Eastern Bluebird

Sialia sialis



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of North America. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign In

Literature Cited

Allaire, P. N. (1976). Nesting adaptations of bluebirds on surface mined lands. Kentucky Warbler 52:70-72.

Allen, D. H. (1988). Home range and habitat use of eastern bluebirds on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Andrews, P., and R. Righter (1992). Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO, USA.

Bart, J. (1977). Impact of human visitations on avian nesting success. Living Bird 16:187-192.

Beal, F. E. L. (1915). Food of the robins and bluebirds of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 171.

Becker, P. A. (1944). One season of bluebirds. Flicker 16:62-64.

Bednarek, R. and C. S. Davidson. (1967). Influence of spraying with carbaryl on nesting success in a sample of bird-boxes on Cape Cod in 1965. Bird-Banding 38:66-72.

Belser, C. G. (1981). Seasonal ethograms of the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, near Clemson, South Carolina. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Bent, A. C. (1949). Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. United States National Museum Bulletin 196.

Bourne, W. R. P. (1957b). The breeding birds of Bermuda. Ibis 99:94-105.

Buser, C. S. (1980). A time and energy budget study of the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) during the breeding season. Master's Thesis, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ.

Butcher, G. (1988). Incubation period of the eastern bluebird and the American robin. BirdScope 2:10-11.

Butler, A. G. (1907). The bluebird in captivity. Avicultural Magazine 6:50-53.

Caine, L. A. and W. R. Marion. (1991). Artificial addition of snags and nest boxes to slash pine plantations. Journal of Field Ornithology 62:97-106.

Carlson, D. J. (1976). Bio-environmental regulation of forest insect populations. Master's Thesis, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI.

Crowell, K. L. and S. I. Rothstein. (1981). Clutch sizes and breeding strategies among Bermudan and North American passerines. Ibis 123:42-50.

Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.

Davis, W. H., P. J. Kalisz and R. J. Wells. (1994b). Eastern bluebirds prefer boxes containing old nests. Journal of Field Ornithology 65:250-253.

Davis, W. H., W. C. McComb and P. N. Allaire. (1986). Nest box use by starlings: does it inhibit bluebird production? Transactions of the Kentucky Acad. Sci. 47:133-136.

Devlin, W. J. and G. R. Willner. (1982). Habitat preference of cavity nesting birds at Carey Run Sanctuary in Maryland. Maryland Birdlife 38:3-5.

Dhondt, A. A., T. L. Kast and P. E. Allen. (2002). Geographical differences in seasonal clutch size variation in multi-brooded bird species. Ibis 144 (4):646-651.

Donahue, M. W. (1939). A study of the nesting habits and development of the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis sialis (Linn.). Master's Thesis, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

Droge, D. L., P. A. Gowaty and W. W. Weathers. (1991). Sex-biased provisioning: a test for differences in field metabolic rates of nestling eastern bluebirds. Condor 93:793-798.

Dunn, J. (1981). The identification of female bluebirds. Birding 13:4-11.

Emslie, S. D. (1985b). The late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) avifauna of Little Box Elder Cave, Wyoming. Univ. of Wyoming Contrib. Geol. 23 (2):63-82.

Evans, K. E. and R. N. Conner. (1979). "Snag management." In Management of north central and northeastern forests for nongame birds., edited by R. M. DeGraaf and K. E. Evans, 214-225. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51: U.S. Dep. Agric. For. Serv.

Fiedler, D. A. (1974). The ecology of the eastern bluebird in central Minnesota. Master's Thesis, St. Cloud College, St. Cloud, MN.

Flanigan, A. B. (1971). Predation on snakes by eastern bluebird and brown thrasher. Wilson Bulletin 83:441.

Forbes, S. A. (1903). The food of birds. Bull. Illinois Lab. Nat. Hist. 1:86-162.

Frazier, A. and V. Nolan. (1959). Communal roosting by the eastern bluebird in winter. Bird-Banding 30:219-226.

