You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.
For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).
Allaire, P. N. (1976). Nesting adaptations of bluebirds on surface mined lands. Kentucky Warbler no. 52:70-72.
Allen, D. H. (1988). Home range and habitat use of eastern bluebirds on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Alström, P. and P. Colston. (1991). A Field Guide to the rare birds of Britain and Europe. London: Harper Collins.
Andrews, P. and R. Righter (1992). Colorado birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO.
Avery, J. D., P. Cassey and J. L. Lockwood. (2014). Contemporary divergence of island bird plumage. Journal of Avian Biology no. 45 (3):291-295.
Avise, J. C., J. C. Patton and C. F. Aquadro. (1980c). Evolutionary genetics of birds. I. Relationships among North American thrushes and allies. Auk no. 97:135-147.
Barrios-Miller, N. L. and L. Siefferman. (2013). Evidence that fathers, but not mothers, respond to mate and offspring coloration by favouring high-quality offspring. Animal Behaviour no. 85 (6):1377-1383.
Bart, J. (1977). Impact of human visitations on avian nesting success. Living Bird no. 16:187-192.
Beal, F. E. L. (1915). Food of the robins and bluebirds of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 171.
Becker, P. A. (1944). One season of bluebirds. Flicker no. 16:62-64.
Bednarek, R. and C. S. Davidson. (1967). Influence of spraying with carbaryl on nesting success in a sample of bird-boxes on Cape Cod in 1965. Bird-Banding no. 38:66-72.
Belser, C. G. (1981). Seasonal ethograms of the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, near Clemson, South Carolina. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Bent, A. C. (1949). Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 196.
Blake, C. H. (1954a). Death of a bluebird. Bird-Banding no. 25:59.
Bourne, W. R. P. (1957b). The breeding birds of Bermuda. Ibis no. 99:94-105.
Braman, S. C. and D. W. Pogue. (2005). Eastern Bluebird provisions nestlings with flat-headed snake. Wilson Bulletin no. 117 (1):100-101.
Buser, C. S. (1980). A time and energy budget study of the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) during the breeding season. Master's Thesis, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ.
Butcher, G. (1988). Incubation period of the eastern bluebird and the American robin. Birdscope no. 2:10-11.
Butler, A. G. (1907). The bluebird in captivity. Avicultural Magazine no. 6:50-53.
Caine, L. A. and W. R. Marion. (1991). Artificial addition of snags and nest boxes to slash pine plantations. J. Field Ornithol. no. 62:97-106.
Carlson, D. J. (1976). Bio-environmental regulation of forest insect populations. Master's Thesis, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI.
Carter, W. A. and M. D. Duggan. (2004b). "Eastern Bluebird." In Oklahoma breeding bird atlas, edited by D. L. Reinking, 326-327. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Clement, P. (2000). Thrushes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Committee, Montana Bird Distribution. (2012). P. D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 7th ed. Helena: Montana Audubon.
Cooper, C. B., M. A. Voss and B. Zivkovic. (2009). Extended laying interval of ultimate eggs of the Eastern Bluebird. Condor no. 111 (4):752-755.
Cooper, C. B., W. M. Hochachka, T. B. Phillips and A. A. Dhondt. (2006). Geographical and seasonal gradients in hatching failure in Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis reinforce clutch size trends. Ibis no. 148 (2):221-230.
Corman, T. E. (2005d). "Eastern Bluebird." In Arizona breeding bird atlas, edited by T. E. Corman and C. Wise-Gervais, 428-429. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Cornell, K. L., C. R. Kight, R. B. Burdge, A. R. Gunderson, J. K. Hubbard, A. K. Jackson, J. E. LeClerc, M. L. Pitts, J. P. Swaddle and D. A. Cristol. (2011). Reproductive success of Eastern Bluebirds (Siala sialis) on suburban golf courses. Auk no. 128 (3):577-586.
Crowell, K. L. and S. I. Rothstein. (1981). Clutch sizes and breeding strategies among Bermudan and North American passerines. Ibis no. 123:42-50.
Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.
Davis, W. H., P. J. Kalisz and R. J. Wells. (1994b). Eastern bluebirds prefer boxes containing old nests. J. Field Ornithol. no. 65:250-253.
Davis, W. H., W. C. McComb and P. N. Allaire. (1986). Nest box use by starlings: does it inhibit bluebird production? Transactions of the Kentucky Acad. Sci. no. 47:133-136.
Devlin, W. J. and G. R. Willner. (1982). Habitat preference of cavity nesting birds at Carey Run Sanctuary in Maryland. Maryland Birdlife no. 38:3-5.
DeWitt, J. C., D. S. Millsap, R. L. Yeager, S. S. Heise, D. W. Sparks and D. S. Henshel. (2006). External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry no. 25 (2):541-551.
Dhondt, A. A., T. L. Kast and P. E. Allen. (2002). Geographical differences in seasonal clutch size variation in multi-brooded bird species. Ibis no. 144 (4):646-651.
Donahue, M. W. (1939). A study of the nesting habits and development of the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis sialis (Linn.). Master's Thesis, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.
Droge, D. L., P. A. Gowaty and W. W. Weathers. (1991). Sex-biased provisioning: a test for differences in field metabolic rates of nestling eastern bluebirds. Condor no. 93:793-798.
Dunn, J. (1981). The identification of female bluebirds. Birding 13:4-11.
Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13:73-360.
Emslie, S. D. (1985b). The late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) avifauna of Little Box Elder Cave, Wyoming. Univ. of Wyoming Contrib. Geol. no. 23 (2):63-82.
Ericson, P. G. P. and U. S. Johansson (2003). Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29 (1):126-138.
Ericson, P. G. P., M. Irestedt and U. S. Johansson (2003). Evolution, biogeography, and patterns of diversification in passerine birds. Journal of Avian Biology 34 (1):3-15.
Erskine, A. J. (1992a). Atlas of breeding birds of the Maritime Provinces. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Museum.
Evans, K. E. and R. N. Conner. (1979). "Snag management." In Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds., edited by R. M. DeGraaf and K. E. Evans, 214-225. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51: U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv.
Faulkner, D. W. (2010). Birds of Wyoming. Greenwood Village: Roberts and Co.
Fiedler, D. A. (1974). The ecology of the eastern bluebird in central Minnesota. Master's Thesis, St. Cloud College, St. Cloud, MN.
Finch, B., B. Young, R. Johnson and J. C. Hall. (2012). Longleaf, as far as the eye can see. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Flanigan, A. B. (1971). Predation on snakes by eastern bluebird and brown thrasher. Wilson Bull. no. 83:441.
Forbes, S. A. (1903). The food of birds. Bull. Illinois Lab. Nat. Hist. no. 1:86-162.
Frazier, A. and V. Nolan. (1959). Communal roosting by the eastern bluebird in winter. Bird-Banding no. 30:219-226.
Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. (2000). Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Comstock/Cornell U. Press.
Gauthier, J. and Y. Aubry. (1996b). Les oiseaux nicheurs du Québec: Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs du Québec meridional. Environnment Canada, Région du Québec: Association Québécoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Sociétié Québécoise de protection des oiseaux, Service Canadien de la Faune.
Goldman, P. (1975). Hunting behavior of eastern bluebirds. Auk no. 92:798-801.
Gowaty, P. A. (1980). The origin of mating system variability and behavioral and demographic correlates of the mating system in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Phd Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Gowaty, P. A. (1981). Aggression of breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) toward their mates and models of intra- and interspecific intruders. Anim. Behav. no. 29:1013-1027.
Gowaty, P. A. (1983). Male parental care and apparent monogamy among eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Am. Nat. no. 121:149-157.
Gowaty, P. A. (1984). House sparrows kill eastern bluebirds. J Field Ornithol. no. 55:378-380.
Gowaty, P. A. (1991). Facultative manipulation of sex ratios in birds: rare or rarely observed? Curr. Ornithol. no. 8:141-171.
