Double-crested Cormorant

Phalacrocorax auritus



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).

Adkins, J. Y. and D. D. Roby. 2010. A status assessment of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America: 1998-2009. Final report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Corvallis: U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

Ainley, D. G. and R. J. Boekelheide. 1990. Seabirds of the Farallon Islands: ecology, dynamics, and structure of an upwelling-system community. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Ainley, D. G., D. W. Anderson and P. R. Kelly. 1981a. Feeding ecology of marine cormorants in southwestern North America. Condor no. 83:120-131.

American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union.

Amos, E. J. R. 1991. A Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Warwick, Bermuda: E. J. R. Amos.

Anderson, D. W. and J. J. Hickey. 1972. "Eggshell changes in certain North American birds." In Proceedings of the XVth International Ornitholological Congress., edited by K. H. Voous, 514-540. Leiden: P. J. Brill.

Anderson, D. W., J. J. Hickey, R. W. Risebrough, D. F. Hughes and R. E. Christensen. 1969b. Significance of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues to breeding pelicans and cormorants. Can. Field-Nat. no. 83:91-112.

Andrews, P. and R. Righter. 1992. Colorado birds. Denver, CO: Denver Mus. of Nat. Hist.

Andrews, R. 1990b. Coastal waterbird colonies: Maine to Virginia 1984-1985. Newton Corner, MA: U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv.

Bain, M. and D. Shanahan. 1998. Cross Canada Round-up (Yukon). Birders J. no. 7:166-183.

Banerjee, M., W. M. Reed, S. D. Fitzgerald and B. Panigrahy. 1994. Neurotropic velogenic Newcastle disease in cormorants in Michigan: pathology and virus characterization. Avian Dis. no. 38:873-878.

Barras, S. C. and M. E. Tobin. 2003. The role of research in expanded regional management of Double-crested Cormorants. Paper read at Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference.

Bartholomew, G. A. 1942. The fishing activities of Double-crested Cormorants on San Francisco Bay. Condor no. 44:13-21.

Bartholomew, G. A., R. C. Lasiewski and Jr. Crawford, E. C. 1968. Patterns of panting and gular flutter in cormorants, pelicans, owls, and doves. Condor no. 70:31-34.

Bastola, U. and C. R. Engle. 2012. Economically important production relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) foodfish production. Reviews in Aquaculture no. 4 (2):94-107.

Bayer, R. D. 1989c. The cormorant/Fisherman conflict in Tillamook County, Oregon. Newport, OR: Gahmken Press.

Belyea, G. Y., S. L. Maruca, J. S. Diana, P. J. Schneeberger, S. J. Scott and et al. 1997. Impact of Double-crested Cormorant predation on the Yellow Perch population of the Les Cheneaux Islands of Michigan. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Bent, A. C. 1922. Life histories of North American petrels and pelicans and their allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. no. 121.

Birt, V. L., T. P. Birt, D. Goulet, D. K. Cairns and W. A. Montevecchi. 1987. Ashmole's halo: direct evidence for prey depletion by a seabird. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. no. 40:205-208.

Bishop, C. A., D. V. Weseloh, N. M. Burgess, J. Struger and R. J. Norstrom. 1992. An atlas of contaminants in eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes (1970-1988). In Techn. Rep. Ser. no. 152. Ottawa, Ontario: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Blackwell, B. F. and J. A. Sinclair. 1995. Evidence of secondary consumption of fish by Double-crested Cormorants. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. no. 123:1-4.

Blackwell, B. F. and W. B. Krohn. 1997. Spring foraging distribution and habitat selection by Double-crested Cormorants on the Penobscot River, Maine USA. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:66-76.

Blackwell, B. F., W. B. Krohn and R. B. Allen. 1995. Foods of nestling Double-crested Cormorants in Penobscot Bay, Maine, U.S.A.: temporal and spatial comparisons. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):199-208.

Blackwell, B. F., W. B. Krohn, N. R. Dube and A. J. Godin. 1997. Spring prey use by Double-crested Cormorants on the Penobscot River, Maine USA. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:77-86.

Blem, C. R., W. H. N. Gutzke and C. Filemyr. 1980. First breeding record of the Double-crested Cormorant in Virginia. Wilson Bull. no. 92:127-128.

Blomme, C. 1981. Status and breeding success of Double-crested Cormorant in two North Channel (Lake Huron) colonies in 1979. Ont. Field Biol. no. 35:70-78.

Bostwick, K. S. and M. J. Brady. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of wing feather taxis in birds: Macroevolutionary patterns of genetic drift? Auk no. 119 (4):943-954.

BOURC. 1993. British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee, 18th Report. Ibis no. 135:220-222.

Boutin, C., T. Dobbie, D. Carpenter and C. E. Hebert. 2011. Effects of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus Less.) on island vegetation, seedbank, and soil chemistry: Evaluating island restoration potential. Restoration Ecology no. 19 (6):720-727.

Braune, B. M. 1987a. Comparison of total mercury levels in relation to diet and molt for nine species of marine birds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 16:217-224.

Brechtel, S. H. 1983. The reproductive ecology of Double-crested Cormorants in southern Alberta. M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton.

Brinker, D. F. 2010b. "Double-crested Cormorant." In 2nd atlas of the breeding birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia, edited by W. G. Ellison, 70-71. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Brodkorb, P. 1963a. Catalogue of fossil birds Part 1 (Archaeopterygiformes through Ardeiformes). Bull. Florida State Mus. Vol. 7, No. no. 4:179-293.