Gauthier, J., and Y. Aubry (1996). Les Oiseaux Nicheurs du Québec: Atlas des Oiseaux Nicheurs du Québec Meridional. Environnment Canada, Région du Québec: Association Québécoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Sociétié Québécoise de protection des oiseaux, Service Canadien de la Faune.

Goldman, P. (1975). Hunting behavior of eastern bluebirds. Auk 92:798-801.

Gowaty, P. A. (1980). The origin of mating system variability and behavioral and demographic correlates of the mating system in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Phd Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Gowaty, P. A. (1991). Facultative manipulation of sex ratios in birds: rare or rarely observed? Current Ornithology 8:141-171.

Gowaty, P. A. (1993). Differential dispersal, local resource competition, and sex ratio variation in birds. American Naturalist 141:263-280.

Gowaty, P. A. and J. H. Plissner. (1997). Breeding dispersal of eastern bluebirds Sialia sialisdepends on nesting success but not on removal of old nests: an experimental study. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:323-330.

Gowaty, P. A. and S. J. Wagner. (1988). Breeding season aggression of female and male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) to models of potential conspecific and interspecific egg dumpers. Ethology 78:238-250.

Gowaty, P. A. and W. C. Bridges. (1991a). Behavioral, demographic, and environmental correlates of extra-pair fertilizations in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Behavor. Ecol. 2:339-350.

Gowaty, P. A. and W. C. Bridges. (1991b). Nestbox availability affects extra-pair fertilizations and conspecific nest parasitism in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Animal Behaviour 41:661-675.

Graber, R. R., J. W. Graber and E. L. Kirk. (1971). Illinois birds: Turdidae. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 75:1-44.

Hamon, J. H. (1964). "Osteology and paleontology of the passerine birds of the reddick, Florida, Pleistocene." In Forida Geological Survey Bulletin. Tallahassee: Florida Geol. Survey.

Hardin, K. I., and K. E. Evans (1977). Cavity nesting bird habitat in the oak-hickory forest: A review. U.S. Forest Service, Springfield, VA.

Harrison, C. J. O. (1978). A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Hartshorne, J. M. (1962). Behavior of the eastern bluebird at the nest. Living Bird 1:131-149.

Horn, M. Van and B. R. Bacon. (1989). Eastern bluebird productivity and habitat preference on managed wildlife lands in west central Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 51:255-259.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, NY, USA.

Howell, T. R. (1965). New subspecies of birds from the lowland pine savanna of northeastern Nicaragua. Auk 82:438-464.

Huggins, R. A. (1941). Egg temperatures of wild birds under natural conditions. Ecology 22:148-157.

Huntsman, B. O. and G. Ritchison. (2002). Use and possible functions of large song repertoires by male Eastern Bluebirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 73 (4):372-378.

Hurst, G. A. (1983). "Use of nesting boxes on young loblolly pine plantations." In Snag habitat management, 155-158. USDA Forest Service.

James, D. A., and J. C. Neal (1986). Arkansas Birds: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

Janssen, R. B. (1987). Birds in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Kaufman, K. (1992c). The practiced eye: bluebirds. American Birds 46:159-162.

Kendeigh, S. C. (1952). Parental care and its evolution in birds. Illinois Biol. Monogr. 18:1-356.

Kibler, L. F. (1968). Collyriclum faba: a challenge to banders. EBBA News 31:257-262.

Kiviat, E. (1982). Eastern bluebird remote natural nest sites. Kingbird 32:6-8.

Krieg, D. C. (1965). A preliminary report on the breeding season of Sialia sialis and Iridoprocne bicolor. Master's Thesis, St. Bonaventure Univ., St. Bonaventure, NY.

Krieg, D. C. (1971). The behavioral patterns of the Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis). N.Y. State Museum, Science Service Bulletin 415.

Krueger, H. (1989b). Bluebird hatched and raised by chickadee. North American Bird Bander 14:101-102.