Gowaty, P. A. (1993). Differential dispersal, local resource competition, and sex ratio variation in birds. Am. Nat. no. 141:263-280.
Gowaty, P. A. (1996a). "Battles of the sexes and origins of monogamy." In Partnerships in birds., edited by J. L. Black, 21-52. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Gowaty, P. A. (1996b). "Field studies of parental care in birds: New data focus questions on variation in females." In Advances in the study of behaviour, edited by C. T. Snowdon and J. S. Rosenblatt. New York: Academic Press.
Gowaty, P. A. (1997). News and views: Birds face sexual discrimination. Nature no. 385:486-487.
Gowaty, P. A. and J. H. Plissner. (1997). Breeding dispersal of eastern bluebirds Sialia sialisdepends on nesting success but not on removal of old nests: an experimental study. J. Field Ornithol. no. 68:323-330.
Gowaty, P. A. and S. J. Wagner. (1988). Breeding season aggression of female and male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) to models of potential conspecific and interspecific egg dumpers. Ethology no. 78:238-250.
Gowaty, P. A. and S. P. Hubbell. (2009). Reproductive decisions under ecological constraints: It's about time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America no. 106:10017-10024.
Gowaty, P. A. and W. C. Bridges. (1991a). Behavioral, demographic, and environmental correlates of extra-pair fertilizations in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Behavor. Ecol. no. 2:339-350.
Gowaty, P. A. and W. C. Bridges. (1991b). Nestbox availability affects extra-pair fertilizations and conspecific nest parasitism in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Anim. Behav. no. 41:661-675.
Gowaty, P. A., J. H. Plissner and T. G. Williams. (1989). Behavioural correlates of uncertain parentage: mate guarding and nest guarding by eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Anim. Behav. no. 38:272-284.
Gower, C. (1936). The cause of blue color as found in the bluebird (Sialia sialis) and the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). Auk no. 53:178-185.
Graber, R. R., J. W. Graber and E. L. Kirk. (1971). Illinois birds: Turdidae. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes no. 75:1-44.
Greenberg, C. H., A. L. Tomcho, J. D. Lanham, T. A. Waldrop, J. Tomcho, R. J. Phillips and D. Simon. (2007a). Short-term effects of fire and other fuel reduction treatments on breeding birds in a southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 71 (6):1906-1916.
Hamon, J. H. (1964). "Osteology and paleontology of the passerine birds of the reddick, Florida, Pleistocene." In Forida Geological Survey Bulletin. Tallahassee: Florida Geol. Survey.
Hardin, K. I. and K. E. Evans. (1977). Cavity nesting bird habitat in the oak-hickory forest: a review. Springfield, VA: U.S. For. Serv.
Harrison, C. J. O. (1978a). A Field Guide to the nests, eggs and nestlings of North American birds. Toronto: Collins.
Hartshorne, J. M. (1962). Behavior of the eastern bluebird at the nest. Living Bird no. 1:131-149.
Hensley, R. C. and K. G. Smith. (1986). Eastern bluebird responses to nocturnal black rat snake nest predation. Wilson Bull. no. 98:602-603.
Horn, M. Van and B. R. Bacon. (1989). Eastern bluebird productivity and habitat preference on managed wildlife lands in west central Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon no. 51:255-259.
Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.
Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635-653.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206-210.
Howell, T. R. (1965). New subspecies of birds from the lowland pine savanna of northeastern Nicaragua. Auk no. 82:438-464.
Huggins, R. A. (1941). Egg temperatures of wild birds under natural conditions. Ecology no. 22:148-157.
Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1-31.
Huntsman, B. O. and G. Ritchison. (2002). Use and possible functions of large song repertoires by male Eastern Bluebirds. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 73 (4):372-378.
Hurst, G. A. (1983). "Use of nesting boxes on young loblolly pine plantations." In Snag habitat management, 155-158. USDA Forest Service.
James, D. A. and J. C. Neal. (1986). Arkansas birds: Their distribution and abundance. Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press.
