 199-222. Vienna: Int. Coun. Bird Preserv.

Henny, C. J. (1983). "Distribution and abundance of nesting Ospreys in the United States." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 175-186. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Henny, C. J. (1988a). Large Osprey colony discovered in Oregon in 1988. Murrelet no. 69:33-36.

Henny, C. J. (1988b). "Osprey." In Handbook of North American birds. Vol. 4: diurnal raptors, Pt. 1., edited by R. S. Palmer, 73-101. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Henny, C. J. and A. P. Noltemeier. (1975). Osprey nesting populations in the coastal Carolinas. Am. Birds no. 29:1073-1079.

Henny, C. J. and D. Anderson. (1979). Osprey distribution, abundance, and status in western North America: III. The Baja California and Gulf of California population. Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci. no. 78:89-106.

Henny, C. J. and H. M. Wight. (1969). An endangered Osprey population: estimates of mortality and production. Auk no. 86:188-198.

Henny, C. J. and J. L. Kaiser. (1996). "Osprey population increase along the Willamette River, Oregon, and the role of utility structures, 1976-93." In Raptors in human landscapes., edited by D. M. Bird, D. E. Varland and J. J. Negro, 97-108. San Diego, CA: Academic Press Inc.

Henny, C. J. and R. Anthony. (1989). "Bald Eagle and Osprey." In Western raptor management symposium and workshop, 66-75. Natl. Wildl. Fed. Sci. and Tech. Series no. 12.

Henny, C. J. and W. T. Van Velzen. (1972). Migration patterns and wintering localities of American Ospreys. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 36:1133-1141.

Henny, C. J., J. L. Kaiser and R. A. Grove. (2009a). PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors. Ecotoxicology no. 18 (2):151-173.

Henny, C. J., J. L. Kaiser, R. A. Grove, B. L. Johnson and R. J. Letcher. (2009b). Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of Ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA. Ecotoxicology no. 18 (7):802-813.

Henny, C. J., J. L. Kaiser, R. A. Grove, V. R. Bentley and J. E. Elliott. (2003). Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from the Willamette River, Oregon, USA) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and OC pesticides. Environ Monit Assess. Jun; no. 84 (3).

Henny, C. J., L. J. Blus, D. J. Hoffman, R. A. Grove and J. S. Hatfield. (1991b). Lead accumulation and Osprey production near a mining site on the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 21:415-424.

Henny, C. J., M. M. Smith and V. D. Stotts. (1974). The 1973 distribution and abundance of breeding Ospreys in the Chesapeake Bay. Chesapeake Sci. no. 15:125-133.

Henny, C. J., R. A. Grove and J. L. Kaiser. (2008b). Osprey distribution, abundance, reproductive success and contaminant burdens along lower Columbia River, 1997/1998 versus 2004. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 54 (3):525-534.

Henny, C. J., R. A. Grove, J. L. Kaiser and V. R. Bentley. (2004). An evaluation of Osprey eggs to determine spatial residue patterns and effects of contaminants along the Lower Columbia River, U.S.A. Edited by R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, Raptors worldwide: proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003.

Henny, C. J., R. A. Grove, J. L. Kaiser, B. L. Johnson, C. V. Furl and R. J. Letcher. (2011). Wastewater dilution index partially explains observed polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in Osprey eggs from Columbia River Basin, 2008-2009. Ecotoxicology no. 20 (4):682-697.

Henny, C. J., V. M. Galushin and A. Kuznetsov. (1988). "Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and mercury in Osprey Pandion haliaetus eggs from the Upper Volta River, Russia." In Holarctic birds of prey., edited by R. D. Chancellor, B. U. Meyburg and J. J. Ferrero, 525-533. Merida, Spain: ADENEX/WWGBP.

Hindman, L. J., W. F. Harvey, G. R. Costanzo, K. A. Converse and Jr. Stein, G. (1997). Avian cholera in Ospreys: first occurrence and possible mode of transmission. J. Field Ornithol. no. 68:503-508.

Hogarth, P. J. (1999). The biology of mangroves. London, U.K: Oxford Univ. Press.

Horton, T. W., R. O. Bierregaard, P. Zawar-Reza, R. N. Holdaway and P. Sagar. (2014). Juvenile Osprey navigation during trans-oceanic migration. PLoS One no. 9 (12):1-32.

Houghton, L. M. and L. M. Rymon. (1997). Nesting distribution and population status of U.S. Ospreys 1994. J. Raptor Res. no. 31:44-53.

Houston, C. S. and F. Scott. (2001). Power poles assist range expansion of Ospreys in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay no. 59:182-188.

Houston, C. S. and F. Scott. (2006). Entanglement threatens Ospreys at Saskatchewan nests. Journal of Raptor Research no. 40 (3):226-228.