Kruger, S. M. (1985a). Nest site selection of eastern bluebirds in Wisconsin and productivity of the eastern bluebird in Wisconsin. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Kruger, S. M. (1985b). Productivity and nest-site selection of eastern bluebirds in Wisconsin. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Laskey, A. R. (1939). A study of nesting eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding 10:23-32.

Laskey, A. R. (1943a). The nesting of bluebirds banded as nestlings. Wilson Bulletin 14:39-43.

Ligon, J. D. (1969a). Factors influencing breeding range expansion of the azure bluebird. Wilson Bulletin 81:104-105.

Lombardo, M. P. (1982). Sex ratios in the eastern bluebird. Evolution 36:615-617.

Low, S. H. (1934a). Bluebird studies on Cape Cod. Bird-Banding 5:39-41.

Lumsden, H. G. (1986a). Choice of nest boxes by Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon), Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialia), and European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Canadian Field-Naturalist 100:343-349.

Mason, E. A. (1936). Parasitism of bird's nest by Protocalliphora at Groton, Massachusetts. Bird-Banding 7:112-121.

Mason, E. A. (1944). Parasitism by Protocalliphora and management of cavity-nesting birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 8:232-237.

Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1991). Adoption of young by replacement male birds: an experimental study of eastern bluebirds and a review. Animal Behaviour 42:813-820.

Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994c). Time of day of egg laying by eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bulletin 107:377-379.

Meek, S. B., R. J. Robertson and P. T. Boag. (1994). Extrapair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in eastern bluebirds revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Auk 111:739-744.

Meffe, G. K. and C. R. Carroll. (1994). Principles of conservation biology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Morton, E. S., M. S. Geitgey and S. McGrath. (1978). On bluebird responses to apparent female adultery. American Naturalist 112:968-971.

Munro, H. L., and R. C. Rounds (1985). Selection of artificial nest sites by five sympatric passerines. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:264-276.

Musselman, T. E. (1941). Bluebird mortality in 1940. Auk 58:409-410.

Musselman, T. E. (1946). Some interesting nest habits of the eastern bluebird. Bird-Banding 17:60-63.

Nash, F. P. (1942). Attempt to increase number of eggs in clutch of bluebird. Bird-Banding 13:121.

Parker, R. L. and I. D. Parker. (1950). Note on behavior of birds on a cold winter day. Auk 67:108.

Parks, R. A. (1948). Male bluebird antagonistic to nest building. Oriole 13:9.

Parmalee, P. W. (1967a). A recent cave bone deposit in southwestern Illinois. Bull. Natl. Speleol. Soc. 29 (4):119-147.

Patterson, S. (1969). Nesting box utilization by the Eastern Bluebird and the House Wren 1968. Iowa Bird Life 39 (3):55-58.

Peakall, D. B. (1970). The eastern bluebird: its breeding season, clutch size, and nesting success. Living Bird 9:239-256.

Pence, D. B. (1972a). The genus Oxyspirura (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) from birds in Louisiana. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 39:23-28.

Pence, D. B. (1973). The Nasal Mites of Birds from Louisiana. IX. Synopsis. Journal of Parasitology 59:881. https://doi.org/10.2307/3278429

Peterjohn, B. G. (1989). The Birds of Ohio. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Peters, H. S. (1936). A list of external parasites from birds of the eastern part of the United States. Bird-Banding 7:9-27.

Phillips, A. R. (1991). The known birds of North and Middle America, Part II: Bombycillidae; Sylviidae to Sturnidae; Vireonidae. A. R. Phillips, Denver, CO, USA.

