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Northern Pintail

Anas acuta

Order:
Anseriformes
Family:
Anatidae
Sections

Tables and Appendices

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Appendix 1

Chronology of arrival on the breeding grounds, nest initiation, and hatching of Northern Pintails in North America.

Sources:

  • 1 = Krapu 1977
  • 2 = Stoudt 1971
  • 3 = Sowls 1955
  • 4 = J.B. Grand pers. comm.
  • 5 = Petrula 1994
  • 6 = Bellrose 1980
  • 7 = A. Perkins and R. McLandress pers. comm.
  • 8 = Higgins et al. 1992a, G. Krapu pers. comm.
  • 9 = Keith 1961, Duncan 1987b
  • 10 = P. L. Flint and J. B. Grand pers. comm.
  • 11 = Mann and Sedinger 1993, Petrula 1994, J. B. Grand pers. comm.
  • 12 = Fuller 1953
  • 13 = Iowa Dep. Nat. Resour. unpubl. data
  • 14 = Natl. Biol. Serv., unpubl. data
  • 15 = calculated from nest initiaion dates
  • 16 = Burris 1991, Horn 1991, Mann and Sedinger 1993
  • 17 = J. B. Grand and P. L. Flint pers. comm.

RegionArrivalNest InitiationHatching
Prairie grasslands
North Dakotalate Mar–early Apr1mid-Apr-late Jun8early Jun-late Jul15
s. Saskatchewanlate Mar2
s. Albertalate Mar2mid-Apr-mid-Jun9early Jun-mid-Jul15
Prairie parkland
Manitobalate Mar-early Apr3late Apr-mid-Jun6mid-Jun-mid-Jul15
Saskatchewanlate Apr2late Apr-mid-Jun2mid-Jun-mid-Jul15
Albertalate Apr2
Alaska
Coastallate Apr-early May4early May-late Jun10mid-Jun-late Jul16
Interiorlate Apr-early May5early May-late Jun11late May-early Aug17
Arctic/Subarctic
Yellowknife, NWTlate Apr-early May6
Churchill, Manitobamid-May6
Southhampton Islandearly Jun6
McKenzie Deltaearly-mid-May6
Southern areas
central CaliforniaMar7mid-Mar-mid-Jun7early May-early Jul7
ne. CaliforniaMar7late Mar-mid-Jun7early May-early Jul7
Utahmid-Apr-mid-Jun12mid-May-late Jul12
Iowamid-Apr-mid-May13early Jun-mid-Jul15
Nebraskamid-Apr-mid-Jun14early Jun-mid-Jul15


Appendix 2

Measurements (linear in mm, mass in g) of Northern Pintails during various seasons in North America. Data shown as mean ± SD (range; n).

  • (*)Total length = in males: tip of bill to end of rectrices on either side of the middle 2 for Source no. 2; to end of middle rectrices for Source no. 8.
  • (**)Total tarsus = maximum distance along the tarsometatarsus to the dorsal side of the distal end of the tibiotarsus (heel) with foot bent.
Sources:
  • 1 = TX live birds: Oct 2002-2003 (J. Moon, unpubl. data).
  • 2 = Central Valley CA live birds: Aug-Oct 1987-1989, Aug-Oct 1991-1993, 1998-1999 (M. Miller et al., and J. Fleskes et al., unpubl. data).
  • 3 = LA live birds: Oct-Nov 1990-1992 (R. R. Cox, unpubl. data).
  • 4 = Central Valley CA collected, live, and hunter-shot birds: Dec 1989, Dec-Jan 1998-1999, 2000-2003, Oct-Jan 2006 -2008 (M. Miller et al., and J. Fleskes et al., unpubl. data).
  • 5 = NM live birds: Oct-Dec 2001-2002 (C. Lee and D. Haukos et al., unpubl. data).
  • 6 = TX collected birds: Oct-Mar 1984-1986 (Smith et al. 1992).
  • 7 = IL hunter-shot birds: Oct-Dec 1938-1939 (Bellrose and Hawkins 1947).
  • 8 = Yucatan Mexico collected and hunter-shot birds: age unspecified, Oct-Mar 1986-1988 (Thompson and Baldassarre 1990).
  • 9 = Gulf Coast TX hunter-shot birds: Oct-Feb 1986-2000 (Haukos et al. 2001).
  • 10 = TX live birds: Dec 2001-Jan 2002 (D. Haukos et al. unpubl. data), Oct-Nov 2002, Nov 2003 ( J . Anderson and D. Haukos et al., unpubl. data).
  • 11 = Sinaloa Mexico live birds: Oct-Dec 1989-1991 (Migoya and Baldassarre 1995).
  • 12 = North America: summer-winter (Palmer 1976).
  • 13 = North America hunter-shot birds: Sep-Jan; tip of bill to end of middle rectrices for total length (Bellrose 1980).
  • 14 = Sacramento Valley CA collected birds: Aug-Mar 1979-1982 (tip of bill to end of rectrices on either side of middle 2 (M.R. Miller unpubl. data).
  • 15 = Nort