Janssen, R. B. (1987). Birds in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Kaufman, K. (1992c). The practiced eye: bluebirds. Am. Birds no. 46:159-162.
Kendeigh, S. C. (1952). Parental care and its evolution in birds. Illinois Biol. Monogr. no. 18:1-356.
Kibler, L. F. (1968). Collyriclum faba: a challenge to banders. EBBA News no. 31:257-262.
Kight, C. R. and J. P. Swaddle. (2007). Associations of anthropogenic activity and disturbance with fitness metrics of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Biological Conservation no. 138 (1-2):189-197.
Kight, C. R., M. S. Saha and J. P. Swaddle. (2012). Anthropogenic noise is associated with reductions in the productivity of breeding Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Ecological Applications no. 22 (7):1989-1996.
Kiviat, E. (1982). Eastern bluebird remote natural nest sites. Kingbird no. 32:6-8.
Klicka, J. and R. M. Zink. (1997). The importance of recent ice ages in speciation: A failed paradigm. Science no. 277 (5332):1666-1669.
Klicka, J., G. Voelker and G. M. Spellman. (2005). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the "true thrushes" (Aves : Turdinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 34 (3):486-500.
Krieg, D. C. (1964). Bluebird nestbox project. Kingbird no. 14:26-27.
Krieg, D. C. (1965). A preliminary report on the breeding season of Sialia sialis and Iridoprocne bicolor. Master's Thesis, St. Bonaventure Univ., St. Bonaventure, NY.
Krieg, D. C. (1971). The behavioral patterns of the Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis). N.Y. State Mus., Sci. Serv. Bull. no. 415.
Krueger, H. (1989b). Bluebird hatched and raised by chickadee. N. Am. Bird Bander no. 14:101-102.
Kruger, S. M. (1985a). Nest site selection of eastern bluebirds in Wisconsin and productivity of the eastern bluebird in Wisconsin. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
Kruger, S. M. (1985b). Productivity and nest-site selection of eastern bluebirds in Wisconsin. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.
Laskey, A. R. (1939). A study of nesting eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding no. 10:23-32.
Laskey, A. R. (1943a). The nesting of bluebirds banded as nestlings. Wilson Bull. no. 14:39-43.
Laskey, A. R. (1946a). Snake depredations at bird nests. The Wilson Bulletin no. 58 (4):217-218.
LeClerc, J. E., J. P. K. Che, J. P. Swaddle and D. A. Cristol. (2005). Reproductive success and developmental stability of Eastern Bluebirds on golf courses: Evidence that golf courses can be productive. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 33 (2):483-493.
Levey, D. J., B. M. Bolker, J. J. Tewksbury, S. Sargent and N. M. Haddad. (2005). Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science no. 309:146-148.
Ligon, J. D. (1969a). Factors influencing breeding range expansion of the azure bluebird. Wilson Bull. no. 81:104-105.
Ligon, R. A. and G. E. Hill. (2009). Do adult Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis, males recognize juvenile-specific traits? Animal Behaviour no. 77 (5):1267-1272.
Liu, M., L. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2007). An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 61 (4):623-630.
Liu, M., L. Siefferman, Jr. Mays, H., J. E. Steffen and G. E. Hill. (2009). A field test of female mate preference for male plumage coloration in Eastern Bluebirds. Animal Behaviour no. 78 (4):879-885.
Lombardo, M. P. (1982). Sex ratios in the eastern bluebird. Evolution no. 36:615-617.
Low, S. H. (1934a). Bluebird studies on Cape Cod. Bird-Banding no. 5:39-41.
Lumsden, H. G. (1986a). Choice of nest boxes by Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon), Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialia), and European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Can. Field Nat. no. 100:343-349.
Lynn, S. E., L. E. Prince and M. M. Phillips. (2010). A single exposure to an acute stressor has lasting consequences for the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress in free-living birds. General and Comparative Endocrinology no. 165 (2):337-344.
MacDougall-Shackleton, E. A. and R. J. Robertson. (1998). Confidence of paternity and paternal care by Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology no. 9 (2):201-205.