Houston, C. S., F. Scott and R. B. Tether. (2010). Productivity of Ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, affected by water levels near Loon Lake, Saskatchewan, 1975-2002. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 124 (3):219-224.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G. and C. Corben. (2000a). A commentary on molt and plumage terminology: Implications from the Western Gull. Western Birds no. 31 (1):50-56.

Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635-653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206-210.

Hubbard, J. P. (1978). Revised check-list of the birds of New Mexico. New Mexico Ornithological Society Publication no. 6.

Hughes, J. (1983). "On Osprey habitat and productivity: a tale of two habitats." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 269-273. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Hughes, K. D., P. J. Ewins and K. E. Clark. (1997). A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of Osprey Pandion haliaetus in the North American Great Lakes. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 33:441-452.

Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1-31.

Jamieson, I., N. Seymour and R. P. Bancroft. (1982). Time and activity budgets of Ospreys nesting in northeastern Nova Scotia. Condor no. 84:439-441.

Johnson, B. L., C. J. Henny, J. L. Kaiser, J. W. Davis and E. P. Sculz. (2009a). Assessment of contaminant exposure and effects on Ospreys nesting along the lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07. In Open-File Report: U.S. Geological Survey.

Johnson, D. R. and W. E. Melquist. (1991). Wintering distribution and dispersal of northern Idaho and eastern Washington Ospreys. J. Field Ornithol. no. 62:517-520.

Johnson, D. R., W. E. Melquist and G. J. Schroeder. (1975a). DDT and PCB levels in Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, Osprey eggs. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 13:401-405.

Johnson, D. R., W. E. Melquist and T. L. Fleming. (2008f). Rainstorm effects on Osprey brood survival. Journal of Raptor Research no. 42 (1):51-53.

Judge, D. S. (1983). Productivity of Ospreys in the Gulf of California. Wilson Bull. no. 95:243-255.

Karasov, W. H. (1990). "Digestion in birds: Chemical and physiological determinants and ecological implications." In Avian foraging: theory, methodology, and applications., edited by M. L. Morrison, C. J. Ralph, J. Verner and J. R. Jehl, 391-415. Stud. Avian Biol no. 13.

Kennedy, M. J. and P. F. Frelier. (1984). Renicola lari timon-david, 1933 from the Osprey, Pandion haliaetus (L.), from Alberta, Canada. J. Wildl. Dis. no. 20:350-351.

Kerlinger, P. (1985b). Water-crossing behavior of raptors during migration. Wilson Bull. no. 97:109-113.

Kerlinger, P. (1989a). Flight strategies of migrating hawks. Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press.

Kerlinger, P. and F. R. Moore. (1989). "Atmospheric structure and avian migration." In Current Ornithology, edited by D. M. Power, 109-142. Springer.

Kerlinger, P., V. P. Bingman and K. P. Able. (1985a). Comparative flight behavior of migrating hawks studied with tracking radar during migration in central New York. Can. J. Zool. no. 63:755-761.

King, J. R. and D. S. Farner. (1961). "Energy metabolism, thermoregulation and body temperature." In Biology and comparative physiology of birds., edited by J. A. Marshall, 215-288. London, U.K: Academic Press.

King, M. M. (1988). Osprey preys on tiger salamander. J. Raptor Res. no. 22:121.

Kinsella, J. M., R. A. Cole, D. J. Forrester and C. L. Roderick. (1996). Helminth parasites of the Osprey, Pandion haliaetus, in North America. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. no. 63:262-265.

Kjellen, N., M. Hake and T. Alerstam. (1997). Strategies of two Ospreys Pandion haliaetus migrating between Sweden and tropical Africa as revealed by satellite tracking. J. Avian Biol. no. 28:15-23.

Kushlan, J. A. and O. L. Bass. (1983a). "Decreases in the southern Florida Osprey population, a possible result of food stress." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 187-200. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Lacina, D. and D. M. Bird. (2000). "Endoparasites of raptors: a review and an update." In Raptor biomedicine III, including bibliography of diseases of birds of prey., edited by S. Lumei, J. D. Remple, P. T. Redig, M. Lierz and J. E. Cooper, 65-100. Lake Worth, FL: Zool. Education Network, Inc.

Laing, D. K. (2005). Dispersal and migratory behavior of Osprey and Bald Eagles in Labrador, Department of Natural Resources, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Langner, H. W., E. Greene, R. Domenech and M. F. Staats. (2012). Mercury and other mining-related contaminants in Ospreys along the Upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 62 (4):681-695.

Lerner, H. R. L. and D. P. Mindell. (2005). Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 37 (2):327-346.

Lerner, H. R. L., M. C. Klaver and D. P. Mindell. (2008b). Molecular phylogenetics of the Buteonine birds of prey (Accipitridae). Auk no. 125 (2):304-315.