Phillips, A. R., J. T. Marshall, Jr., and G. B. Monson (1964). The Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Pierson, T. A. and P. F. Scanlon. (1986). Use of fencepost cavities by nesting eastern bluebirds in southwestern Virginia. Wilson Bulletin 98:479-482.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1971a). An analysis of banding recovery data on eastern bluebirds in Michigan and three neighboring states. Jack Pine Warbler  49:33-50.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1971b). Some observations on the vocalizations of the eastern bluebird. Bird-Banding 42:20-27.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974a). A comparative study of the behavioral and breeding ecology of the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). Ph.D. thesis, Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974b). A note on familial longevity in eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding 45:363-364.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974c). Cowbird parasitism of a blue nest. Jack Pine Warbler  52:45.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974d). Criteria for sexing eastern bluebirds in juvenile plumage. Inland Bird Banding News 46:88-91.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974e). Predation on a shrew by an eastern bluebird. Wilson Bulletin 86:83.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974f). Prolonged incubation record for an eastern bluebird. Inland Bird Banding News 46:15-19.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1975). Yearling male Eastern Bluebird assists parents in feeding young. Auk 92:801-802.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1975b). Growth and development of eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding 46:273-28.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1976c). First Michigan record of the trematode Colluriclum faba on an eastern bluebird. Jack Pine Warbler  54:41.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1976d). Further observations on a family of eastern bluebirds. Bird-Banding 47:160-161.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1976f). Use of tree cavities by nesting eastern bluebirds. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:556-563.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1977a). Blowfly parasitism of eastern bluebirds in natural and artificial nest sites. Journal of Wildlife Management 41:272-276.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1977b). Breeding adaptations in the Eastern Bluebird. Condor 79 (3):289-302.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1977c). Foraging behavior of the eastern bluebird. Wilson Bulletin 89:404-414.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1978a). Feeding of nestling and fledgling eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bulletin 90:84-98.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1978b). Two successive male eastern bluebirds tending the same nest. Auk 95:606-608.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1979a). Annual productivity and its measurement in a multi-brooded passerine, the eastern bluebird. Auk 96:562-572.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1979b). Effect of nesting history on egg size in eastern bluebirds. Condor 81:210.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1979e). Nest site selection in eastern bluebirds. Condor 81:435-436.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1979f). Time budget and incubation rhythm of the eastern bluebird. American Midland Naturalist 101:427-433.

Pitts, T. D. (1977a). Do eastern bluebirds and house sparrows prefer nest boxes with white or black interiors? Bird-Banding 48:75-76.

Pitts, T. D. (1977b). Eastern bluebird mortality at winter roosts in Tennessee. Bird-Banding 49:77-78.

Pitts, T. D. (1978a). Foods of eastern bluebird nestlings in northwest Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 53:136-139.

Pitts, T. D. (1985a). Identification of second-year and after-second-year eastern bluebirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 56:422-424.

Pitts, T. D. (1988). Effects of nest box size on eastern bluebird nests. Journal of Field Ornithology 59:309-313.

Pitts, T. D. and M. P. Martin. (1989). Changes in eastern bluebird egg shells during incubation. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 64:55.

Plissner, J. H. (1994). Proximate causes of female-biased natal dispersal in eastern bluebirds. Phd Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1988). Evidence of reproductive error in adoption of nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Auk 105:575-578.

Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1996). Patterns of natal dispersal, turnover, and dispersal costs in eastern bluebirds. Animal Behaviour 51:1307-1322.

Preston, F. W. and J. McCormick. (1948). The eyesight of the bluebird. Wilson Bulletin 60:120-121.

Pulliam, H. R. (1988). Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132:652-661.

Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

Radunzel, L. A., D. M. Muschitz, V. M. Bauldry and P. Arcese. (1997a). A long-term study of the breeding success of Eastern Bluebirds by year and cavity type. Journal of Field Ornithology 68 (1):7-18.

Reid, S. (1884). The birds of Bermuda. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus.:163-279.

Rendell, W. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1990). Influence of forest edge on nest-site selection by Tree Swallows. Wilson Bulletin 102:634-644.

Robbins, C. S., and E. A. T. Blom (1996). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Robbins, M. B., and D. A. Easterla (1992). Birds of Missouri: Their Distribution and Abundance. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, USA.

Robertson, W. B., Jr., and G. E. Woolfenden (1992). Florida Bird Species: An Annotated List. Florida Ornithological Society Special Publication 6.

