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Osprey

Pandion haliaetus

Order:
Accipitriformes
Family:
Pandionidae
Sections

Tables and Appendices

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Appendix 1

Diet of Osprey (percentage prey items recorded, by number) in selected areas of its breeding range.

Location/sourceaSeasonPrey (%)
Freshwater habitats:
Flathead Lake, MT1Spring/summerLargescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) (59%); Prosopium williamsoni and Coregonus clupeaformis (26);
salmon and trout (10)
Grand Teton/Yellowstone Natl. Parks, WY2Spring/summerUtah sucker (Catostomus ardens) (74%); carps and minnows (Cyprinidae) (17); salmon and trout
(Salmonidae) (10)
Grand Teton/Yellowstone Natl. Parks, WY3Spring/summerCutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii) (90%); longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) (10)
Fern Ridge Reservoir, OR4Spring/summerCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio) (67%); black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) (33)
Crane Prairie Reservoir, OR5Spring/summerSalmon and trout (57%); tui chub (Gila bicolor) (43)
N. Idaho6Spring/summerNorthern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinus) (52%);
salmon and trout (18); ictalurids (bullheads) (13)
Eagle Lake, ne. Califormia7Spring/summerTui chub (Gila bicolor) (48%); rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) (34), tahoe suckers (Catostomus tahoensis) (18)
Creston, British Columbia8Spring/summerTui chub (48%); rainbow trout (34); tahoe suckers (18)
W.-central Idaho9Spring/summerBrown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) (38%); salmon and trout (21); carps and minnows (Cyprinidae) (19);
yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (12)
Usal Creek, CA10Spring/summerSurf (Hypomesus pretiosus) and night (Spirinchus starksi) smelt (98%)
Cheppewa Nat’l. Forest, MN11Spring/summerBluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) (35%); black crappie (31); unidentified/other (34)
Newnans Lake, FL12Spring/summerGizzard (Dorosoma cepedianum) and threadfin (D. petenense) shad (73%); black crappie, sunfish
(Lepomis spp.), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (15)
Lake George, FL13Spring/summerCrappie (Pomoxis spp.) and mullet (Mullus barbatus) (99%)
Paynes Prairie, FL14Spring/summerSunfishes (Centrarchidae) (95%)
Saltwater habitats:
Chesapeake Bay15Spring/summerMenhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) (75%); unidentified/other (14); white perch (Morone americana) (7)
Seahorse Key, FL16Spring/summerSpeckled trout (Cynoscion nebulosus) (64%); striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) (27); sea catfish (Galeichthys felis) (8)
S. New England17Spring/summerWinter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) (50%); menhaden (20); herring (Alosa spp.) (20)
Pelham Bay, Bronx, NY18Fall/migrationMenhaden (82%); bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (17)
Antigonish Harbor, Nova Scotia19Spring/summerWinter flounder (>90%)
Humboldt Bay, CA20Spring/summerSurfperch (Embiotocidae) (63%); unidentified/other (29)
Se. Alaska, estuarine21Spring/summerStarry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) (95%)

  • Sources: 1 = MacCarter 1972; 2 = Alt 1980; 3 = Swenson 1979, original paper has no data for prey species percentages despite Swenson citing his own study; 4 = Hughes 1983; 5 = Lind 1976 in Vana-Miller 1987; 6 = Schroeder 1972; 7 = Garber 1972; 8 = Flook and Forbes 1983; 9 = Van Daele and Van Daele 1982; 10 = French 1972 in Swenson 1979; 11 = Dunstan 1967, 1974; 12 = Nesbitt 1974; 13 = Grubb 1977a; 14 = Nesbitt 1974 in Swenson 1979; 15 = McLean and Byrd 1991b; 16 = Szaro 1978; 17 = Poole 1984; 18 = DeCandido 1991; 19 = Prevost 1977 in Swenson 1979; 20 = Ueoka and Koplin 1973; 21 = Hughes 1983.

Appendix 2

Average linear measurements (mm) of Ospreys from North America and the Bahamas. Data shown as mean ± SD. From musueum specimens (Prevost 1983b).

PopulationWing lengthTail lengthBill lengthClaw sizen
North America
Male485 ± 12212 ± 832.5 ± 1228.9 ± 1049
Female507 ± 10228 ± 634.6 ± 1330.5 ± 1247
Bahamas
Male461 ± 733.5 ± 332.2 ± 14
Female492 ± 26225 ± 1236.1 ± 1732.6 ± 103


Recommended Citation

Bierregaard, Richard O., Alan F. Poole, Mark S. Martell, Peter Pyle and Michael A. Patten.(2016).Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/osprey

DOI: 10.2173/bna.683