Eastern Kingbird

Tyrannus tyrannus



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complementary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).

1. Rowe, D. L., M. T. Murphy, R. C. Fleischer and P. G. Wolf. 2001. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in Eastern Kingbirds. Condor no. 103 (4):845-851.[0845:hfoepp];2

2. Dolan, A. C., M. T. Murphy, L. J. Redmond, K. Sexton and D. Duffield. 2007. Extra-pair paternity and the opportunity for sexual selection in a socially monogamous passerine. Behavioral Ecology no. 18 (6):985-993.

3. Jahn, A. E., V. R. Cueto, J. W. Fox, M. S. Husak, D. H. Kim, D. V. Landoll, J. Pinto Ledezma, H. K. Lepage, D. J. Levey, M. T. Murphy and R. B. Renfrew. 2013. Migration timing and wintering areas of three species of flycatchers (Tyrannus) breeding in the Great Plains of North America. Auk no. 130 (2):247-257.

4. Davis, D. E. 1941c. The belligerency of the kingbird. Wilson Bull. no. 53:157-168.

5. Davis, D. E. 1955b. Observations on the breeding biology of kingbirds. Condor no. 57:208-212.

6. Blancher, P. J. and R. J. Robertson. 1985a. A comparison of Eastern Kingbird breeding biology in lakeshore and upland habitats. Can. J. Zool. no. 63:2305-2312.

7. Blancher, P. J. and R. J. Robertson. 1985c. Site consistency in kingbird breeding performance: implications for site fidelity. J. Anim. Ecol. no. 54:1017-1027.

8. Murphy, M. T. 1983a. Clutch size in the Eastern Kingbird: factors affecting nestling survival. Auk no. 100:326-334.

9. Murphy, M. T. 1983b. Ecological aspects of the reproductive biology of Eastern Kingbirds: geographic comparisons. Ecology no. 64:914-928.

10. Murphy, M. T. 1983c. Nest success and nesting habits of Eastern Kingbirds and other flycatchers. Condor no. 85:208-219.

11. Murphy, M. T. 1986c. Temporal components of reproductive variability in Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus). Ecology no. 67:1483-1492.

12. Murphy, M. T. 1986a. Body size and condition, timing of breeding, and aspects of egg production in Eastern Kingbirds. Auk no. 103:465-476.

13. Murphy, M. T. 2000. Evolution of clutch size in the Eastern Kingbird: Tests of alternative hypotheses. Ecological Monographs no. 70 (1):1-20.[0001:eocsit];2

14. Murphy, M. T. 2001. Habitat-specific demography of a long-distance, Neotropical migrant bird, the Eastern Kingbird. Ecology no. 82 (5):1304-1318.

15. Redmond, L. J., M. T. Murphy, A. C. Dolan and K. Sexton. 2009. Public information facilitates habitat selection of a territorial species: The Eastern Kingbird. Animal Behaviour no. 77 (2):457-463.

16. Cooper, N. W., M. T. Murphy, L. J. Redmond and A. C. Dolan. 2011. Reproductive correlates of spring arrival date in the Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus. Journal of Ornithology no. 152 (1):143-152.

17. Smith, W. J. 1966d. Communication and relationships in the genus Tyrannus. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club no. 6:1-250.

18. Smith, W. J. and A. M. Smith. 1992b. Behavioral information provided by two song forms of the Eastern Kingbird, T. tyrannus. Behaviour no. 120:90-102.

19. Sexton, K., M. T. Murphy, L. J. Redmond and A. C. Dolan. 2007. Dawn song of Eastern Kingbirds: Intrapopulation variability and sociobiological correlates. Behaviour no. 144:1273-1295.

20. Murphy, M. T., K. Sexton, A. C. Dolan and L. J. Redmond. 2008. Dawn song of the Eastern Kingbird: An honest signal of male quality? Animal Behaviour no. 75:1075-1084.

21. Morehouse, E. L. and R. Brewer. 1968. Feeding of nestling and fledgling Eastern Kingbirds. Auk no. 85:44-54.

22. Rosa, S. M. and M. T. Murphy. 1994. Trade-offs and constraints on Eastern Kingbird parental care. Wilson Bull. no. 106:668-678.