Rohwer, S. 1986. Selection for adoption versus infanticide by replacement "Mates" in birds. In Current Ornithology, edited by R. F. Johnston. New York: Plenum Press.

Rustad, O. A. (1972a). An eastern bluebird nesting study in south central Minnesota. Loon 44:80-84.

Savereno, A. J. (1991). Seasonal home ranges of the habitat use by eastern bluebirds. Master's Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Sibley, D. A. (1997). Birds of Cape May, second edition. Cape May Bird Observatory, New Jersey Audubon Society, Cape May, NJ, USA.

Smith, A. R. (1996). Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Saskatchewan Natural History Society Special Publications 22, Regina, SK, Canada.

Sprunt, A. (1946a). Unusual nesting of two birds in South Carolina. Auk 63:94-95.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Swann, W. J. (1982). The bluebird. Monthly Bull. Bermuda Dept. Agr. Fish. 53:56-58.

Thomas, R. H. (1946a). A study of eastern bluebirds in Arkansas. Wilson Bulletin 58:143-183.

Veit, R. R., and W. R. Petersen (1993). The Birds of Massachusetts. Massachussetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA, USA.

Webster, J. D. (1973b). Middle American races of the eastern bluebird. Auk 90:579-590.

Webster-Prentiss, G. (1896). Notes on the birds of Bermuda. Auk 13:237-240.

Wittman, K. and R. C. Beason. (1992). The effect of blowfly parasitism on nestling eastern bluebird development. Journal of Field Ornithology 63:286-293.

Woodward, P. W. and J. C. Woodward. (1979a). Brown-headed cowbird parasitism on eastern bluebirds. Wilson Bulletin 91:321-322.

Zeleny, L. (1976). The Bluebird: How you can help its fight for survival. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press.

Zimmer, K. J. (1985). The Western birdwatcher. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Additional References

Alström, P., and P. Colston. (1991). A Field Guide to the Rare Birds of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London, United Kingdom.

Avery, J. D., P. Cassey and J. L. Lockwood. (2014). Contemporary divergence of island bird plumage. Journal of Avian Biology 45 (3):291-295.

Avise, J. C., J. C. Patton and C. F. Aquadro. (1980c). Evolutionary genetics of birds. I. Relationships among North American thrushes and allies. Auk 97:135-147.

Barrios-Miller, N. L. and L. Siefferman. (2013). Evidence that fathers, but not mothers, respond to mate and offspring coloration by favouring high-quality offspring. Animal Behaviour 85 (6):1377-1383.

Blake, C. H. (1954a). Death of a bluebird. Bird-Banding 25:59.

Braman, S. C. and D. W. Pogue. (2005). Eastern Bluebird provisions nestlings with flat-headed snake. Wilson Bulletin 117 (1):100-101.

Carter, W. A. and M. D. Duggan. (2004b). "Eastern Bluebird." In Oklahoma breeding bird atlas, edited by D. L. Reinking, 326-327. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Clement, P. (2000). Thrushes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Committee, Montana Bird Distribution. (2012). P. D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution. 7th ed. Helena: Montana Audubon.

Cooper, C. B., M. A. Voss and B. Zivkovic. (2009). Extended laying interval of ultimate eggs of the Eastern Bluebird. Condor 111 (4):752-755.

Cooper, C. B., W. M. Hochachka, T. B. Phillips and A. A. Dhondt. (2006). Geographical and seasonal gradients in hatching failure in Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis reinforce clutch size trends. Ibis 148 (2):221-230.

Corman, T. E. (2005d). "Eastern Bluebird." In Arizona breeding bird atlas, edited by T. E. Corman and C. Wise-Gervais, 428-429. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Cornell, K. L., C. R. Kight, R. B. Burdge, A. R. Gunderson, J. K. Hubbard, A. K. Jackson, J. E. LeClerc, M. L. Pitts, J. P. Swaddle and D. A. Cristol. (2011). Reproductive success of Eastern Bluebirds (Siala sialis) on suburban golf courses. Auk 128 (3):577-586.