Brugger, K. E. 1993. Digestibility of three fish species by Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 95:25-32.

Brugger, K. E. 1995. Double-crested Cormorants and fisheries in Florida. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):110-117.

Bur, M. T., S. L. Tinnirello, C. D. Lovell and J. T. Tyson. 1997. Diet of the Double-crested Cormorant in western Lake Erie. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Burnett, J. A. D., N. H. Ringler, B. F. Lantry and J. H. Johnson. 2002. Double-crested Cormorant predation on Yellow Perch in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):202-211.

Busby, W. H. and J. L. Zimmerman. 2001. Kansas breeding bird atlas. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1995a. Double-crested Cormorant culling in the St. Lawrence River estuary. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):78-85.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1995b. Double-crested Cormorant morphometry and field sexing in the St. Lawrence River estuary. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):86-90.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1997c. Double-crested Cormorant culling in the St. Lawrence river estuary: results of a five-year program. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Cairns, D. K. 1992b. "Population regulation of seabird colonies." In Current ornithology, edited by D. M. Power, 37-61. New York: Plenum Press.

Cairns, D. K. 1998. Deit of cormorants, mergansers, and kingfishers in northeastern North America. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Cairns, D. K., R. L. Dibblee and P. Y. Daoust. 1998. Displacement of a large Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, colony following human disturbance. Can. Field Nat. no. 112:520-522.

Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser and M. C. E. McNall. 1990b. The birds of British Columbia, Vol. I. Introduction and loons through waterfowl. Victoria: R. Br. Columbia Mus.

Campo, J. J., B. C. Thompson, J. C. Barron, R. C. Telfair II, P. P. Durocher and S. J. Gutreuter. 1993. Diet of Double-crested Cormorants wintering in Texas. J. Field Ornithol. no. 64:135-144.

Carney, K. M. and W. J. Sydeman. 1999. A review of human disturbance effects on nesting colonial waterbirds. Waterbirds no. 22 (1):68-79.

Carss, D. N. 1997. Technique for assessing cormorant diet and food intake: towards a consensus view. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina no. 26:197-230.

Carter, H. R., A. L. Sowls, M. S. Rodway, U. W. Wilson and R. W. Lowe. 1995b. Population size, trends, and conservation problems of the Double-crested Cormorant on the Pacific Coast of North America. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):189-215.

Chapdelaine, G. and J. Bédard. 1995. Recent changes in the abundance and distribution of the Double-crested Cormorant in the St. Lawrence River, estuary and gulf, Quebec, 1978-1990. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):70-77.

Chastant, J. E., D. T. King, D. V. C. Weseloh and D. J. Moore. 2014. Population dynamics of Double-crested Cormorants in two interior breeding areas. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 78 (1):3-11.

Christie, W. J., K. A. Scott, P. G. Sly and R. H. Strus. 1987. Recent changes in the aquatic food web of eastern Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 44 (Suppl. 2)):37-52.

Clapp, R. B., R. C. Banks, D. Morgan-Jacobs and W. A. Hoffman. 1982a. Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico, Part I. Gaviiformes through Pelecaniformes. Washington, D.C.: USFWS.

Clark, A. C., T. M. Kollasch and D. A. Williamson. 2006a. Movements of Double-crested Cormorants fledged on the Columbia River estuary. Northwestern Naturalist no. 87 (2):150-152.

Coleman, J. T. H. 2009. Diving behavior, predator-prey dynamics, and management efficacy of Double-crested Cormorants in New York State. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.

Coleman, J. T. H. and M. E. Richmond. 2007. Daily foraging patterns of adult Double-crested Cormorants during the breeding season. Waterbirds no. 30 (2):189-198.

Coleman, J. T. H., C. M. Adams, M. Kandel and M. E. Richmond. 2012. Eating the invaders: The prevalence of Round Goby (Apollonia melanostomus) in the diet of Double-crested Cormorants on the Niagara River. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):103-113.

Coleman, J. T. H., M. E. Richmond, L. G. Rudstam and P. M. Mattison. 2005. Foraging location and site fidelity of the Double-crested Cormorant on Oneida Lake, New York. Waterbirds no. 28 (4):498-510.

Connor, H. A. and R. W. Lofkin. 1985. The birds of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. Fla. Field Nat. no. 13:77-93.

Courtot, K. N., D. D. Roby, J. Y. Adkins, D. E. Lyons, D. T. King and R. S. Larsen. 2012. Colony connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-crested Cormorants based on post-breeding dispersal from the region's largest colony. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 76 (7):1462-1471.

Cracraft, J. 1985. Monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of the Pelecaniformes: A numerical cladistic analysis. Auk no. 102 (4):834-853.

Craig, E. C., S. B. Elbin, J. A. Danoff-Burg and M. I. Palmer. 2012. Impacts of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and other colonial waterbirds on plant and arthropod communities on islands in an urban estuary. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):4-12.

Craven, S. R. and E. Lev. 1987. Double-crested Cormorants in the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin, USA: population trends, food habits and fishery depredations. Colon. Waterbirds no. 10:64-71.

Cross, T. A., D. M. Arsnoe, R. B. Minnis, D. T. King, S. Swafford, K. Pedersen and J. C. Owen. 2013. Prevalence of avian paramyxovirus 1 and avian influenza virus in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in eastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 49 (4):965-977.