23. Maigret, J. L. and M. T. Murphy. 1997. Costs and benefits of parental care in Eastern Kingbirds. Behavioral Ecology no. 8 (3):250-259.

24. Woodard, J. D. and M. T. Murphy. 1999. Sex roles, parental experience and reproductive success of Eastern Kingbirds, Tyrannus tyrannus. Animal Behaviour no. 57 (1):105-115.

25. Redmond, L. J., M. T. Murphy, A. C. Dolan and K. Sexton. 2009. Parental investment theory and nest defense by Eastern Kingbirds. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 121 (1):1-11.

26. Murphy, M. T., C. M. Chutter and L. J. Redmond. 2015. Quantification of avian parental behavior: What are the minimum necessary sample times? Journal of Field Ornithology no. 86 (1):41-50.

27. Chutter, C. M., L. J. Redmond, N. W. Cooper, A. C. Dolan, D. Duffield and M. T. Murphy. 2016. Paternal behaviour in a socially monogamous but sexually promiscuous passerine bird. Behaviour no. 153 (4):443-466.

28. Nebel, S., A. Mills, J. D. McCracken and P. D. Taylor. 2010. Declines of aerial insectivores in North America follow a geographic gradient. Avian Conservation and Ecology 5:1.

29. Bent, A. C. 1942b. Life histories of North American flycatchers, larks, swallows, and their allies. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. no. 179.

30. Pyle, P. 1997c. Identification guide to North American birds Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Bolinas, CA: Slate Creek Press.

31. Murphy, M. T. 2007. A cautionary tale: Cryptic sexual size dimorphism in a socially monogamous passerine. Auk no. 124 (2):515-525.[515:actcss];2

32. Dwight, Jr., J. 1900c. The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences no. 13:73-360.

33. Ridgway, R. 1907. The birds of North and Middle America. Part 4. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum no. 50 (4):1-973.

34. Oberholser, H. C. 1974c. The bird life of Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.

35. Rea, A. M. 1969a. Species, age, and sex determination in the genus Tyrannus. West. Bird Bander no. 44:32-35.

36. Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. 1959. An approach to the study of molts and plumages. The Auk no. 76 (1):1-31.

37. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2003. The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor no. 105 (4):635-653.

38. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2004. The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor no. 106 (1):206-210.

39. Howell, S. N. G. 2010b. Peterson reference guide to molt in North American birds. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company.

40. Stone, W. 1896. The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. no. 43:108-164.

41. Zimmer, J. T. 1937. Studies of Peruvian Birds, no. XXVII. Notes on the genera Muscivora, Tyrannus, Empidonomus, and Sirystes, with further notes on Knipolegus. American Museum Novitates no. 962:1-28.

42. Pyle, P. 1997d. Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander no. 22 (2):49-89.

43. Murphy, M. T. 1981a. Growth and aging of nestling Eastern Kingbirds and Eastern Phoebes. J. Field Ornithol. no. 52:309-316.

44. Murphy, M. T. 1988b. Comparative reproductive biology of kingbirds (Tyrannus spp.) in eastern Kansas. Wilson Bull. no. 100:357-376.

45. Pyle, P. 1998. Eccentric first-year molt patterns in certain tyrannid flycatchers. Western Birds no. 29 (1):29-35.

46. Van Wynsberghe, N. R., J. D. Rising and D. I. MacKenzie. 1992. Geographic variation in the size of the Eastern Kingbird. Wilson Bull. no. 104:612-629.

47. American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Check-list of North American birds, 5th ed. Washington, D.C: Am. Ornithol. Union.

48. Lanyon, W. E. 1984. A phylogeny of the kingbirds and their allies. Am. Mus. Novit. no. 2797:1-28.

49. Ohlson, J., J. Fjeldså and P. G. P. Ericson. 2008. Tyrant flycatchers coming out in the open: phylogeny and ecological radiation of Tyrannidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta no. 37 (3):315-335.