Leshem, Y. (1984). Shell-dropping by Ospreys. Br. Birds no. 78:143.

Levenson, H. (1979). Time and activity budgets of Ospreys nesting in northern California. Condor no. 81:364-369.

Lincer, J. L. (1975). DDE-induced eggshell thinning in the American Kestrel: A comparison of the field situation with laboratory results. J. Appl. Ecol. no. 12:781-793.

Lind, G. S. (1976). Production, nest site selection, and food habits of Ospreys in Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Unpubl. Master's Thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

Liston, T. (1997). Bald Eagle attacks Osprey nestlings. Loon no. 68:238-239.

Lodenius, M. and O. Maim. (1998). Mercury in the Amazon. Rev. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. no. 157:25-52.

Lohmus, A. (2001a). Habitat selection in a recovering Osprey Pandion haliaetus population. Ibis no. 143 (4):651-657.

Lohmus, A. (2001b). Ospreys in Estonia: a historical perspective. Vogelwelt no. 122:167-171.

Lounsbury-Billie, M. J., G. M. Rand, Y. Cai and O. L. Bass Jr. (2008). Metal concentrations in Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations in the Florida Bay estuary. Ecotoxicology no. 17 (7):616-622.

Maccarter, D. S. (1972). Food habits of Ospreys at Flathead Lake, Montana. Master's Thesis, California State Univ.-Humboldt, Arcata.

Macdonald, J. and N. R. Seymour. (1994). Bald Eagle attacks Osprey. J. Raptor Res. no. 28 (2):122.

Machmer, M. M. and R. C. Ydenberg. (1990). Weather and Osprey foraging energetics. Can. J. Zool. no. 68:40-43.

Mackrill, T. (2013). The Rutland Water Ospreys. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Macnamara, M. (1977). Sexing the American Osprey using secondary sexual characteristics. In National Parks Service Transactions and Proceedings Series, edited by J. C. Ogden. Washington: U.S.D.I. National Park Service.

Marchant, S. and P. J. Higgins. (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, Vol. 2. Raptors to lapwings. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford Univ. Press.

Martell, M. S., C. J. Henny, P. E. Nye and M. J. Solensky. (2001a). Fall migration routes, timing, and wintering sites of North American Ospreys as determined by satellite telemetry. Condor no. 103:715-724.

Martell, M. S., H. B. Tordoff and P. T. Redig. (1994). "The introduction of three native raptors into the midwestern United States." In Raptor conservation today., edited by B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, 465-470. East Sussex, U.K: Pica Press.

Martell, M. S., M. A. McMillian, M. J. Solensky and B. K. Mealey. (2004). Partial migration and wintering use of Florida by Ospreys. Journal Of Raptor Research no. 38 (1):55-61.

Martell, M. S., R. O. Bierregaard, B. E. Washburn, J. E. Elliott, C.J. Henny, R. S. Kennedy and I. MacLeod. (2014). The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):309-324.

Martin, A. A., S. R. de Solla, P. J. Ewins and M. E. Barker. (2005a). Productivity of Osprey, Pandion haliaetus, nesting on natural and artificial structures in the Kawartha Lakes, Ontario, 1991-2001. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 119 (1):58-63.

Martin, P. A., S. R. de Solla and P. Ewins. (2003). Chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in Osprey eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes basin, 1991-1995. Ecotoxicology no. 12 (1-4):209-224.

McGowan, K. J. and K. Corwin. (2008). The second atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Ithaca: Comstock/Cornell University Press.

Mclean, P. K. and M. A. Byrd. (1991a). Diet of Chesapeake Bay Ospreys and their impact on the local fishery. J. Raptor Res. no. 25:109-112.

Mclean, P. K. and M. A. Byrd. (1991b). Feeding ecology of Chesapeake Bay Ospreys and growth and behavior of their young. Wilson Bull. no. 103:105-111.

McMillian, M. A. (2013). Long-term trends in Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting populations on Lake Istokpoga, Florida. Fla. Field Nat. no. 41:71-79.

McWilliams, G. M., and D. W. Brauning (2000). The Birds of Pennsylvania. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Melquist, W. E., D. R. Johnson and W. D. Carrier. (1978). Migration patterns of northern Idaho and eastern Washington Ospreys. Bird-Banding no. 77:234-236.

Mersmann, T. J. and J. D. Fraser. (1990). "Management of raptor foraging habitat in the Southeast." In Proceedings of the Southeast raptor management symposium and workshop., edited by B. G. Pendleton, Jr M. N. LeFranc, B. A. Millsap, D. L. Krahe, M. A. Madsen and M. A. Knighton, 189-198. Baltimore, MD: Natl. Wildl. Fed.