Cummings, M. V. 1987. The feeding energetics of the Double-crested Cormorant in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL.

Custer, T. W. and C. Bunck. 1992. Feeding flights of breeding Double-crested Cormorants at two Wisconsin colonies. J. Field Ornithol. no. 63:203-211.

Cuthbert, F. J., L. R. Wires and J. E. McKearnan. 2002a. Potential impacts of nesting Double-crested Cormorants on Great Blue Herons and Black-crowned Night-Herons in the U.S. Great Lakes region. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):145-154.

Davenport, A. Double-crested Cormorant: direct recoveries of bandings from 1929-1997. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. 1998. Available from

DeBruyne, R. L., J. T. H. Coleman, J. R. Jackson, L. G. Rudstam and A. J. VanDeValk. 2013. Analysis of prey selection by Double-crested Cormorants: A 15-year diet study in Oneida Lake, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society no. 142 (2):430-446.

DeBruyne, R. L., T. L. DeVault, A. E. Duerr, D. E. Capen, F. E. Pogmore, J. R. Jackson and L. G. Rudstam. 2012. Spatial and temporal comparisons of Double-crested Cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 38 (1):123-130.

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (1992). Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delaronde II, G. G. and Y. A. Greichus. 1972. Care and behavior of penned Double-crested Cormorants. Auk no. 89:644-650.

Derby, C. E. and J. R. Lovvorn. 1997. Comparison of pellets versus collected birds for sampling diets of Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 99:549-553.

DesGranges, J. L. 1982. Weight growth of young Double-crested Cormorants in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec. Colon. Waterbirds no. 5:79-86.

DesGranges, J. L. and A. Reed. 1981. Disturbance and control of selected colonies of Double-crested Cormorants in Quebec. Colonial Waterbirds no. 4:12-19.

DeVault, T. L., J. L. Belant, B. F. Blackwell and T. W. Seamans. 2011. Interspecific variation in wildlife hazards to aircraft: Implications for airport wildlife management. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 35 (4):394-402.

Diana, J. S., S. Maruca and B. Low. 2006. Do increasing cormorant populations threaten sportfishes in the Great Lakes? A case study in Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 32 (2):306-320.

Dolbeer, R. A. 1991. Migration patterns of Double-crested Cormorants east of the Rocky Mountains. J. Field Ornithol. no. 62:83-93.

Dolbeer, R. A., S. E. Wright, J. Weller and M. J. Begier. 2012a. Wildlife strikes to civil aircraft in the United States 1990-2011. In Serial Report. Washington: Federal Aviation Administration National Wildlife Strike Database.

Dorr, B. S. and C. Somers. 2012. The direction of research and management of Double-crested Cormorants heading into the 2000s: Symposium overview and future information needs. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):138-148.

Dorr, B. S., A. Moerke, M. Bur, C. Bassett, T. Aderman, D. Traynor, R. Singleton, P. H. Butchko and J. D. Taylor II. 2010b. Evaluation of harassment of migrating Double-crested Cormorants to limit depredation on selected sport fisheries in Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):215-223.

Dorr, B. S., J. D. Taylor II, S. J. Werner, D. T. King, J. F. Farquhar, I. M. Mazzocchi and R. D. McCullough. 2012d. Summer and migrational movements of satellite-marked Double-crested Cormorants from a breeding colony managed by egg-oiling in Lake Ontario, USA. Waterbirds no. 35 (sp1):114-123.

Dorr, B. S., K. C. Hanson-Dorr, T. L. DeVault, A. Guillaumet and S. C. Barras. Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird. Integrative Zoology no. INZ-2013-12-124.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger and S. C. Barras. 2008. Evaluation of aerial cluster sampling of Double-crested Cormorants on aquaculture ponds in Mississippi. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 72 (7):1634-1640.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger, S. C. Barras and K. C. Godwin. 2012a. Double-crested Cormorant distribution on catfish aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 36 (1):70-77.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger, S. C. Barras and K. C. Godwin. 2012b. Economic impact of Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, aquaculture in Mississippi, USA. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society no. 43 (4):502-513.

Dorr, B. S., S. L. Hanisch, P. H. Butchko and D. G. Fielder. 2012c. Management of Double-crested Cormorants to improve sport fisheries in Michigan: Three case studies. Human-Wildlife Interactions no. 6 (1):155-168.

Dorr, B. S., T. Aderman, P. H. Butchko and S. C. Barras. 2010a. Management effects on breeding and foraging numbers and movements of Double-crested Cormorants in the Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):224-231.

Dorr, B., D. T. King, M. E. Tobin, J. B. Harrel and P. L. Smith. 2004. Double-crested Cormorant movements in relation to aquaculture in eastern Mississippi and western Alabama. Waterbirds no. 27 (2):147-154.

Dorst, J. and J. L. Mougin. 1979. "Order Pelecaniformes." In Check-list of birds of the world, edited by E. Mayr and G. W. Cottrell, 155-193. Cambridge, MA: Mus. Comp. Zool.

Draulans, D. 1987. The effectiveness of attempts to reduce predation by fish-eating birds: a review. Biol. Conserv. no. 41:219-232.

Drent, R., G. F. Van Tets, F. Tompa and K. Vermeer. 1964. The breeding birds of Mandarte Island, British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. no. 78:208-263.

Drewlen, R. C. and L. F. Fredrickson. 1969. Band recovery distribution of Double-crested Cormorants from South Waubay Lake. S. Dakota Bird Notes no. 21:28-33.