50. Tello, J. G., R. G. Moyle, D. J. Marchese and J. Cracraft. 2009. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics no. 25 (5):429-467.

51. Mobley, J. A. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics and the evolution of nest building in kingbirds and their allies (Aves: Tyrannidae), University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

52. Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994b. The birdlife of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

53. Erskine, A. J. 1992a. Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime Provinces. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Museum.

54. Benson, K. L. P. and K. A. Arnold. The Texas Breeding Bird Atlas. Texas A&M University System 2001.

55. Zimmerman, D. A., M. A. Zimmerman, J. N. Durrie and M. A. Root. 1997. New Mexico bird finding guide. Albuquerque, NM: The New Mexico Ornithological Society.

56. Holt, H. R. 1997. A birder's guide to Colorado. Colorado Springs, CO: Am. Birding Assoc., Inc.

57. Andrews, P. and R. Righter. 1992. Colorado birds. Denver, CO: Denver Mus. of Nat. Hist.

58. Walters, R. E. and E. Sorenson. 1983. Utah bird distribution: Latlong study. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Div. Of Wildl. Res.

59. Csuti, B., T. A. O'Neil, M. M. Shaughnessy, E. P. Gaines and M. M. P. Huso. 2001. Atlas of Oregon wildlife: Distribution, habitat, and natural history. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

60. Wahl, T. R., B. Tweit and S. G. Mlodinow. 2005. Birds of Washington: status and distribution. Corvallis: Oregon State U. Press.

61. Grenfell, Jr., W. E. and Jr. Laudenslayer, W. F. 1983. The distribution of California birds. San Francisco, CA: Calif. Wildl./Habitat Relationships Program, Publ. no. 4. Calif. Dep. Fish Game Bull., Sacramento, and U.S. For. Serv.

62. Small, A. 1994. California birds: their status and distribution. Vista, CA: Ibis Publ. Co.

63. Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised Edition. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.

64. Davidson, P. J. A., R. J. Cannings, A. R. Couturier, D. Lepage and C. M. Di Corrado (Editors). 2015. The atlas of the breeding birds of British Columbia, 2008-2012. Bird Studies Canada, Delta, British Columbia.

65. Alexander, S. A., F. I. Doyle, C. D. Eckert, H. Grünberg, N. L. Hughes, M. Jensen, I. Johnson, D. H. Mossop, W. A. Nixon and P. H. Sinclair. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. Edited by P. H. Sinclair, W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert and N. L. Hughes. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

66. Smith, A. R. 1996b. Atlas of Saskatchewan birds. Regina: Sask. Nat. Hist. Soc. Spec. Publ. no. 22.

67. Cadman, M. D., D. A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage and A. R. Couturier. 2007a. Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario 2001-2005. Toronto: Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature.

68. Cyr, A. and J. Larivee. 1995a. Atlas saisonnier des oiseaux du Quebec. Sherbrooke, Canada: Les Presses de l'Univ. de Sherbrook et la Societe de Loisir Ornithologique de l'Estrie, Inc.

69. Johnston, D. W. 1971b. Niche relationships among some deciduous forest flycatchers. Auk no. 88:796-804.

70. Hayes, F. E., S. M. Goodman, J. A. Fox, T. G. Tamayo and N. E. López. 1990. North American bird migrants in Paraguay. Condor no. 92 (4):947-960.

71. Stotz, D. F., R. O. Bierregaard, M. Cohn-Haft, P. Peterman and J. Smith. 1992. The status of North American migrants in central Amazonian Brazil. Condor no. 94:608-621.

72. Lowery, Jr., G. H. 1974. Louisiana Birds. Revised 3rd Edition. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

73. Morton, E. S. 1971. Food and migration habits of the Eastern Kingbird in Panama. Auk no. 88:925-926.

74. Mabey, S. E. 2002. Sex-based differential migration: An examination of proximate causes and ecological consequences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.

75. Taylor, W. K. and B. H. Anderson. 1973. Nocturnal migrants killed at a central Florida TV tower: autumns 1969-1971. Wilson Bull. no. 85:42-51.