Mackay, K. A. (1985). Adoption, indifference, or infanticide in replacement male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), and how females cope without male help. B.S. thesis, Queen's Univ., Toronto.
Mason, E. A. (1936). Parasitism of bird's nest by Protocalliphora at Groton, Massachusetts. Bird-Banding no. 7:112-121.
Mason, E. A. (1944). Parasitism by Protocalliphora and management of cavity-nesting birds. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 8:232-237.
Mayne, G. J., C. A. Bishop, P. A. Martin, H. J. Boermans and B. Hunter. (2005a). Thyroid function in nestling Tree Swallows and Eastern Bluebirds exposed to non-persistent pesticides and p,p '-DDE in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada. Ecotoxicology no. 14 (3):381-396.
Mayne, G. J., P. A. Martin, C. A. Bishop and H. J. Boermans. (2004a). Stress and immune responses of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p,'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry no. 23 (12):2930-2940.
Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1991). Adoption of young by replacement male birds: an experimental study of eastern bluebirds and a review. Anim. Behav. no. 42:813-820.
Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994a). Effects of male removal on the behavior and reproductive success of female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Ibis no. 136 (3):305-312.
Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994b). Interspecific competition for nestboxes affects mate guarding in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Anim. Behav. no. 47:295-302.
Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994c). Time of day of egg laying by eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bull. no. 107:377-379.
Meek, S. B., R. J. Robertson and P. T. Boag. (1994). Extrapair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in eastern bluebirds revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Auk no. 111:739-744.
Meffe, G. K. and C. R. Carroll. (1994). Principles of conservation biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Miller, K. E. (2010). Nest-site limitation of secondary cavity-nesting birds in even-age southern pine forests. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 122 (1):126-134.
Morton, E. S., M. S. Geitgey and S. McGrath. (1978). On bluebird responses to apparent female adultery. Am. Nat. no. 112:968-971.
Munro, H. L. and R. C. Rounds. (1985). Selection of artificial nest sites by five sympatric passerines. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 49:264-276.
Musselman, T. E. (1941). Bluebird mortality in 1940. Auk no. 58:409-410.
Musselman, T. E. (1946). Some interesting nest habits of the eastern bluebird. Bird-Banding no. 17:60-63.
Nash, F. P. (1942). Attempt to increase number of eggs in clutch of bluebird. Bird-Banding no. 13:121.
Navara, K. J. and E. M. Anderson. (2011). Eastern Bluebirds choose nest boxes based on box orientation. Southeastern Naturalist no. 10 (4):713-720.
Navara, K. J., L. M. Siefferman, G. E. Hill and M. T. Mendonca. (2006b). Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: An experimental study. Functional Ecology no. 20 (3):449-456.
Nice, M. M. (1931b). The birds of Oklahoma, revised edition. Publication of the Univ. Oklahoma, Biol. Sur. no. 3.
Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.
Parker, R. L. and I. D. Parker. (1950). Note on behavior of birds on a cold winter day. Auk no. 67:108.
Parks, R. A. (1948). Male bluebird antagonistic to nest building. Oriole no. 13:9.
Parmalee, P. W. (1967a). A recent cave bone deposit in southwestern Illinois. Bull. Natl. Speleol. Soc. no. 29 (4):119-147.
Patterson, S. (1969). Nesting box utilization by the Eastern Bluebird and the House Wren 1968. Iowa Bird Life no. 39 (3):55-58.
Peakall, D. B. (1970). The eastern bluebird: its breeding season, clutch size, and nesting success. Living Bird no. 9:239-256.
Pence, D. B. (1972a). The genus Oxyspirura (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) from birds in Louisiana. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. no. 39:23-28.
Pence, D. B. (1973). The Nasal Mites of Birds from Louisiana. IX. Synopsis. The Journal of Parasitology 59:881.
Peterjohn, B. G. (1989b). The birds of Ohio. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press.
Peters, H. S. (1936). A list of external parasites from birds of the eastern part of the United States. Bird-Banding no. 7:9-27.