Drury, W. H. 1973. Population changes in New England seabirds. Bird-Banding no. 44 (4):267-313.

Duerr, A. E. 2007. Population dynamics, foraging ecology, and optimal management of Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Vermont, Burlington.

Duerr, A. E., T. M. Donovan and D. E. Capen. 2007. Management-induced reproductive failure and breeding dispersal in Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 71 (8):2565-2574.

Duffy, D. C. 1995b. Why is the Double-crested Cormorant a problem? Insights from cormorant ecology and human sociology. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ 1):25-32.

Duffy, D. C. and D. C. Schneider. 1994. Seabird-fisheries interactions: a manager's guide. Birdlife Conserv. Ser. no. 1:26-38.

Duffy, D. C. and L. J. B. Laurenson. 1983. Pellets of Cape Cormorants as indicators of diet. Condor no. 85:305-307.

Dunn, E. H. 1975a. Caloric intake of nestling Double-crested Cormorants. Auk no. 92:553-565.

Dunn, E. H. 1975b. Growth, body components and energy content of nestling Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 77:431-438.

Dunn, E. H. 1976a. Development of endothermy and existence energy expenditure of nestling Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 78:350-356.

Dunn, E. H. 1980. On the variability of energy allocation of nesting birds. Auk no. 97:19-27.

Easton, E. R. 1982. An annotated checklist of the fleas of South Dakota (Siphonaptera). Ent. News. no. 93:155-158.

Elliott, J. E., D. G. Noble, R. J. Norstrom and P. E. Whitehead. 1989b. Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific Coast of Canada 1971-1986. Environ. Monit. Assess. no. 12:67-82.

Ellison, L. N. and L. Cleary. 1978. Effect of human disturbance on breeding Double-crested Cormorants. Auk no. 95:510-517.

Elowson, A. M. 1984. Spread wing postures and the water repellency of feathers: a test of Rijke's hypothesis. Auk no. 101:371-383.

Enstipp, M. R., D. Grémillet and D. R. Jones. 2006. The effects of depth, temperature and food ingestion on the foraging energetics of a diving endotherm, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Journal of Experimental Biology no. 209 (5):845-859.

Erwin, R. M. 1995b. The ecology of cormorants: some research needs and recommendations. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):240-246.

Ewins, P. J. and D. V. C. Weseloh. 1994. Effects on productivity of shooting of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Pigeon Island, Lake Ontario, in 1993. J. Great Lakes Res. no. 20:761-767.

Ewins, P. J., D. V. Weseloh and H. Blokpoel. 1995b. Within-season variation in nest numbers of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on the Great Lakes: implications for censusing. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18:179-182.

Fallon, J. A., R. L. Cochrane, B. Dorr and H. Klandorf. 2006. Interspecies comparison of pentosidine accumulation and its correlation with age in birds. Auk no. 123 (3):870-876.

Farley, J. M., C. H. Romero, M. G. Spalding, M. L. Avery and D. J. Forrester. 2001. Newcastle disease virus in Double-crested Cormorants in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 37 (4):808-812.

Farquhar, J. F., I. M. Mazzocchi, R. D. McCullough, R. B. Chipman and T. L. DeVault. 2012. Mitigation of Double-crested Cormorant impacts on Lake Ontario: From planning and practice to product delivery. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):56-65.

Fedynich, A. M., D. B. Pence and J. F. Bergan. 1997. Helminth community structure and pattern in sympatric populations of Double-crested and Neotropic cormorants. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. no. 64:176-182.

Fielder, D. G. 2008. Examination of factors contributing to the decline of the Yellow Perch population and fishery in Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, with emphasis on the role of Double-crested Cormorants. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 34 (3):506-523.

Fielder, D. G. 2010. Response of Yellow Perch in Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron to declining numbers of Double-crested Cormorants stemming from control activities. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):207-214.

Fike, J. A., T. L. Devault and O. E. Rhodes. 2009. Identification of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Molecular Ecology Resources no. 9 (4):1183-1185.

Filardi, C. E. and S. Rohwer. 2001. Life history implications of complete and incomplete primary molts in Pelagic Cormorants. Condor no. 103 (3):555-569.

Findholt, S. L. 1988. Status, distribution and habitat affinities of Double-crested Cormorant nesting colonies in Wyoming. Colon. Waterbirds no. 11:245-251.

Fish, U.S. and Widlife Service. 2009a. Final environmental assessment. Extended management of Double-crested Cormorants under 50 CFR 21.47 and 21.48. Arlington: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management.

Fish, U.S. and Widlife Service. 2009b. Migratory bird permits; Revision of expiration dates for Double-crested Cormorant depredation orders. Federal Register no. 74 (64):15394-15398.

Fish, U.S. and Wildlife Service. 2003b. Migratory bird permits; Regulations for Double-crested Cormorant management. Federal Register no. 68 (51):12653?12660.

Fowle, M. R. 1997. Population dynamics, food habits, and bioenergetics of Double-crested Cormorants in Lake Champlain. Master's Thesis, Wildl. and Fish. Biol. Prog., School of Nat. Resourc., Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT.

Fox, G. A., B. Collins, E. Hayakawa, D. V. Weseloh and J. P. Ludwig. 1991. Reproductive outcomes in colonial, fish-eating birds: A biomarker for developmental toxins in Great Lakes food chains. II. Spatial variation in the occurrence and prevalence of bill defects in young Double-crested Cormorants in the Great Lakes, 1979-1987. J. Great Lakes Res. no. 17:158-167.

Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. 1992. La Corua Phalacrocorax auritus heuretus (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae), nueva subespecie para Cuba. El Volante Migratorio no. 18:24-26.

Gauthier, J. and Y. Aubry. 1996b. Les oiseaux nicheurs du Québec: Atlas des oiseaux nicheurs du Québec meridional. Environnment Canada, Région du Québec: Association Québécoise des groupes d'ornithologues, Sociétié Québécoise de protection des oiseaux, Service Canadien de la Faune.

Gilbertson, M., T. Kubiak, J. Ludwig and G. Fox. 1991. Great Lakes Embryo Mortality, Edema and Deformities Syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: similarity to chick-edema disease. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health no. 33:455-520.

Gilligan, J., D. Rogers, M. Smith and A. Contreras. 1994. Birds of Oregon: status and distribution. McMinnville, OR: Cinclus Publ.

Girard, G. T. and W. K. Taylor. 1979. Reproductive parameters for nine avian species at Moore Creek, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Fla. Sci. no. 42:94-102.

Glahn, J. F. 2000. Comparison of pyrotechnics versus shooting for dispersing Double-crested Cormorants from their night roosts. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference no. 19:44-48.

Glahn, J. F. and B. S. Dorr. 2002. Captive Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus predation on Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings and its influence on single-batch cropping production. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society no. 33 (1):85-93.

Glahn, J. F. and D. T. King. 2004. "Bird depredation." In Biology and culture of channel catfish, edited by C. S. Tucker and J. A. Hargreaves, 503-529. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Glahn, J. F. and Jr. Stickley, A. R. 1995. Wintering Double-crested Cormorants in the Delta region of Mississippi: Population levels and their impact on the catfish industry. Colonial Waterbirds no. 18:137-142.

Glahn, J. F. and K. E. Brugger. 1995. The impact of Double-crested Cormorants on the Mississippi Delta catfish industry: a bioenergetics model. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):168-175.

Glahn, J. F. and R. B. McCoy. 1995. Measurements of wintering Double-crested Cormorants and discriminant models of sex. J. Field Ornithol. no. 66:299-304.

Glahn, J. F., A. May, K. Bruce and D. Reinhold. 1996. Censusing Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) at their winter roosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi. Colonial Waterbirds no. 19 (1):73-81.

Glahn, J. F., D. S. Reinhold and C. A. Sloan. 2000b. Recent population trends of Double-crested Cormorants wintering in the delta region of Mississippi: Responses to roost dispersal and removal under a recent depredation order. Waterbirds no. 23 (1):38-44.

Glahn, J. F., E. S. Rasmussen, T. Tomsa and K. J. Preusser. 1999. Distribution and relative impact of avian predators at aquaculture facilities in the northeastern United States. North American Journal of Aquaculture no. 61 (4):340-348.

Glahn, J. F., G. Ellis, P. Fioranelli and B. S. Dorr. 2000a. Evaluation of moderate and low-powered lasers for dispersing Double-crested Cormorants from their night roosts. In Proceedings of the Ninth Wildlife Damage Management Conference. University Park: Pennsylvania State University.

Glahn, J. F., J. B. Harrel and C. Vyles. 1998. The diet of wintering Double-crested Cormorants feeding at lakes in the southeastern United States. Colonial Waterbirds no. 21 (3):431-437.

Glahn, J. F., M. E. Tobin and B. F. Blackwell. 2000c. A science-based initiative to manage Double-crested Cormorant damage to southern aquaculture. Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Glahn, J. F., M. E. Tobin and J. B. Harrel. 1997. Possible effects of catfish exploitation on over-winter body condition of Double-crested Cormorants. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Glahn, J. F., P. J. Dixon, G. A. Littauer and R. B. McCoy. 1995. Food habits of Double-crested Cormorants wintering in the Delta region of Mississippi. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):158-167.

Glahn, J. F., S. J. Werner, T. Hanson and C. R. Engle. 2000d. "Cormorant depredation losses and their prevention at catfish farms: Economic considerations." In Human conflicts with wildlife: Economic considerations. Proceedings of the Third NWRC Special Symposium, edited by L. Clark, J. Hone, J. A. Shivik, R. A. Watkins, K. C. VerCauteren and J. K. Yoder, 138-146. Fort Collins: National Wildlife Research Center.

Glanville, E. V. 1992. Co-operative fishing by Double-crested Cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus. Can. Field-Nat. no. 106:522-523.

Glaser, L. C., I. K. Barker, D. V. Chip Weseloh, J. Ludwig and R. M. Windingstad. 1999. The 1992 epizootic of Newcastle disease in Double-crested Cormorants in North America. J. Wildl. Dis. no. 35 (2):319-330.

Godwin, K. C., T. King, P. Butchko and R. Chipman. 2003. "Challenges of implementing the Double-crested Cormorant environmental impact statement." In Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, edited by K. A. Fagerstone and G. W. Witmer, 64-70.

Greichus, Y. A. and M. R. Hannon. 1973. Distribution and biochemical effects of DDT, DDD and DDE in penned Double-crested Cormorants. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. no. 26:483-494.

Gress, F., R. W. Risebrough, D. W. Anderson, L. F. Kiff and Jr. Jehl, J. R. 1973. Reproductive failures of Double-crested Cormorants in southern California and Baja California. Wilson Bull. no. 85:197-208.