76. Maehr, D. S., A. G. Spratt and D. K. Voigts. 1983. Bird casualties at a central Florida power plant. Florida Field Naturalist no. 11 (3):45-49.

77. Ball, L. G., K. Zyskowski and G. Escalona-Segura. 1995. Recent bird mortality at a Topeka television tower. Kansas Ornithological Society Bulletin no. 46 (4):33-36.

78. Kemper, C. 1996a. A study of bird mortality at a west central Wisconsin TV tower from 1957-1995. Passenger Pigeon no. 58:219-235.

79. Brewer, R. and J. Ellis. 1958. An analysis of migrating birds killed at a television tower in east-central Illinois, September 1955-May 1957. Auk no. 75:400-414.

80. Greenberg, R. 1981. Frugivory in some migrant tropical forest wood warblers. Biotropica no. 13:215-223.

81. Peterjohn, B. G. 1989b. The birds of Ohio. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.

82. Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. New York: Oxford University Press.

83. Land, H. C. 1970. The Birds of Guatemala. Wynnewood, PA: Livingston Publ. Co.

84. Leck, C. F. 1971c. Some spatial and temporal dimensions of kingbird foraging flights. Wilson Bull. no. 83:310-311.

85. Ridgely, R. S. and J. Gwynne. 1989. A Guide to the Birds of Panama, with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

86. Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. 2000. Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Comstock/Cornell U. Press.

87. Moore, F. R., P. Kerlinger and T. R. Simons. 1990a. Stopover on a Gulf coast barrier island by spring trans-Gulf migrants. Wilson Bull. no. 102:487-500.

88. Amos, E. J. R. 1991. A Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Warwick, Bermuda: E. J. R. Amos.

89. Brudenell-Bruce, P. G. C. 1975. The birds of the Bahamas: New Providence and the Bahama Islands. New York: Taplinger Publ. Co.

90. James, D. A. and J. C. Neal. 1986. Arkansas birds: Their distribution and abundance. Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press.

91. Robbins, M. A. and D. A. Easterla. 1992. Birds of Missouri: Their distribution and abundance. Columbia: Univ. Missouri Press.

92. Sibley, D. A. 1997. Birds of Cape May. 2nd ed. Cape May Point: New Jersey Audubon Soc.

93. Peterjohn, B. G. 2001. The birds of Ohio with breeding bird atlas maps. Wooster, OH: Wooster Book Company.

94. Veit, R. R. and W. R. Petersen. 1993. The birds of Massachusetts. Lincoln, MA: Massachussetts Audubon Society.

95. Union, South Dakota Ornithologists'. 1991. The birds of South Dakota, 2nd. Aberdeen: S. Dakota Ornithol. Union.

96. Gilligan, J., D. Rogers, M. Smith and A. Contreras. 1994. Birds of Oregon: status and distribution. McMinnville, OR: Cinclus Publ.

97. Semenchuk, G. P. 1992. The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Edmonton: Fed. Alberta Nat.

98. Graber, R. R., J. W. Graber and E. L. Kirk. 1974. Illinois birds: Tyrannidae. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes no. 86.

99. Cooper, N. W., M. T. Murphy and L. J. Redmond. 2009. Age- and sex-dependent spring arrival dates of Eastern Kingbirds. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 80 (1):35-41.

100. Zelt, J., R. L. Deleon, A. Arab, K. Laurent and J. W. Snodgrass. 2017. Long-term trends in avian migration timing for the state of New York. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 129 (2):271-282.

101. Sprunt, Jr., A. 1954c. Florida birdlife. New York: Coward-McCann.

102. Leck, C. F. 1972c. The impact of some North American migrants at fruiting trees in Panama. Auk no. 89:842-850.

103. Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1980b. "Wintering of North American tyrant flycatchers in the Neotropics." In Migrant birds in the Neotropics: ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 67-78. Washington D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

104. Baumgartner, E. M. and A. M. Baumgartner. 1992. Oklahoma bird life. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

105. Bowman, R., P. W. Smith and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1995. First winter record of an Eastern Kingbird in Florida. Florida Field Naturalist no. 23 (3):62-64.