Pettingill, O. S. (1936b). Breeding behavior of bluebirds. Auk no. 53:86-87.
Phillips, A. R. (1991). The known birds of North and Middle America, Part II: Bombycillidae; Sylviidae to Sturnidae; Vireonidae. A. R. Phillips, Denver, CO, USA.
Phillips, A. R., J. T. Marshall, Jr., and G. B. Monson (1964). The Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.
Pierson, T. A. and P. F. Scanlon. (1986). Use of fencepost cavities by nesting eastern bluebirds in southwestern Virginia. Wilson Bull. no. 98:479-482.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1971a). An analysis of banding recovery data on eastern bluebirds in Michigan and three neighboring states. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 49:33-50.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1971b). Some observations on the vocalizations of the eastern bluebird. Bird-Banding no. 42:20-27.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974a). A comparative study of the behavioral and breeding ecology of the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). Ph.D. thesis, Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974b). A note on familial longevity in eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding no. 45:363-364.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974c). Cowbird parasitism of a blue nest. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 52:45.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974d). Criteria for sexing eastern bluebirds in juvenile plumage. Inland Bird Banding News no. 46:88-91.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974e). Predation on a shrew by an eastern bluebird. Wilson Bull. no. 86:83.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974f). Prolonged incubation record for an eastern bluebird. Inland Bird Banding News no. 46:15-19.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1974g). The eastern bluebird pair bond: comments and calculations. Inland Bird Banding News no. 37:107-110.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1975a). A summary and key for determining causes of nesting failures in eastern bluebirds using nest boxes. Inland Bird Banding News no. 47:179-186.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1975b). Growth and development of eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding no. 46:273-28.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1975d). Yearling male Eastern Bluebird assists parents in feeding young. Auk no. 92:801-802.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1976c). First Michigan record of the trematode Colluriclum faba on an eastern bluebird. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 54:41.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1976d). Further observations on a family of eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding no. 47:160-161.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1976e). Photoperiodic effects on the postjuvenal molt of the eastern bluebird. Ohio J. Science no. 76:268-273.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1976f). Use of tree cavities by nesting eastern bluebirds. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 40:556-563.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1977a). Blowfly parasitism of eastern bluebirds in natural and artificial nest sites. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 41:272-276.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1977b). Breeding adaptations in the Eastern Bluebird. Condor no. 79 (3):289-302.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1977c). Foraging behavior of the eastern bluebird. Wilson Bull. no. 89:404-414.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1978a). Feeding of nestling and fledgling eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bull. no. 90:84-98.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1978b). Two successive male eastern bluebirds tending the same nest. Auk no. 95:606-608.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1979a). Annual productivity and its measurement in a multi-brooded passerine, the eastern bluebird. Auk no. 96:562-572.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1979b). Effect of nesting history on egg size in eastern bluebirds. Condor no. 81:210.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1979c). Effects of a severe winter on a breeding population of eastern bluebirds. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 57:9-12.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1979e). Nest site selection in eastern bluebirds. Condor no. 81:435-436.
Pinkowski, B. C. (1979f). Time budget and incubation rhythm of the eastern bluebird. Am. Midl. Nat. no. 101:427-433.
Pitts, T. D. (1977a). Do eastern bluebirds and house sparrows prefer nest boxes with white or black interiors? Bird-Banding no. 48:75-76.
Pitts, T. D. (1977b). Eastern bluebird mortality at winter roosts in Tennessee. Bird-Banding no. 49:77-78.
Pitts, T. D. (1978a). Foods of eastern bluebird nestlings in northwest Tennessee. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. no. 53:136-139.
Pitts, T. D. (1981). Eastern bluebird population fluctuations in Tennessee during 1970-1979. Migrant no. 52:29-37.
Pitts, T. D. (1985a). Identification of second-year and after-second-year eastern bluebirds. J. Field Ornithol. no. 56:422-424.
Pitts, T. D. (1988). Effects of nest box size on eastern bluebird nests. J. Field Ornithol. no. 59:309-313.