Guillaumet, A., B. Dorr, G. Wang, J. D. Taylor II, R. B. Chipman, H. Scherr, J. Bowman, K. F. Abraham, T. J. Doyle and E. Cranker. 2011. Determinants of local and migratory movements of Great Lakes Double-crested Cormorants. Behavioral Ecology no. 22 (5):1096-1103.

Guillaumet, A., B. S. Dorr, G. Wang and T. J. Doyle. 2014. The cumulative effects of management on the population dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes. Ibis no. 156 (1):141-152.

Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K. L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt and T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science no. 320 (5884):1763-1768.

Hanbidge, B. A. and G. A. Fox. 1996. Egg characteristics, growth and developmental landmarks of known-age embryos of Double-crested Cormorants from Manitoba. Colon. Waterbirds no. 19:139-142.

Hanson, K. C., T. L. DeVault and S. J. Dinsmore. 2010. Increased abundance and first breeding record of the Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) on the alluvial plain of Mississippi. Southeastern Naturalist no. 9 (2):385-394.

Hartman, F. A. 1961. Locomotor mechanisms in birds. Smithson. Misc. Coll. no. 143:1-99.

Hatch, J. J. 1995a. Changing populations of Double-crested Cormorants. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):8-24.

Hebert, C. E. and H. A. Morrison. 2003. Consumption of fish and other prey items by Lake Erie waterbirds. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 29 (2):213-227.

Hebert, C. E., J. Duffe, D. V. C. Weseloh, E. M. T. Senese and G. D. Haffner. 2005. Unique island habitats may be threatened by Double-crested Cormorants. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 69 (1):68-76.

Hebert, C. E., M. Bur, D. Sherman and J. L. Shutt. 2008. Sulfur isotopes link overwinter habitat use and breeding condition in Double-crested Cormorants. Ecological Applications no. 18 (3):561-567.

Heckert, R. A., M. S. Collins, R. J. Manvell, I. Strong, J. E. Pearson and D. J. Alexander. 1996. Comparison of Newcastle disease virus isolated from cormorants in Canada and the USA in 1975, 1990 and 1992. Can. J. Vet. Res. no. 60:5054.

Hedges, S. B. and C. G. Sibley. 1994. Molecules vs. morphology in avian evolution: The case of the "pelecaniform" birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America no. 91 (21):9861-9865.

Heinz, G. H., T. C. Erdman, S. D. Haselgine and C. Stafford. 1985. Contaminant levels in colonial waterbirds from Green Bay and Lake Michigan, 1975-1980. Environ. Monitor. Assess. no. 5:113-236.

Hennemann III, W. W. 1984. Spread-winged behaviour of Double-crested and Flightless cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and P. harrisi: wing drying or thermoregulation? Ibis no. 126:230-239.

Hennemann III, W. W. 1988. Energetics and spread-winged behavior in Anhingas and Double-crested Cormorants: the risks of generalization. Am. Zool. no. 28:845-851.

Henny, C. J., L. J. Blus, S. P. Thompson and U. W. Wilson. 1989. Environmental contaminants, human disturbance and nesting of Double-crested Cormorants in northwestern Washington. Colon. Waterbirds no. 12:198-206.

Henschel, D. S., J. W. Martin, R. J. Norstrom, J. Elliott, K. M. Cheng and J. C. DeWitt. 1997. Morphometric brain abnormalities in Double-crested Cormorant chicks exposed to polychlorinated dibenzo-p -dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls. J. Great Lakes Res. no. 23:11-26.

Hobson, K. A. 1989. Pebbles in nests of Double-crested Cormorants. Wilson Bull. no. 101:107-8.

Hobson, K. A., R. W. Knapton and W. Lysack. 1989. Population, diet and reproductive success of Double-crested Cormorants breeding on Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba, in 1987. Colon. Waterbirds no. 12:191-197.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2003. The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105 (4):635-653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2004. The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106 (1):206-210.

Hubbard, J. P. (1978). Revised check-list of the birds of New Mexico. New Mexico Ornithological Society Publication no. 6.

Huizinga, H. W. 1971. Contracaeciasis in pelicaniform birds. J. Wildl. Dis. no. 7:198-202.

Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. 1959. An approach to the study of molts and plumages. The Auk 76 (1):1-31.

Hunt, J. D. and R. M. Evans. 1997. Brood reduction and the insurance-egg hypothesis in Double-crested Cormorants. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:485-491.

Jackson, J. A. and B. J. S. Jackson. 1995. The Double-crested Cormorant in the south-central United States: habitat and population changes of a feathered pariah. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):118-130.

James, D. A. and J. C. Neal. 1986. Arkansas birds: Their distribution and abundance. Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters and pelicans of the world. Washington, D.C: Smithson. Inst. Press.

Johnson, J. H., R. M. Ross and D. R. Smith. 1997b. Evidence of secondary consumption of invertebrate prey by Double-crested Cormorants. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:547-551.

Johnson, J. H., R. M. Ross, R. D. McCullough and A. Mathers. 2010a. Diet shift of Double-crested Cormorants in eastern Lake Ontario associated with the expansion of the invasive round goby. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):242-247.

Johnstone, I. G., M. P. Harris, S. Wanless and J. A. Graves. 1990. The usefulness of pellets for assessing the diet of adult Shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Bird Study no. 37:5-11.

Jones, A. W., C. M. Dalton, E. S. Stowe and D. M. Post. 2010a. Contribution of declining anadromous fishes to the reproductive investment of a common piscivorous seabird, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Auk no. 127 (3):696-703.