106. Conover, P. E. 2000. Late breeding and early winter records of Eastern Kingbird in Leon County, Florida. Florida Field Naturalist no. 28 (2):57-58.

107. Morton, E. S. 1980. "Adaptations to seasonal changes by migrant land birds in the Panama Canal Zone." In Migrant birds in the neotropics., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 437-456. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

108. Helm, B. and E. Gwinner. 2006. Migratory restlessness in an equatorial nonmigratory bird. PLoS Biology no. 4 (4):611-614.

109. Hespenheide, H. A. 1971. Flycatcher habitat selection in the eastern deciduous forest. Auk no. 88:61-74.

110. Stauffer, D. F. and L. B. Best. 1980. Habitat selection by birds of riparian communities evaluating effects of habitat alterations. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 44 (1):1-15.

111. Murphy, M. T., C. L. Cummings and M. S. Palmer. 1997. Comparative analysis of habitat selection, nest site and nest success by Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) and Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus). American Midland Naturalist no. 138 (2):344-356.

112. Hayward, C. L., C. Cottam, A. M. Woodbury and H. H. Frost. 1976a. Birds of Utah. Great Basin Nat. Mem. no. 1.

113. Flack, J. A. D. 1976. Bird populations of aspen forests in western North America. Ornithol. Monogr. no. 19.

114. Hamas, M. J. 1983. Nest-site selection by Eastern Kingbirds in a burned forest. Wilson Bull. no. 95:476-477.

115. Dickson, J. G., J. H. Williamson, R. N. Conner and B. Ortego. 1995b. Streamside zones and breeding birds in eastern Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 23 (4):750-755.

116. Cancellieri, S. and M. T. Murphy. 2014. Experimental analysis of nest-site choice and its relationship to nest success in an open-cup-nesting passerine. Auk no. 131 (4):539-548.

117. Best, L. B., R. C. Whitmore and G. M. Booth. 1990. Use of cornfields by birds during the breeding season: The importance of edge habitat. American Midland Naturalist no. 123 (1):84-99.

118. Jones, G. A., K. E. Sieving and S. K. Jacobson. 2005. Avian diversity and functional insectivory on north-central Florida farmlands. Conservation Biology no. 19 (4):1234-1245.

119. Puckett, H. L., J. R. Brandle, R. J. Johnson and E. E. Blankenship. 2009. Avian foraging patterns in crop field edges adjacent to woody habitat. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment no. 131 (1-2):9-15.

120. Pearson, D. L. 1980. "Bird migration in Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia." In Migrant birds in the neotropics., edited by A. Keast and E. S. Morton, 273-283. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

121. Greenberg, R. 1980b. The abundance and seasonality of forest canopy birds in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Biotropica no. 13:241-251.

122. Alcorn, J. R. 1988. The birds of Nevada. Fallon, NV: Fairview West Publ.

123. Wetmore, A. 1958. Extralimital records for the Eastern Kingbird, Tree Swallow, and Blackpoll Warbler. Auk no. 75:467-468.

124. Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim and A. L. Nelson. 1951. American wildlife and plants: a guide to wildlife food habits: the use of trees, shrubs, weeds, and herbs by birds and mammals of the United States. New York: Dover Publ. Inc.

125. Murphy, M. T. 1987. The impact of weather on kingbird foraging behavior. Condor no. 89:721-730.

126. Kannan, R. and D. A. James. 2011. Foraging behavior of three sympatric and congeneric Tyrannid flycatchers (Tyrannus spp.) in western Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science no. 65:169-172.

127. Via, J. W. 1979. "Foraging tactics of flycatchers in southwestern Virginia." In The role of insectivorous birds in forest ecosystems., edited by J. G. Dickson and et al, 191-202. NY: Academic Press.

128. Best, L. B. 1983a. Bird use of fencerows: implications of contemporary fencerow management practice. Wildl. Soc. Bull. no. 11:343-347.

129. Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1980a. Foraging behavior of Neotropical tyrant flycatchers. Condor no. 82 (1):43-57.

130. Beal, F. E. 1912. Food of our important flycatchers. Biol. Surv. Bull. no. 44.

131. Dick, J. A. and J. D. Rising. 1965. Comparison of foods eaten by Eastern and Western kingbirds in Kansas. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. Newsletter no. 16:23-24.

132. Kennedy, C. H. 1950. The relation of American dragonfly-eating birds to their prey. Ecol. Monogr., Durham N.C. no. 20:pp. 103-142.

133. Stapanian, M. A. 1982. A model for fruiting display: seed dispersal by birds for mulberry trees. Ecology no. 63:1432-1443.

134. Sealy, S. G. and R. C. Bazin. 1995. Low frequency of observed cowbird parasitism on eastern kingbirds: host rejection, effective nest defense, or parasite avoidance? Behav. Ecol. no. 6:140-145.

135. Yarbrough, C. G. 1971. The influence of distribution and ecology on the thermoregulation of small birds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. no. 39A:235-266.

136. Pieplow, N. (2017). Peterson field guide to bird sounds of eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, NY, USA.

137. Mayer, W. S. 1952. The mating song of the Eastern Kingbird. Passenger Pigeon no. 14 (3):91-94.

138. Stokes, D. W. 1979. A guide to the behavior of common birds. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

139. Saranathan, V., D. Hamilton, G. V. N. Powell, D. E. Kroodsma and R. O. Prum. 2007. Genetic evidence supports song learning in the Three-wattled Bellbird Procnias tricarunculata (Cotingidae). Molecular Ecology no. 16 (17):3689-3702.

140. Neudorf, D. L. and S. G. Sealy. 1994. Sunrise nest attentiveness in cowbird hosts. Condor no. 96:162-169.

141. Hayes, P. A. and R. J. Robertson. 1989. The impact of male parental care on female Eastern Kingbird reproductive success. Wilson Bull. no. 101:462-467.

142. Cooper, N. W., M. T. Murphy, L. J. Redmond and A. C. Dolan. 2009. Density-dependent age at first reproduction in the Eastern Kingbird. Oikos no. 118 (3):413-419.

143. Blancher, P. J. and R. J. Robertson. 1985b. Predation in relation to spacing of kingbird nests. Auk no. 102:654-658.

144. Graber, R. R. and J. W. Graber. 1963. A comparative study of bird populations in Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956-1958. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. no. 28 (3):383-528.

145. Shugart, Jr., H. H. and D. James. 1973. Ecological succession of breeding bird populations in northwestern Arkansas. Auk no. 90:62-77.

146. Odum, E. P. and E. J. Kuenzler. 1955. Measurement of territory and home range size in birds. Auk no. 72:128-137.

147. Murphy, M. T. 2014. Survival, longevity, and breeding dispersal by Eastern Kingbirds in central New York. Kingbird no. 64 (4):290-300.

148. Redmond, L. J. and M. T. Murphy. 2012. Using complementary approaches to estimate survival of juvenile and adult Eastern Kingbirds. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 83 (3):247-259.

149. Dolan, A. C., M. T. Murphy, L. J. Redmond and D. Duffield. 2009. Maternal characteristics and the production and recruitment of sons in the Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 63 (10):1527-1537.

150. Mckitrick, M. C. 1990. Genetic evidence for multiple parentage in Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. no. 26:149-155.

151. Murphy, M. T. 1996b. Survivorship, breeding dispersal and mate fidelity in Eastern Kingbirds. Condor no. 98:82-92.

152. Mackenzie, D. I. and S. G. Sealy. 1981. Nest site selection in Eastern and Western Kingbirds: a multivariate approach. Condor no. 83:310-312.

153. Konrad, P. M. and D. S. Gilmer. 1982. Nesting associations between passerines and birds of prey in central North Dakota. Condor no. 84:343.