Mestre, L. A. M. and R. O. Bierregaard. (2009). The role of Amazonian rivers for wintering ospreys (Pandion haliaetus): Clues from North American band recoveries in Brazil between 1937 and 2006. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment no. 44 (3):141-147.

Miller, M. J. R., P. J. Ewins and T. D. Galloway. (1997b). Records of ectoparasites collected on Ospreys from Ontario. J. Wild. Dis. no. 33:373-376.

Mizera, T. and Szymkiewicz. (1996). "The present status of the Osprey, Pandion haliaetus, in Poland." In Eagle studies, edited by B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, 23-33. Berlin: WWGBP.

Monson, C. S. (1996). Geographical review of the historical and current status of Ospreys in Utah. Great Basin Nat. no. 56:150-156.

Monti, F., O. Duriez, V. Arnal, J.-M. Dominici, A. Sforzi, L. Fusani, D. Gremillet and C. Montgelard. (2015). Being comopolitan: Evolutionary history and phylogeography of a specialized raptor, the Osprey Pandion haliaetus. BMC Evolutionary Biology no. 15.

Morrissey, C. A., G. V. Kardosi, L. K. Wilson and J. E. Elliott. (2004c). Effect of food supply and contaminants on Osprey productivity in southern British Columbia, Canada. Edited by R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, Raptors worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003.

Nesbitt, S. A. (1974b). Foods of the Osprey at Newnans Lake. Fla. Field Nat. no. 2:45.

Newton, I. (1979c). Population ecology of raptors. Vermillion, SD: Buteo Books.

Newton, I. and M. B. Haas. (1988). Pollutants in Merlin eggs and their effects on breeding. Brit. Birds no. 81:258-269.

Nicholson, C. P. (1997m). "Osprey." In Atlas of breeding birds of Tennessee., edited by C. P. Nicholson, 97-99. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press.

Niemuth, N. D. (1991). Recoveries of Osprey banded in Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon no. 53:108-114.

Noble, D. G. and J. E. Elliott. (1990). Levels of contaminants in Canadian raptors, 1966 to 1988; effects and temporal trends. Canadian Field-Nat. no. 104:222-243.

Noble, D. G., J. E. Elliott and J. L. Shutt. (1993). Environmental contaminants in Canadian raptors 1965-1989. Ottawa, ON: Can. Wildl. Serv. Natl. Wildl. Res. Centre.

Oakleaf, B., D. Luce, S. Ritter and A. Cerovski. (1992). Wyoming bird and mammal atlas. Lander: Wyoming Game Fish Dep.

Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Odsjo, T. and J. Sondell. (2001). Population status and breeding success of Osprey in Sweden, 1971-1998. Vogelwelt no. 122:155-166.

Ogden, J. C. (1975). Effects of Bald Eagle territoriality on nesting Ospreys. Wilson Bull. no. 87:496-505.

Ogden, J. C. (1977b). Transactions of the North American Osprey Research Conference. U.S. Dep. Int., Natl. Park. Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. no. 2.

Olendorff, R. R., A. D. Miller and R. N. Lehman. (1981). Suggested practices for raptor protection on power lines-the state of the art in 1981. Raptor Res. Rep. no. 4:1-111.

Olexa, T. J. (2006). An integrated management approach for nesting Osprey to protect human safety and aircraft at Langley AFB, Virginia. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference no. 22:216-221.

Palmer, R. S. (1988e). Handbook of North American birds, Vol. 4: diurnal raptors. Pt. 1. New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press.

Palmer-Ball, B.L., Jr. (1996). The Kentucky Breeding Bird Atlas. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Pawloski, W. G. (1996). Osprey with muskrat in Monroe Co. [Michigan]. Mich. Birds Nat. Hist. no. 3:83.

Philips, J. R. (2000). A review and checklist of the parasitic mites (Acarina) of the Falconiformes and Strigiformes. J. Raptor Res. no. 34:210-231.

Poole, A. (1985a). Courtship feeding and Osprey reproduction. Auk no. 102:479-492.

Poole, A. (1989a). Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Poole, A. (1989b). "Regulation of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations: the role of nest site availability." In Raptors in the modern world, edited by B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, 227-234. Berlin: WWGBP.

Poole, A. and B. Agler. (1987). Recoveries of Ospreys banded in the United States, 1914-84. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 51:148-155.

Poole, A. F. (1979). Sibling aggression among nestling Ospreys in Florida Bay. Auk no. 96:415-416.

Poole, A. F. (1981). The effects of human disturbance on Osprey reproductive success. Colon. Waterbirds no. 4:20-27.

Poole, A. F. (1982a). Breeding Ospreys feed fledglings that are not their own. Auk no. 99:415-417.