DeWitt, J. C., D. S. Millsap, R. L. Yeager, S. S. Heise, D. W. Sparks, and D. S. Henshel. (2006). External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25:541-551.

Dwight, J., Jr. (1900). The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13:73-360.

Ericson, P. G. P., and U. S. Johansson (2003). Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29:126-138.

Ericson, P. G. P., M. Irestedt, and U. S. Johansson (2003). Evolution, biogeography, and patterns of diversification in passerine birds. Journal of Avian Biology 34:3-15.

Erskine, A. J. (1992). Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritime Provinces. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Faulkner, D. W. (2010). Birds of Wyoming. Roberts and Co, Greenwood Village, CO, USA.

Finch, B., B. Young, R. Johnson and J. C. Hall. (2012). Longleaf, as far as the eye can see. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. (2000). Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Comstock/Cornell U. Press.

Gowaty, P. A. (1981). Aggression of breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) toward their mates and models of intra- and interspecific intruders. Animal Behaviour 29:1013-1027.

Gowaty, P. A. (1983). Male parental care and apparent monogamy among eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). American Naturalist 121:149-157.

Gowaty, P. A. (1984). House sparrows kill eastern bluebirds. Journal of Field Ornithlogy 55:378-380.

Gowaty, P. A. (1996a). "Battles of the sexes and origins of monogamy." In Partnerships in birds., edited by J. L. Black, 21-52. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Gowaty, P. A. (1996b). "Field studies of parental care in birds: New data focus questions on variation in females." In Advances in the study of behaviour, edited by C. T. Snowdon and J. S. Rosenblatt. New York: Academic Press.

Gowaty, P. A. (1997). News and views: Birds face sexual discrimination. Nature 385:486-487.

Gowaty, P. A. and S. P. Hubbell. (2009). Reproductive decisions under ecological constraints: It's about time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:10017-10024.

Gowaty, P. A., J. H. Plissner and T. G. Williams. (1989). Behavioural correlates of uncertain parentage: mate guarding and nest guarding by eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Animal Behaviour 38:272-284.

Gower, C. (1936). The cause of blue color as found in the bluebird (Sialia sialis) and the Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). Auk 53:178-185.

Greenberg, C. H., A. L. Tomcho, J. D. Lanham, T. A. Waldrop, J. Tomcho, R. J. Phillips and D. Simon. (2007a). Short-term effects of fire and other fuel reduction treatments on breeding birds in a southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 71 (6):1906-1916.

Hensley, R. C. and K. G. Smith. (1986). Eastern bluebird responses to nocturnal black rat snake nest predation. Wilson Bulletin 98:602-603.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.

Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1–31.

Kight, C. R. and J. P. Swaddle. (2007). Associations of anthropogenic activity and disturbance with fitness metrics of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Biological Conservation 138 (1-2):189-197.

Kight, C. R., M. S. Saha and J. P. Swaddle. (2012). Anthropogenic noise is associated with reductions in the productivity of breeding Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Ecological Applications 22 (7):1989-1996.

Klicka, J. and R. M. Zink. (1997). The importance of recent ice ages in speciation: A failed paradigm. Science 277 (5332):1666-1669.

Klicka, J., G. Voelker, and G. M. Spellman (2005). A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the "true thrushes" (Aves: Turdinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34:486-500.

Krieg, D. C. (1964). Bluebird nestbox project. Kingbird 14:26-27.

Laskey, A. R. (1946a). Snake depredations at bird nests. Wilson Bulletin 58 (4):217-218.

LeClerc, J. E., J. P. K. Che, J. P. Swaddle and D. A. Cristol. (2005). Reproductive success and developmental stability of Eastern Bluebirds on golf courses: Evidence that golf courses can be productive. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33 (2):483-493.

Levey, D. J., B. M. Bolker, J. J. Tewksbury, S. Sargent and N. M. Haddad. (2005). Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148.