    SeasonFall                                                     Fall–winter                                          Spring                                                Prelaying                            Laying                   Molt                                      
    Body Mass (g)
    Adults
    Males991.59 ± 121.47 (660-1380; 348)11052.74 ± 111.78 (662-1360; 1396)4956.14 ± 74.74 (869-1046; 7)15906 ± 87 (–; 21)21848 ± 74 (–; 7)23853 ± 14 (–; 116)25
    1079.18 ± 107.14 (872-1334; 39)51032.15 ± 119.57 (795-1268; 22)16948.6 (–; 8)22821.7 (–; 9)24905 ± 95 (715–1100; 17)26
    964 ± 129 (–; 140)61115 ± 110  (–; 25)17
    1042.3 ± 140.75 (–; 237)71025.6 (–; 9)18
    853 ± 105.2 (–; 18)81000 ± 22.4 (920-1060; 5)19
    935.5 ± 91.1 (594-1182; 216)9
    Females788.22 ± 85.96 (550-1100; 841)2895.21 ± 94.54 (585-1250; 451)4772.5 ± 14.85 (762-783; 2)15772 ± 70 (–; 19)21755 ± 69 (–; 12)23729 ± 40 (–; 7)26
    815.22 ± 89.96 (610-1120; 198)1821.97 ± 73.96 (600-1020; 185)10934.75 ± 122.33 (713-1173; 14)16786.1 (–; 10)22709.4 (–; 9)24
    765 ± 90 (–; 234)3919.1 ± 90.17 (764-1120; 48)5984 ± 85 (–; 22)17
    835 ± 105 (–; 69)6821.0 (–; 9)18
    779.8 ± 124.9 (–; 88)11900 ± 22.4 (840-1000; 5)19
    896.0 ± 106.2 (–; 60)7866.2 ± 70.5 (–; 58)20
    763.6 ± 94.6 (–; 18)8
    831.0 ± 87.4 (640-1070; 72)9                                                                   
    Hatch–year
    Males855.05 ± 113.09 (600-1190; 201)11008.6 ± 110.53 (560-1384; 886)41082.13 ± 43.9 (1044.8-1130.5; 3)16
    939.67 ± 95.61 (776-1038; 6)51110 ± 69 (–; 5)17
    912 ± 125 (–; 58)6
    982.9 ± 91.8 (–; 403)7
                                     892.4 ± 99.3 (673-1119; 93)9
    Females784.88 ± 87.29 (525-999; 281)2865.13 ± 106.06 (512-1278; 873)4784.25 ± 45.07 (740-838; 4)15
    744.24 ± 102.16 (520-960; 138)1762.18 ± 69.52 (570-955; 175)10879.21 ± 132.62 (429-1055.4; 22)16
    715 ± 80 (–; 114)3848 ± 48.03 (822-920; 4)5912± 74 (–; 5)17
    787 ± 104 (–; 49)6
    716.4 ± 141.1 (–; 75)11
    841.1 ± 135.3 (–; 219)7
    762.3 ± 107.9 (523-997; 38)9
    Body Length (mm) (*)
    Adults
    Males497.57 ± 20.83 (461-523; 7)15
    488.8 ± 46.69 (320-598; 25)16
    Females412 ± 36.77 (386-438; 2)15
    441.5 ± 25.76 (408-507; 14)16
    Hatch–year
    Males461.33 ± 34.7 (429-498; 3)16
    Females432 ± 11.78 (416-444; 4)15
    433.76 ± 14.67 (397-460; 21)16
    Total Length (mm) (*)
    Adults
    Males640 (599–765; 26)13
    602 ± 15 (570–641; 144)14
    Females538 ± 15 (510–570; 117)1544 (523–630; 15)13
    Hatch–year
    Males607 (551–683; 7)13
    592 ± 19 (563–618; 13)14
    Females518 (508–572; 17)13
    536 ± 15 (513–566; 24)14
    Tail (mm)
    Adults
    Males187 (162-223;12)12
    Females101 (88-112; 12)12
    Culmen (mm)
    Adults
    Males50.8 ± 1.89 (46.05-58.83; 195)450.93 ± 1.74 (48.37-53.18; 7)15
    50.53 ± 2.41 (45.5-58.6; 40)550.38 ± 1.99 (44.3-54.43; 24)16
    52 (45-54;12)12