154. Bragg, M. B. 1968. Kingbird feeding Baltimore Oriole nestlings. Auk no. 85:321.

155. Redmond, L. J., M. T. Murphy and A. C. Dolan. 2007. Nest reuse by Eastern Kingbirds: Adaptive behavior or ecological constraint? Condor no. 109 (2):463-468.[463:nrbeka];2

156. Blancher, P. J. and R. J. Robertson. 1982b. Kingbird aggression: does it deter predation? Anim. Behav. no. 30:929-930.

157. Siderius, J. A. 1993. Nest defense in relation to nesting stage and response of parents to repeated model presentations in the Eastern Kingbird (Tyranus tyrannus). Auk no. 110:921-923.

158. Nelson, R. W. 1968c. Nest-robbing by Cooper's Hawks. Auk no. 85:696-697.

159. Downhower, J. F. 1976. Darwin's finches and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size. Nature no. 263:558-563.

160. Murphy, M. T. 2004. Intrapopulation variation in reproduction by female Eastern Kingbirds Tyrannus tyrannus: The impacts of age, individual performance, and breeding site. Journal of Avian Biology no. 35 (3):252-261.

161. Lessels, C. M. and P. T. Boag. 1987. Unrepeatable repeatabilities: a common mistake. Auk no. 104:116-121.

162. Blancher, P. J. and R. J. Robertson. 1982a. A double-brooded Eastern Kingbird. Wilson Bull. no. 94:212-213.

163. Mayfield, H. 1952. Nesting-height preference of the Eastern Kingbird. Wilson Bull. no. 64 (3):160.

164. Cancellieri, S. and M. T. Murphy. 2013. Experimental examination of nest reuse by an open-cup-nesting passerine: Time/energy savings or nest site shortage? Animal Behaviour no. 85 (6):1287-1294.

165. Murphy, M. T. 1985b. Nestling Eastern Kingbird growth: effects of initial size and ambient temperature. Ecology no. 66:162-170.

166. Murphy, M. T. 1989. Life-history variability in North American breeding tyrant flycachers: phylogeny, size or ecology? Oikos no. 54 (1):3-14.

167. Bischoff, C. M. and M. T. Murphy. 1993. The detection of and responses to experimental intraspecific brood parasitism in Eastern Kingbirds. Anim. Behav. no. 45:631-638.

168. Glooschenko, V., P. Blancher, J. Herskowitz, R. Fulthorpe and S. Rang. 1986. Association of wetland acidity with reproductive parameters and insect prey of the Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) near Sudbury, Ontario. Water Air and Soil Pollution no. 30 (3-4):553-567.

169. Peck, G. K. and R. D. James. 1987. Breeding birds of Ontario: Nidiology and distribution. Vol. 2. Passerines. Toronto: Misc. Publ. Roy. Ont. Mus.

170. Rothstein, S. I. 1973c. Variation in the incidence of hatching failure in the Cedar Waxwing and other species. Condor no. 75:164-169.

171. Dyer, M. 1974. Patterns of foraging by a pair of Eastern Kingbirds. Can. Field-Nat. no. 88:482-483.

172. Rothstein, S. I. 1975a. An experimental and teleonomic investigation of avian brood parasitism. Condor no. 77:250-271.

173. Friedmann, H., L. F. Kiff and S. I. Rothstein. 1977. A further contribution to knowledge of the host relations of the parasitic cowbirds. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology no. 235:1-75.

174. Robertson, R. J. and R. F. Norman. 1976. Behavioral defenses to brood parasitism by potential hosts of the Brown-headed Cowbird. Condor no. 78:166-173.

175. Murphy, M. T. 1986b. Brood parasitism of Eastern Kingbirds by Brown-headed Cowbirds. Auk no. 103:626-628.

176. Bazin, R. C. and S. G. Sealy. 1993. Experiments on the responses of a rejector species to threats of predation and cowbird parasitism. Ethology no. 94:326-338.

177. Murphy, M. T. 2007. Lifetime reproductive success of female Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus): Influence of lifespan, nest predation, and body size. Auk no. 124 (3):1010-1022.[1010:lrsofe];2

178. Lebreton, J. D., K. P. Burnham, J. Clobert and D. R. Anderson. 1992. Modeling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies. Ecol. Monogr. no. 62:67-118.