Ligon, R. A. and G. E. Hill. (2009). Do adult Eastern Bluebird, Sialia sialis, males recognize juvenile-specific traits? Animal Behaviour 77 (5):1267-1272.

Liu, M., L. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2007). An experimental test of female choice relative to male structural coloration in Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (4):623-630.

Liu, M., L. Siefferman, Jr. Mays, H., J. E. Steffen and G. E. Hill. (2009). A field test of female mate preference for male plumage coloration in Eastern Bluebirds. Animal Behaviour 78 (4):879-885.

Lynn, S. E., L. E. Prince and M. M. Phillips. (2010). A single exposure to an acute stressor has lasting consequences for the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress in free-living birds. General and Comparative Endocrinology 165 (2):337-344.

MacDougall-Shackleton, E. A. and R. J. Robertson. (1998). Confidence of paternity and paternal care by Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology 9 (2):201-205.

Mackay, K. A. (1985). Adoption, indifference, or infanticide in replacement male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), and how females cope without male help. B.S. thesis, Queen's Univ., Toronto.

Mayne, G. J., C. A. Bishop, P. A. Martin, H. J. Boermans and B. Hunter. (2005a). Thyroid function in nestling Tree Swallows and Eastern Bluebirds exposed to non-persistent pesticides and p,p '-DDE in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada. Ecotoxicology 14 (3):381-396.

Mayne, G. J., P. A. Martin, C. A. Bishop and H. J. Boermans. (2004a). Stress and immune responses of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p,'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23 (12):2930-2940.

Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994a). Effects of male removal on the behavior and reproductive success of female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Ibis 136 (3):305-312.

Meek, S. B. and R. J. Robertson. (1994b). Interspecific competition for nestboxes affects mate guarding in eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Animal Behaviour 47:295-302.

Miller, K. E. (2010). Nest-site limitation of secondary cavity-nesting birds in even-age southern pine forests. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122 (1):126-134.

Navara, K. J. and E. M. Anderson. (2011). Eastern Bluebirds choose nest boxes based on box orientation. Southeastern Naturalist 10 (4):713-720.

Navara, K. J., L. M. Siefferman, G. E. Hill and M. T. Mendonca. (2006b). Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: An experimental study. Functional Ecology 20 (3):449-456.

Nice, M. M. (1931b). The birds of Oklahoma, revised edition. Publication of the Univ. Oklahoma, Biol. Sur. 3.

Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Pettingill, O. S. (1936b). Breeding behavior of bluebirds. Auk 53:86-87.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1974g). The eastern bluebird pair bond: comments and calculations. Inland Bird Banding News 37:107-110.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1975a). A summary and key for determining causes of nesting failures in eastern bluebirds using nest boxes. Inland Bird Banding News 47:179-186.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1976e). Photoperiodic effects on the postjuvenal molt of the eastern bluebird. Ohio Journal of Science 76:268-273.

Pinkowski, B. C. (1979c). Effects of a severe winter on a breeding population of eastern bluebirds. Jack Pine Warbler  57:9-12.

Pitts, T. D. (1981). Eastern bluebird population fluctuations in Tennessee during 1970-1979. Migrant 52:29-37.

Plissner, J. H. and P. A. Gowaty. (1995). Eastern Bluebirds are attracted to 2-box sites. Wilson Bulletin 107 (2):289-295.

Plissner, J. H., S. J. Wagner and P. A. Gowaty. (1995). Reliability of aging criteria by feather characteristics of eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis. Journal of Field Ornithology 65:504-507.

Price, J. P., S. Droege, and A. Price (1995). The Summer Atlas of North American Birds. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.

Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22:49-89.

Ridgway, R. (1907). The birds of North and Middle America. Part 4. United States National Museum Bulletin 50(4):1-973.

Ripley, S. D. (1964a). "Family Turdidae." In Check-list of birds of the world, edited by E. Mayr and Jr R. A. Paynter, 13-227. Cambridge, MA: Mus. Comp. Zool.

Root, T. R. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Rounds, R. C., and H. L. Munro (1982). A review of hybridization between Sialia sialis and S. currucoides. Wilson Bulletin 94:219-223.