    Females47.14 ± 1.78 (41.76-53.51; 842)246.64 ± 2 (41.95-54.26; 287)446.57 ± 1.05 (45.82-47.31; 2)15
    46.6 ± 1.53 (–; 234)346.85 ± 1.75 (41.56-51.08; 180)1046.85 ± 2.64 (43.27-53.9; 14)16
    46.2 ± 2.11 (39-49.7; 48)5
    47 (44-49;12)12
    Hatch–Year
    Males50.77 ± 2.11 (46.47-53.57; 15)451.92 ± 1.2 (50.55-52.8; 3)16
    49.5 ± 1.79 (47.3-51.8; 6)5
    Females47.15 ± 1.91 (42.58-57.78; 281)246.3 ± 1.94 (40.59-51.36; 160)448.76 ± 3.45 (44.79-53.15; 4)15
    46.6 ± 2.14 (–; 114)346.26 ± 1.96 (40.38-50.53; 173)1045.46 ± 2.43 (40.06-49.11; 22)16
    47.18 ± 1.58 (45-48.6; 4)5
    Wing Chord
    Adults
    Males273.31 ± 7.91 (250-296, 346)1275.48 ± 6.61 (245-299, 1396)4276.43 ± 5.19 (268-282; 7)15
    271.15 ± 7.26 (257-288; 40)5279.67 ± 6.18 (268-289; 24)16
    273 (262-283;12)12
    272 ± 5.9 (256-290; 216)9
    Females258.19 ± 6.87 (236-279; 842)2257.21 ± 6.6 (229-280; 445)4264.5 ± 4.95 (261-268; 2)15
    255.53 ± 6.86 (240-280; 198)1252.2 ± 7.37 (231-269; 181)10262.14 ± 8.98 (244-277; 14)16
    254.65 ± 5.88 (239-265; 48)5
    254.5 (244-265;12)12
    253 ± 5.9 (240-265; 72)9
    Hatch–Year
    Males264.11 ± 7.78 (242-285; 199)1268.31 ± 6.84 (228-291; 886)4274 ± 6.56 (268-281; 3)16
    267.67 ± 7.92 (255-279; 6)5
    263 ± 6.8 (243-278; 93)9
    Females253.9 ± 6.73 (237-276; 280)2252.07 ± 6.73 (231-276; 873)4253.5 ± 3.11 (250-257; 4)15
    250.27 ± 7.64 (234-275; 138)1244.48 ± 7.02 (226-263; 173)10256.62 ± 7.3 (242-268; 21)16
    246.75 ± 8.06 (238-255; 4)5
    245 ± 7.4 (220-258; 38)9
    Total Tarsus (mm) (**)
    Adults
    Males52.62 ± 1.88 (43.46-57.9; 347)152.41 ± 1.85 (47.48-57.68; 195)451.61 ± 1.88 (49.12-54.79; 7)15
    50.86 ± 2.09 (45.62-53.57; 23)16
    Females49.67 ± 1.93 (41.58-59.60; 842)249.13 ± 2.02 (42.15-57.18; 287)445.96 ± 1.82 (44.67-47.24; 2)15
    49.22 ± 1.89 (42.25-53.93; 198)150.53 ± 2.15 (41.1-63; 181)1047.9 ± 1.75 (46.03-51.52; 14)16
    50.1 ± 1.53 (–; 234)3
    Hatch–Year
    Males51.97 ± 2.03 (44.44-57.45; 200)152.97 ± 1.63 (49.68-55.14; 15)452.36 ± 2.1 (50.92-54.77; 3)16
    Females49.64 ± 1.87 (42.95-53.95; 281)248.77 ± 1.87 (43.97-53.68; 160)447.71 ± 2.33 (45.12-49.92; 4)15
    49.04 ± 2.15 (34.32-53.69; 138)150.35 ± 1.55 (45.81-54.44; 173)1047.07 ± 2.05 (41.3-49.78; 22)16
    Middle Toe (mm)
    Adults
    Males54.8 ± 2.11 (49.11-59.8; 347)1
    Females51.08 ± 2.41 (41.35-57.19; 197)1
    51.43 ± 1.74 (46.68–55.78; 234)3
    Hatch–Year
    Males54.09 ± 2.35 (44.70-61.93; 200)1
    Females50.76 ± 2.29 (44.29-57.65; 136)1
    51.78 ± 1.69 (47.94–55.74; 114)3
    Head Length (mm)
    Adults
    Males107.8 ± 3.06 (97.66-116.34, 347)1
    Females98.69 ± 2.98 (79.94-106.74; 192)1
    Hatch–Year
    Males105.64 ± 2.99 (95.13-113.45; 200)1
    Females97.93 ± 3.57 (87.66-116; 137)1


Recommended Citation

Clark, Robert G., Joseph P. Fleskes, Karla L. Guyn, David A. Haukos, Jane E. Austin and Michael R. Miller. 2014. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.163