Poole, A. F. (1982b). Brood reduction in temperate and subtropical Ospreys. Oecologia no. 53:111-119.

Poole, A. F. (1984). Reproductive limitations in coastal Ospreys: an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Unpubl. Ph.D. diss., Boston Univ., Boston, MA.

Poole, K. G. (1985b). Artificial nesting platforms for Ospreys near Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Northwest Territories Renewable Resources.

Postupalsky, S. (1978a). "Artificial nesting platforms for Ospreys and Bald Eagles." In Endangered birds: management techniques for preserving endangered species., edited by S. A. Temple, 35-45. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Postupalsky, S. (1989a). Inbreeding in Ospreys. Wilson Bull. no. 101:124-126.

Postupalsky, S. (1989b). "Osprey." In Lifetime reproduction in birds., edited by I. Newton, 297-313. London, U.K: Academic Press.

Postupalsky, S. (1991). "Osprey." In The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan, edited by R. Brewer, G. A. McPeek and Jr R. J. Adams, 158-159. East Lansing: Michigan State Univ. Press.

Postupalsky, S. and S. M. Stackpole. (1974). "Artificial nesting platforms for Ospreys in Michigan." In Management of raptors., edited by Jr F. N. Hamerstrom, B. E. Harrell and R. R. Olendorff, 105-117. Raptor Res. Rep. no. 2: Raptor Res. Found.

Prevost, Y. (1983a). "Osprey distribution and subspecies taxonomy." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 157-174. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Prevost, Y. (1983b). The moult of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus. Ardea no. 71:199-209.

Prevost, Y. A. (1977). Feeding ecology of Ospreys in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia. Master's Thesis, Macdonald College of McGill University, Montreal, QB.

Prevost, Y. A. (1982). The wintering ecology of Ospreys in Senegambia. Unpubl. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh, U.K.

Proctor, N. S. (1977). Osprey catches vole. Wilson Bull. no. 89:625.

Program, Montana Natural Heritage, Wildlife Montana Fish and Parks. Osprey — Pandion haliaetus 2016 [cited February 6, 2016.

Puleston, D. (1972). "Osprey population studies on Gardiner's Island." In Transactions of the North American Osprey research conference., edited by J. C. Ogden, 95-99. U.S. Park Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. no. 2.

Pyle, P. (2005a). First-cycle molts in North American Falconiformes. Journal of Raptor Research no. 39 (4):378-385.

Pyle, P. (2005b). Molts and plumages of ducks (Anatinae). Waterbirds no. 28 (2):208-219.

Pyle, P. (2006). Staffelmauser and other adaptive strategies for wing molt in larger birds. Western Birds no. 37 (3):179-185.

Pyle, P. (2008). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part 2: Anatidae to Alcidae. Slate Creek Press, Point Reyes Station, CA, USA.

Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith and J. Raffaele. (1998). A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Rattner, B. A., N. H. Golden, P. C. Toschik, P. C. McGowan and T. W. Custer. (2008). Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware bays. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 54 (1):114-122.

Rattner, B. A., P. C. McGowan, N. H. Golden, J. S. Hatfield, P. C. Toschik, R. F. Lukei, R. C. Hale, I. Schmitz-Afonso and C. P. Rice. (2004). Contaminant exposure and reproductive success of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Chesapeake Bay regions of concern. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 47 (1):126-140.

Reese, J. (1969). A Maryland Osprey population 75 years ago and today. Maryland Birdlife no. 25:116-119.

Reese, J. (1977). Reproductive success of Ospreys in central Chesapeake Bay. Auk no. 94:202-221.

Rivera-Rodriguez, L. B. and R. Rodriguez-Estrella. (2011). Incidence of organochlorine pesticides and the health condition of nestling Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) at Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ecotoxicology no. 20 (1):29-38.

Robbins, S. D., Jr. (1991). Wisconsin Birdlife: Population and Distribution, Past and Present. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, USA.

Roberts, T. S. (1932c). The Birds of Minnesota. Volume 1. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Rodriguez, F., M. Martell, P. Nye and K. Bildstein. (2001). "Osprey migration through Cuba." In Hawkwatching in the Americas., edited by K. L. Bildstein and Jr D. Klem, 77-79. North Wales, PA: Hawk Migr. Assoc. N. Am.

Rodríguez-Santana, F., Y. Segovia Vega, M. Sanchez Padilla, C. Plasencia León, Y. E. Torres Adán, M. Sanchez Losada, A. Mustelier Lescay and Y. Rivera. (2014). Magnitude and timing of autumn Osprey migration in southeastern Cuba. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):334-344.

Rogers, W. and S. Leatherwood. (1981). Observations of feeding at sea by a Peregrine Falcon and an Osprey. Condor no. 83:89-90.