Pitts, T. D. and M. P. Martin. (1989). Changes in eastern bluebird egg shells during incubation. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. no. 64:55.
Plissner, J. H. (1994). Proximate causes of female-biased natal dispersal in eastern bluebirds. Phd Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1988). Evidence of reproductive error in adoption of nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Auk no. 105:575-578.
Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1995). Eastern Bluebirds are attracted to 2-box sites. Wilson Bulletin no. 107 (2):289-295.
Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1996). Patterns of natal dispersal, turnover, and dispersal costs in eastern bluebirds. Anim. Behav. no. 51:1307-1322.
Plissner, J. H., S. J. Wagner and P. A. Gowaty. (1995). Reliability of aging criteria by feather characteristics of eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. J. Field Ornithol. no. 65:504-507.
Preston, F. W. and J. McCormick. (1948). The eyesight of the bluebird. Wilson Bull. no. 60:120-121.
Price, J. P., S. Droege and A. Price. (1995). The summer atlas of North American birds. New York: Academic Press.
Pulliam, H. R. (1988). Sources, sinks, and population regulation. Am. Nat. no. 132:652-661.
Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.
Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22:49-89.
Radunzel, L. A., D. M. Muschitz, V. M. Bauldry and P. Arcese. (1997a). A long-term study of the breeding success of Eastern Bluebirds by year and cavity type. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 68 (1):7-18.
Reid, S. (1884). The birds of Bermuda. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus.:163-279.
Rendell, W. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1990). Influence of forest edge on nest-site selection by Tree Swallows. Wilson Bull. no. 102:634-644.
Ridgway, R. (1907). The birds of North and Middle America. Part 4. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum 50 (4):1-973.
Ripley, S. D. (1964a). "Family Turdidae." In Check-list of birds of the world, edited by E. Mayr and Jr R. A. Paynter, 13-227. Cambridge, MA: Mus. Comp. Zool.
Robbins, C. S., and E. A. T. Blom (1996). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Robbins, M. B., and D. A. Easterla. (1992). Birds of Missouri: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, USA.
Robertson, W. B., Jr., and G. E. Woolfenden (1992). Florida Bird Species: An Annotated List. Florida Ornithological Society Special Publication no. 6.
Rohwer, S. 1986. Selection for adoption versus infanticide by replacement "mates" in birds. In Current Ornithology, edited by R. F. Johnston. New York: Plenum Press.
Root, T. R. (1988). Atlas of wintering North American birds: an analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Rounds, R. C. and H. L. Munro. (1982). A review of hybridization between Sialia sialis and S. currucoides. Wilson Bull. no. 94:219-223.
Rounds, R. C. and H. L. Munro. (1983). Brood size of eastern and mountain bluebirds in Manitoba. J. Field Ornithol. no. 54:304-311.
Rustad, O. A. (1972a). An eastern bluebird nesting study in south central Minnesota. Loon no. 44:80-84.
Sauer, J. R. and S. Droege. (1990a). Recent population trends of the eastern bluebird. Wilson Bull. no. 102:239-252.
Savereno, A. J. (1991). Seasonal home ranges of the habitat use by eastern bluebirds. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Semenchuk, G. P. (1992). The atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Edmonton: Fed. Alberta Nat.
Shawkey, M. D., A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2003). Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colours. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences no. 270 (1523):1455-1460.
Shawkey, M. D., A. M. Estes, L. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2005). The anatomical basis of sexual dichromatism in non-iridescent ultraviolet-blue structural coloration of feathers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society no. 84 (2):259-271.
Shawkey, M. D., S. L. Balenger, G. E. Hill, L. S. Johnson, A. J. Keyser and L. Siefferman. (2006a). Mechanisms of evolutionary change in structural plumage coloration among bluebirds (Sialia spp.). Journal of the Royal Society Interface no. 3 (9):527-532.