Jones, D. R. and S. Larigakis. 1988. The effect of breathing oxygen and air on diving bradycardia in cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). J. Exp. Biol. no. 136:499-502.

Jones, P. D., J. P. Giesy, J. L. Newsted, D. A. Verbrugge and J. P. Ludwig. 1994. Accumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents by Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, Pelecaniformes) chicks in the North American Great Lakes. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. no. 27:192-209.

Kain, T. 1987b. Virginia birdlife: an annotated check-list. Williamsburg: Virginia Society of Ornithology.

Kanwisher, J. W., G. Gabrielsen and N. Kanwisher. 1981. Free and forced diving in birds. Science no. 211:717-719.

Keith, J. A. 1995. Management policies for cormorants in Canada. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):234-237.

Keith, J. A. and I. M. Gruchy. 1972. Residue levels of chemical pollutants in North American birdlife. Proc. Int. Congr. Ornithol. no. 15:437-452.

Kennedy, M., C. A. Valle and H. G. Spencer. 2009. The phylogenetic position of the Galápagos Cormorant. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 53 (1):94-98.

Kennedy, M., R. D. Gray and H. G. Spencer. 2000a. The phylogenetic relationships of the shags and cormorants: Can sequence data resolve a disagreement between behavior and morphology? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 17 (3):345-359.

King, D. T. 1996b. Movements of Double-crested Cormorants among winter roosts in the Delta Region of Mississippi. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 67 (2):205-211.

King, D. T., B. K. Strickland and A. Radomski. 2012. Migration patterns of Double-crested Cormorants wintering in the southeastern United States. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):132-137.

King, D. T., J. F. Glahn and K. J. Andrews. 1995a. Daily activity budget and movements of winter roosting Double-crested Cormorants determined by biotelemetry in the Delta Region of Mississippi. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):152-157.

King, D. T., K. J. Andrews, J. O. King, R. D. Flynt, J. F. Glahn and J. L. Cummings. 1994. A night-lighting technique for capturing cormorants. J. Field Ornithol. no. 65:254-257.

King, D. T., M. E. Tobin and M. Bur. 2000b. Capture and telemetry techniques for Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference no. 19:54-57.

King, K. A., C. J. Stafford, B. W. Cain, A. J. Mueller and H. D. Hall. 1987. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA. Colon. Waterbirds no. 10:93-99.

Kirsch, E. M. 1997. Numbers and distribution of Double-crested Cormorants on the upper Mississippi River. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:177-184.

Klimkiewicz, K. M. and A. G. Futcher. 1989. Longevity records of North American birds, Supplement 1. J. Field Ornithol. no. 60:469-494.

Koel, T. M., B. L. Kerans, S. C. Barras, K. C. Hanson and J. S. Wood. 2010. Avian piscivores as vectors for Myxobolus cerebralis in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society no. 139 (4):976-988.

Koffijberg, K. and M. R. Van Eerden. 1995. Sexual dimorphism in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis: possible implications for differences in structural size. Ardea no. 83:37-46.

Koh, S., A. J. Tanentzap, G. Mouland, T. Dobbie, L. Carr, J. Keitel, K. Hogsden, G. Harvey, J. Hudson and R. Thorndyke. 2012. Double-crested Cormorants alter forest structure and increase damage indices of individual trees on island habitats in Lake Erie. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):13-22.

Kolb, G. S., L. Jerling and P. A. Hambäck. 2010. The impact of cormorants on plant-arthropod food webs on their nesting islands. Ecosystems no. 13 (3):353-366.

Krohn, W. B., R. B. Allen, J. R. Moring and A. E. Hutchinson. 1995. Double-crested Cormorants in New England: Population and management histories. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):99-109.

Kuiken, T. 1999. Review of Newcastle disease in cormorants. Waterbirds no. 22:333-347.

Kuiken, T., F. A. Leighton, G. Wobeser and B. Wagner. 1999. Causes of morbidity and mortality and their effects on reproductive success in Double-crested Cormorants from Saskatchewan. J. Wildl. Dis. no. 35 (2):331-346.

Kury, C. R. 1968. Difference in weight of male and female cormorants. Auk no. 85:513.

Kury, C. R. 1969. Pesticide residues in a marine population of Double-crested Cormorants. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 33:91-95.

Kury, C. R. and M. Gochfeld. 1975. Human interference and gull predation in cormorant colonies. Biol. Conserv. no. 8:23-34.

Kushlan, J. A. and L. C. McEwan. 1982. Nesting phenology of the Double-crested Cormorant. Wilson Bull. no. 94:201-206.

Lantry, B. F., T. H. Eckert, C. P. Schneider and J. R. Chrisman. 2002. The relationship between the abundance of smallmouth bass and Double-crested Cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):193-201.

Larson, J. M., W. H. Karasov, L. Sileo, K. L. Stromberg and B. A. Hanbidge. 1996. Reproductive success, developmental anomalies, and environmental contaminants in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. no. 15:553-559.

Lemmon, C. R., G. Bugbee and G. R. Stephens. 1994. Tree damage by nesting Double-crested Cormorants in Connecticut. Connecticut Warbler no. 14:27-30.

Lewis, H. F. 1929. The natural history of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Lesson)). Ottawa, Ontario: Ru-Mi-Lou Books.