Roulet, M., M. Lucotte, R. Canuel, N. Farella and J. R. D. Guimarães. (2000). Increase in mercury contamination recorded in lacustrine sediments following deforestation in Central Amazonia. Chem. Geol. no. 165:243-266.

Russell, S. M. and G. Monson. (1998). The birds of Sonora. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

Rymon, L. M. (1989). "The restoration of Ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, to breeding in Pennsylvania by hacking (1980-1989)." In Raptors in the modern world, edited by B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, 359-362. Berlin: WWGBP.

Saggese, M. D., E. R. DeLucca, S. F. Krapovickas and E. H. Haene. (1996). Presencia del Aquila Pescadora (Pandion haliaetus) en Argentina y Uruguay. Hornero no. 14:44-49.

Saggese, M. D., I. Roesler and C. F. Marano. (2014). Wintering of Ospreys in Argentina: Insights from new records between 1993–2008. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):345-360.

Santana, E. C. and S. A. Temple. (1987). Recoveries of banded Ospreys in the West Indies. J. Field Ornithol. no. 58:26-30.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, Fallon J. E., K. L. Pardieck, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr. and W. A. Link. 2016c. The North American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2014a. Version 12.07.2015. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 20142016].

Saurola, P. (1995). Finnish Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in 1971-1994. Vogelwelt no. 116:199-204.

Saurola, P. (1997). The Osprey and modern forestry: a review of population trends and their causes in Europe. J. Raptor Res. no. 31:129-137.

Schaadt, C. P. and D. M. Bird. (1993). Sex-specific growth in Ospreys: the role of sexual size dimorphism. Auk no. 110:900-910.

Schaadt, C. P. and L. M. Rymon. (1983). "The restoration of Ospreys by hacking." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 299-306. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Schaadt, C. P. and L. Rymon. (1982). Innate fishing behavior of Ospreys. Raptor Res. no. 16:61-62.

Schmidt, D. (2001). Population trend of the Osprey in Germany in the late 20th century. Vogelwelt no. 122:117-128.

Schmidt, D. and R. Wahl. (2001). Nest site and mate tenacity of Ospreys ringed in eastern Germany and central France. Vogelwelt no. 122:129-140.

Schmidt-Rothmund, D., R. Dennis and P. Saurola. (2014). The Osprey in the Western Palearctic: Breeding population size and trends in the early 21st century. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):375-386.

Schroeder, G. J. (1972). Results of a two-year investigation of the Ospreys of northern Idaho. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Idaho, Moscow.

Seacor, R., K. Ostovar and M. Restani. (2014). Distribution and abundance of baling twine in the landscape near Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nests: Implications for nestling entanglement. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 128:173-178.

Seibold, I. and A. J. Helbig. (1995b). Systematic position of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) according to mitochondrial DNA sequences. Vogelwelt no. 116:209-217.

Semenchuk, G. P. (1992). The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Edmonton: Fed. Alberta Nat.

Shugart, G. W. and S. Rohwer (1996). Serial descendant primary molt or Staffelmauser in Black-crowned Night-Herons. Condor 98 (2):222-233.

Sibley, C. G. and J. E. Ahlquist. (1972). A comparative study of the egg white proteins of non-passerine birds. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. no. 39.

Silva E Silva, R. and F. Olmos. (2002). Osprey ecology in the mangroves of southeastern Brazil. Journal of Raptor Research no. 36 (4).

Simnor, A. (2015). A nationwide evaluation of the hacking programs for Osprey Pandion halieaetus in the United States, Environmental Studies, University of Illinois at Springfield, Springfield, IL.

Small, A. (1994). California Birds: Their Status and Distribution. Ibis Publishing Company, Vista, CA, USA.

Smith, A. R. (1996b). Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Saskatoon Natural History Society Special Publications no. 22, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Smith, M. R., P. W. Mattocks, Jr., and K. M. Cassidy (1997). "Breeding birds of Washington State." In Washington State gap analysis - final report, edited by K. M. Cassidy, C. E. Grue, M. R. Smith and K. M. Dvornich. Seattle Audubon Society Publications in Zoology no. 1., Seattle, WA, USA.

Smithe, F. B. (1975). Naturalist's color guide. New York: American Museum of Natural History.

Spitzer, P. R. (1980). Dynamics of a discrete coastal breeding population of Ospreys in the northeastern USA, 1969-1979. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

Spitzer, P. R. (1989). "Osprey." In Proceedings of the Northeast raptor management symposium and workshop., edited by B. G. Pendleton, Jr M. N. LeFranc, M. B. Moss, C. E. Ruibal, M. A. Knighton and D. L. Krahe, 22-29. Baltimore, MD: Natl. Wildl. Fed.