Shawkey, M. D., S. R. Pillai, G. E. Hill, L. M. Siefferman and S. R. Roberts. (2007). Bacteria as an agent for change in structural plumage color: Correlational and experimental evidence. American Naturalist no. 169 (1):S112-S121.
Sibley, C. G. and J. E. Ahlquist. (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
Sibley, D. A. (1997). Birds of Cape May. 2nd ed. Cape May Bird Observatory, New Jersey Audubon Society.
Siefferman, L. (2006). Egg coloration and recognition of conspecific brood parasitism in Eastern Bluebirds. Ethology no. 112 (9):833-838.
Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2003). Structural and melanin coloration indicate parental effort and reproductive success in male Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology no. 14 (6):855-861.
Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005a). Blue structural coloration of male Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis predicts incubation provisioning to females. Journal of Avian Biology no. 36 (6):488-493.
Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005b). Evidence for sexual selection on structural plumage coloration in female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Evolution no. 59 (8):1819-1828.
Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005c). Male Eastern Bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment. Biology Letters no. 1 (2):208-211.
Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2007). The effect of rearing environment on blue structural coloration of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 61 (12):1839-1846.
Siefferman, L., G. E. Hill and F. S. Dobson. (2005). Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis. Journal of Avian Biology no. 36 (5):428-435.
Siefferman, L., K. J. Navara and G. E. Hill. (2006). Egg coloration is correlated with female condition in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 59 (5):651-656.
Siefferman, L., M. Liu, K. J. Navara, M. T. Mendonca and G. E. Hill. (2013). Effect of prenatal and natal administration of testosterone on production of structurally based plumage coloration. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology no. 86 (3):323-332.
Smith, A. R. (1996b). Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Saskatoon Natural History Society Special Publications no. 22, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Sprunt, A. (1946a). Unusual nesting of two birds in South Carolina. Auk no. 63:94-95.
Stanback, M. T. and A. A. Dervan. (2001). Within-season nest-site fidelity in Eastern Bluebirds: Disentangling effects of nest success and parasite avoidance. Auk no. 118 (3):743-745.
Stanback, M. T. and E. K. Rockwell. (2003). Nest-site fidelity in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) depends on the quality of alternate cavities. Auk no. 120 (4):1029-1032.
Stanback, M. T. and M. L. Seifert. (2005). A comparison of Eastern Bluebird reproductive parameters in golf and rural habitats. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 33 (2):471-482.
Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Stokstad, E. (2005). Ecology - Flying on the edge: Bluebirds make use of habitat corridors. Science no. 309 (5731):35.
Stone, W. (1896). The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. no. 43:108-164.
Swann, W. J. (1982). The bluebird. Monthly Bull. Bermuda Dept. Agr. Fish. no. 53:56-58.
Tardell, J. H. and P. D. Doerr. (1982). Black bear damage to bluebird nest boxes in southeastern North Carolina. J. Wildl. Manag. no. 46:244-246.
Thomas, R. H. (1946a). A study of eastern bluebirds in Arkansas. Wilson Bull. no. 58:143-183.
Veit, R. R., and W. R. Petersen. (1993). The Birds of Massachusetts. Massachussetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA, USA.
Verner, J. and M. F. Willson. (1969). Mating systems, sexual dimorphism, and the role of male North American passerine birds in the nesting cycle. Ornithol. Monogr. no. 9.
Waring, M. M. (1912). Bluebirds vs. wrens. Bird-Lore no. 14:293-294.
Webster, J. D. (1973b). Middle American races of the eastern bluebird. Auk no. 90:579-590.
Webster-Prentiss, G. (1896). Notes on the birds of Bermuda. Auk no. 13:237-240.
Wittman, K. and R. C. Beason. (1992). The effect of blowfly parasitism on nestling eastern bluebird development. J. Field Ornithol. no. 63:286-293.
Woodward, P. W. and J. C. Woodward. (1979a). Brown-headed cowbird parasitism on eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bull. no. 91:321-322.
Zeleny, L. (1976). The Bluebird: How you can help its fight for survival. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press.
Zimmer, K. J. (1985). The Western birdwatcher. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.