Rounds, R. C., and H. L. Munro (1983). Brood size of Eastern and Mountain bluebirds in Manitoba. Journal of Field Ornithology 54:304-311.

Sauer, J. R. and S. Droege. (1990a). Recent population trends of the eastern bluebird. Wilson Bulletin 102:239-252.

Semenchuk, G. P. (1992). The Atlas of Breeding Birds of Alberta. Federation of Alberta Naturalists, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Shawkey, M. D., A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2003). Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colours. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 270 (1523):1455-1460.

Shawkey, M. D., A. M. Estes, L. Siefferman and G. E. Hill. (2005). The anatomical basis of sexual dichromatism in non-iridescent ultraviolet-blue structural coloration of feathers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 (2):259-271.

Shawkey, M. D., S. L. Balenger, G. E. Hill, L. S. Johnson, A. J. Keyser, and L. Siefferman (2006). Mechanisms of evolutionary change in structural plumage coloration among bluebirds (Sialia spp.). Journal of the Royal Society Interface 3:527-532.

Shawkey, M. D., S. R. Pillai, G. E. Hill, L. M. Siefferman and S. R. Roberts. (2007). Bacteria as an agent for change in structural plumage color: Correlational and experimental evidence. American Naturalist 169 (1):S112-S121.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds: A study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA.

Siefferman, L. (2006). Egg coloration and recognition of conspecific brood parasitism in Eastern Bluebirds. Ethology 112 (9):833-838.

Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2003). Structural and melanin coloration indicate parental effort and reproductive success in male Eastern Bluebirds. Behavioral Ecology 14 (6):855-861.

Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005a). Blue structural coloration of male Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis predicts incubation provisioning to females. Journal of Avian Biology 36 (6):488-493.

Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005b). Evidence for sexual selection on structural plumage coloration in female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Evolution 59 (8):1819-1828.

Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2005c). Male Eastern Bluebirds trade future ornamentation for current reproductive investment. Biology Letters 1 (2):208-211.

Siefferman, L. and G. E. Hill. (2007). The effect of rearing environment on blue structural coloration of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61 (12):1839-1846.

Siefferman, L., G. E. Hill and F. S. Dobson. (2005). Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in Eastern Bluebirds Sialia sialis. Journal of Avian Biology 36 (5):428-435.

Siefferman, L., K. J. Navara and G. E. Hill. (2006). Egg coloration is correlated with female condition in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59 (5):651-656.

Siefferman, L., M. Liu, K. J. Navara, M. T. Mendonca and G. E. Hill. (2013). Effect of prenatal and natal administration of testosterone on production of structurally based plumage coloration. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 86 (3):323-332.

Stanback, M. T. and A. A. Dervan. (2001). Within-season nest-site fidelity in Eastern Bluebirds: Disentangling effects of nest success and parasite avoidance. Auk 118 (3):743-745.

Stanback, M. T. and E. K. Rockwell. (2003). Nest-site fidelity in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) depends on the quality of alternate cavities. Auk 120 (4):1029-1032.

Stanback, M. T. and M. L. Seifert. (2005). A comparison of Eastern Bluebird reproductive parameters in golf and rural habitats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33 (2):471-482.

Stokstad, E. (2005). Ecology - Flying on the edge: Bluebirds make use of habitat corridors. Science 309 (5731):35.

Stone, W. (1896). The molting of birds with special reference to the plumages of smaller land birds of eastern North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 43:108-164.

Tardell, J. H. and P. D. Doerr. (1982). Black bear damage to bluebird nest boxes in southeastern North Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:244-246.

Verner, J. and M. F. Willson. (1969). Mating systems, sexual dimorphism, and the role of male North American passerine birds in the nesting cycle. Ornithological Monographs 9.

Waring, M. M. (1912). Bluebirds vs. wrens. Bird-Lore 14:293-294.

Recommended Citation

Gowaty, P. A. and J. H. Plissner (2015). Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.381