Spitzer, P. R., A. F. Poole and M. Scheibel. (1983). "Initial population recovery of breeding Ospreys between New York City and Boston." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 231-241. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Spitzer, P. R., R. W. Risebrough, W. Walker II, R. Hernandez and A. Poole. (1978). Productivity of Ospreys in Connecticut-Long Island increases as DDE residues decline. Science no. 202:333-335.

Steeger, C. and R. C. Ydenberg. (1993). Clutch size and initiation date of Ospreys: natural patterns and effect of a natural delay. Can. J. Zool. no. 71:2141-2146.

Steeger, C., H. Esselink and R. C. Ydenberg. (1992). Comparative feeding ecology and reproductive performance of Ospreys in different habitats of southeastern British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. no. 70:470-475.

Steidl, R. J. and C. R. Griffin. (1991). Growth and brood reduction of mid-Atlantic coast Ospreys. Auk no. 108:363-370.

Steidl, R. J., C. R. Griffin and L. J. Niles. (1991a). Contaminant levels of Osprey eggs and prey reflect regional differences in reproductive success. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 55:601-608.

Steidl, R. J., C. R. Griffin and L. J. Niles. (1991b). Differential reproductive success of Ospreys in New Jersey. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 55 (2):266-272.

Stephens, D. A. and S. H. Sturts. (1997). Idaho bird distribution: mapping by latilong. Idaho Mus. Nat. Hist, Spec. Publ. no. 13.

Stinson, C. (1977a). Familial longevity in Ospreys. Bird-Banding no. 48:72-73.

Stocek, R. F. and P. A. Pearce. (1983). "Distribution and reproductive success of Ospreys in New Brunswick, 1974-1980." In Biology and management of Bald Eagles and Ospreys., edited by D. M. Bird, 215-221. Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec: Harpell Press.

Stone, W. (1937). Bird studies at old Cape May: an ornithology of coastal New Jersey. Philadelphia, PA: Delaware Valley Ornithol. Club.

Stone, W. B., S. A. Butkas and E. M. Reilly. (1978). Long small intestine in the Osprey and Peregrine Falcon. New York State Fish Game no. 25:178-181.

Strandberg, R. (2013). Ageing, sexing and subspecific identification of Osprey, and two WP records of American Osprey. Dutch Birding no. 35 (2):69-87.

Stresemann, E. and D. Amadon. (1979). "Order Falconiformes." In Check-list of the birds of the world, edited by E. Mayr and G. W. Cottrell, 271-425. Cambridge, MA: Mus. Comp. Zool.

Stresemann, E. and V. Stresemann (1966). Die Mauser der Vögel. Sonderheft: Journal für Ornithologie 107.

Swenson, J. E. (1978). Prey and foraging behavior of Ospreys on Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 42:87-90.

Swenson, J. E. (1979a). Factors affecting status and reproduction of Ospreys in Yellowstone National Park. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 43:595-602.

Swenson, J. E. (1979b). The relationship between prey species ecology and dive success in Ospreys. Auk no. 96:408-412.

Swenson, J. E. (1981). Status of Osprey in southeastern Montana before and after construction of reservoirs. West. Birds no. 12:47-51.

Szaro, R. C. (1978). Reproductive success and foraging behavior of the Osprey at Seahorse Key, Florida. Wilson Bull. no. 90:112-118.

Taylor, P. (1986d). Osprey catches gray squirrel. J. Raptor Res. no. 20:76.

Thibault, J. C. and V. Bretagnolle. (2001). Monitoring, research, and conservation of Ospreys in Corsica, Mediterraean France. Vogelwelt no. 122:173-178.

Thorpe, C. and A. D. Boddham. (1977). Unusual diet for Osprey. Ostrich no. 48:47.

Timm, H. K., N. D. Berg and W. N. Johnson. (2012). A summary of raptor monitoring through 2012 in the Upper Tanana Valley, Game Management Unit 12, Alaska. Unpublished Refuge Report 01-12. Tok: U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge.

Torres, L. G. (2009). A kaleidoscope of mammal, bird and fish: Habitat use patterns of top predators and their prey in Florida Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series no. 275:289-304.

Toschik, P. C., B. A. Rattner, P. C. McGowan, M. C. Christman, D. B. Carter, R. C. Hale, C. W. Matson and M. A. Ottinger. (2005). Effects of contaminant exposure on reproductive success of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware River and Bay, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry no. 24 (3):617-628.

Trimper, P. G., N. M. Standen, L. M. Lye, D. Lemon, T. E. Chubbs and G. W. Humphries. (1998). Effects of low-level jet aircraft noise on the behaviour of nesting Osprey. J. Appl. Ecol. no. 35:122-130.

Tucker, V. A. (1991). The effect of molting on the gliding performance of a Harris' Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk no. 108 (1):108-113.