179. Redmond, L. J. and M. T. Murphy. 2011. Multistate mark-recapture analysis reveals no effect of blood sampling on survival and recapture of Eastern Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannus). Auk no. 128 (3):514-521.

180. Ford, H. G. 1959. Boydaia tyrannis n. sp. (Acarina, Speleognathidae), a new mite from the nasal cavity of the Eastern Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus (Linnaeus). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society no. 78 (4):379-385.

181. Ashley, E. P. and J. R. Robinson. 1996. Road mortality of amphibians, reptiles and other wildlife on the Long Point causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. no. 110:403-412.

182. Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski, Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Link (2017). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. Version 2.07.2017. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.

183. Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton and T. Will. 2016. Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continential United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.

184. Rodewald, P. G., M. B. Shumar, A. T. Boone, D. L. Slager, and J. S. McCormac. 2016. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Ohio. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA. 600 pp.

185. Wilson, A. M., D. W. Brauning and R. S. Mulvihill. 2012. Second atlas of breeding birds in Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press.

186. Stewart, R. E. and H. A. Kantrud. 1972. Population estimates of breeding birds in North Dakota. Auk no. 89 (4):766-788.

187. McGowan, K. J. and K. Corwin. 2008. The second atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Ithaca: Comstock/Cornell University Press.

188. Renfrew, R. B. 2013b. The second atlas of breeding birds of Vermont. Lebanon: University Press of New England.

189. Ellison, W. G. 2010b. 2nd atlas of the breeding birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

190. Murphy, M. T. 2001. Source-sink dynamics of a declining Eastern Kingbird population and the value of sink habitats. Conservation Biology no. 15 (3):737-748.

191. Mora, M. A. and S. E. Wainwright. 1998. DDE, mercury, and selenium in biota, sediments, and water of the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin, 1965-1995. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 158:1-52.

192. Fyfe, R. W., U. Banasch, V. Benavides, N. H. Debenavides, A. Luscombe and J. Sanchez. 1990. Organochlorine residues in potential prey of Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, in Latin America. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 104 (2):285-292.

193. Mora, M. A., J. L. Sericano and C. Baxter. 2012. Swallows as indicators of environmental pollution of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin: Are persistent organic pollutants a concern? Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 62 (3):512-518.

194. Gelb, Y. and N. Delacretaz. 2006. Avian window strike mortality at an urban office building. Kingbird no. 56 (3):190-198.

195. Hager, S. B., H. Trudell, K. J. McKay, S. M. Crandall and L. Mayer. 2008. Bird density and mortality at windows. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 120 (3):550-564.

196. Borden, W. C., O. M. Lockhart, A. W. Jones and M. S. Lyons. 2010. Seasonal, taxonomic, and local habitat components of bird-window collisions on an urban university campus in Cleveland, OH. Ohio Journal of Science no. 110 (3):44-52.

197. Cusa, M., D. A. Jackson and M. Mesure. 2015. Window collisions by migratory bird species: Urban geographical patterns and habitat associations. Urban Ecosystems no. 18 (4):1427-1446.

198. Murphy, M. T. 2003. Avian population trends within the evolving agricultural landscape of eastern and central United States. Auk no. 120 (1):20-34.

199. Terborgh, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone? Essays on the biology and conservation of birds that migrate to the American tropics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

200. Murphy, M. T. 1996a. "Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)." In The birds of North America, no. 253., edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington, D.C: Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA, and Am. Ornithol. Union.

201. Conrad, K. F., M. S. Warren, R. Fox, M. S. Parsons and I. P. Woiwod. 2006. Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis. Biological Conservation no. 132 (3):279-291.

202. Hallmann, C. A., R. P. B. Foppen, C. A. M. van Turnhout, H. de Kroon and E. Jongejans. 2014. Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations. Nature no. 511 (7509):341-343.

203. Vogel, G. 2017. Where have all the insects gone? Science no. 356 (6338):576-579.

Recommended Citation

Murphy, M. T. and P. Pyle. 2018. Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.