U.S. Geological Survey. Breeding Bird Atlas Explorer. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (2016). Available from

Ueoka, M. L. and J. R. Koplin. (1973). Foraging behavior of Ospreys in northwestern California. J. Raptor Res. no. 7:32-38.

Valiela, I. (1984). Marine ecological processes. New York: Springer Verlag.

Van Daele, L. J. and H. A. Van Daele. (1982). Factors affecting the productivity of Ospreys nesting in west-central Idaho. Condor no. 84:292-299.

Vana-Miller, S. L. (1987). Habitat suitability index models: Osprey. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. no. 82.

Veit, R. R., and W. R. Petersen. (1993). The Birds of Massachusetts. Massachussetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA, USA.

Walton, K., T. Gotthardt and T. Fields. (2013). Alaska species ranking system summary report - Osprey. Alaska Nartural Heritage Program.

Warter, S. L. (1976). A new Osprey from the Miocene of California (Falconiformes: Pandionidae). Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. no. 27:133-139.

Washburn, B. E. (2014). Human–Osprey conflicts: Industry, utilities, communication, and transportation. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):387-395.

Washburn, B. E., M. S. Martell, R. O. Bierregaard, C. J. Henny, B. S. Dorr and T. J. Olexa. (2014). Wintering ecology of adult North American Ospreys. Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):325-333.

Wasser, J. S. (1979). Comparative energetics of some falconiform birds. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.

Wasser, J. S. (1986). The relationship of energetics of falconiform birds to body mass and climate. Condor no. 88:57-62.

Watermolen, D. J. (1996). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) preys on mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus) in Menominee County. Mich. Birds Nat. Hist. no. 3:157-158.

Watts, B. D. and B. J. Paxton. (2007). Ospreys of the Chesapeake Bay: Population recovery, ecological requirements, and current threats. Waterbirds no. 30:39-49.

Weir, R. D. (1987e). "Osprey." In Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario., edited by M. D. Cadman, P. F. J. Eagles and F. M. Helleiner, 108-109. Waterloo, ON: Univ. of Waterloo Press.

Werren, J. H. and C. J. Peterson. (1988). Osprey hunting on ground for small mammals. Wilson Bull. no. 100:504.

Wetmore, S. T. and D. I. Gillespie. (1976). Osprey and Bald Eagle populations in Labrador and ne. Quebec, 1969-1973. Can. Field-Nat. no. 90:330-337.

Wheeler, B. K. (2003a). Raptors of eastern North America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wheeler, B. K. (2003b). Raptors of western North America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wiedenfeld, D. A. and M. M. Swan. (2000). Louisiana breeding bird atlas. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge: Louisiana Sea Grant College Program.

Wiemeyer, S. N., C. M. Bunck and A. J. Krynitsky. (1988). Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in Osprey eggs-1970-79-and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 17:767-787.

Wiemeyer, S. N., D. M. Swineford, P. R. Spitzer and P. D. McLain. (1978). Organochlorine residues in New Jersey Osprey eggs. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 19:56-63.

Wiemeyer, S. N., P. R. Spitzer, W. C. Krantz, T. G. Lamont and E. Cromartie. (1975). Effects of environmental pollutants on Connecticut and Maryland Ospreys. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 39:124-139.

Wiley, J. W. (1984). "Status of the Osprey in the West Indies." In Proceedings of the Southeastern U.S. and Caribbean Osprey symposium., edited by M. A. Westal, 9-16. Sanibel Island, FL: Int. Osprey Found.

Wiley, J. W. and F. E. Lohrer. (1973). Additional records of non-fish prey taken by Ospreys. Wilson Bull. no. 85:468-470.

Wiley, J. W., A. F. Poole and N. J. Clum. (2014). Distribution and natural history of the Caribbean Osprey (Pandion haliaetus ridgwayi). Journal of Raptor Research no. 48 (4):396-407.

Wilson, A. M., D. W. Brauning, and R. S. Mulvihill. (2012). Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA, USA.

Wink, M., H. Sauer-Gürth and H.-H. Witt. (2004b). Phylogenetic differentiation of the osprey Pandion haliaetus inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Edited by R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, Raptors worldwide: proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003.

Witherby, H. F., F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. Ticehurst and B. W. Tucker. (1939). The handbook of British Birds. Vol. 3. London: H. F. and G. Witherby Ltd.

Woodford, J. E., W. H. Karasov, M. W. Meyer and L. Chambers. (1998). Impact of 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure on survival, growth, and behavior of Ospreys breeding in Wisconsin, USA. Bull. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. no. 17:1323-1331.

Recommended Citation

Bierregaard, R. O., A. F. Poole, M. S. Martell, P. Pyle, and M. A. Patten (2016). Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.