Lovvorn, J. R. and D. R. Jones. 1991a. Body mass, volume, and buoyancy of some aquatic birds, and their relation to locomotor strategies. Can. J. Zool. no. 69:2888-2892.

Ludwig, J. P., C. N. Hull, M. E. Ludwig and H. J. Auman. 1989. Food habits and feeding ecology of nesting Double-crested Cormorants in the upper Great Lakes, 1986-1989. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 67:117-129.

Ludwig, J. P., H. Kurita-Matsuba, H. J. Auman, M. E. Ludwig and C. L. Summer. 1996. Deformities, PCBs, and TCDD-equivalents in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) of the upper Great Lakes 1986-1991: Testing a cause-effect hypothesis. J. Great Lakes Res. no. 22:172-197.

Lutmerding, J. A. and A. S. Love. Longevity records of North American birds (Version 2011.3). Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bird Banding Laboratory 2011. Available from

Léger, C. and R. McNeil. 1985. Nest attendance and care of young in Double-crested Cormorants. Colon. Waterbirds no. 8:96-103.

Léger, C. and R. McNeil. 1987a. Brood size and chick position as factors influencing feeding frequency, growth, and survival of nestling Double-crested Cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus. Can. Field-Nat. no. 101:351-361.

Léger, C. and R. McNeil. 1987b. Choix de l'emplacement des nids de Cormorans à aigrettes (Phalacrocorax auritus) aux îles de la Madeleine, Québec. Can. J. Zool. no. 65:2434.

Madenjian, C. P. and S. W. Gabrey. 1995. Waterbird predation on fish in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics model application. Condor no. 97:141-153.

Mahoney, S. A. 1984. Plumage wettability of aquatic birds. Auk no. 101:181-185.

Malcolmson, R. O. 1960. Mallophaga from birds of North America. Wilson Bull. no. 72:182-197.

Marshall, W. H. and A. B. Erickson. 1945. Weights of some Minnesota birds. Flicker no. 17:32-36.

Mcconaughy, M. 1996. First Double-crested Cormorant nesting in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Birds no. 10:151.

McGregor, A. M. and C. L. Davis. 2012. Cost effectiveness of egg oiling versus culling for reducing fish consumption by Double-crested Cormorants in Lac La Biche, Alberta. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):66-76.

Mcleod, J. A. and G. F. Bondar. 1953. A brief study of the Double-crested Cormorant on Lake Winnipegosis. Can. Field-Nat. no. 67:1-11.

McNeil, R. and C. Léger. 1987. Nest-site quality and reproductive success of early- and latenesting Double-crested Cormorants. Wilson Bull. no. 99:262-267.

Meier, T. I. 1981. Artificial nesting structures for the Double-crested Cormorant. Madison, WS: Dept. Nat. Res.

Mendall, H. L. 1936a. The home-life and economic status of the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus auritus (Lesson), Univ. Maine Stud., Second Ser. no. 38. Orono: Maine Bull. 39.3. Univ. Press.

Mercer, D. M., S. M. Haig and D. D. Roby. 2013. Phylogeography and population genetic structure of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Conservation Genetics no. 14 (4):823-836.

Meyerreicks, A. J. 1972. Tool-using by a Double-crested Cormorant. Wilson Bull. no. 84:482-3.

Meyers, R. A. 1997. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 1. Wing drying posture in the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus. J. Morphol. no. 233:67-76.

Michael, C. W. 1935b. Nesting habits of cormorants. Condor no. 37:36-37.

Mills, H. B., W. C. Starrett and F. C. Bellrose. 1966. Man's effect on the fish and wildlife of the Illinois River. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes no. 57.

Milton, G. R., P. J. Austin-Smith and G. J. Farmer. 1995. Shouting at shags: a case study of cormorant management in Nova Scotia. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18:91-98.

Mitchell, R. M. 1977. Breeding biology of the Double-crested Cormorant on Utah lake. Great Basin Nat. no. 37:1-23.

Mora, M. A. and D. A. Anderson. 1995. Selenium, boron, and heavy metals in birds from the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 54:198-206.

Morse, D. H. 1971b. Great Horned Owls and nesting seabirds. Auk no. 88:426-487.

Mott, D. F. and F. L. Boyd. 1995. A review of techniques for preventing cormorant depredations at aquaculture facilities in the southeastern United States. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):76-180.

Mott, D. F. and M. W. Brunson. 1997. A historical perspective of catfish production in the Southeast in relation to avian predation. In Seventh Eastern Wildlife Damage Management Conference, 1995.

Mott, D. F., J. F. Glahn, P. L. Smith, D. S. Reinhold, K. J. Bruce and C. A. Sloan. 1998. An evaluation of winter roost harassment for dispersing Double-crested Cormorants away from catfish production areas in Mississippi. Wildl. Soc. Bull no. 26 (3):584-591.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives: The Pelecaniformes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nettleship, D. N. and D. C. Duffy. 1995. The Double-crested Cormorant: Biology, Conservation and Management. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):1-256.

Neuman, J., D. L. Pearl, R. Black, P. J. Ewins and D. V. Weseloh. 1997. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) breeding on the lower Great Lakes in the early 1990s. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 54:1569-1584.

Nichols, D., R. J. Montali, C. Pickett and C. Bush. 1983a. Rickets in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). J. Zoo An. Med. no. 14:115-124.

Nisbet, I. C. T. 1995. Biology, Conservation and Management of the Double-crested Cormorant: symposium summary and overview. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):247-252.

Nisbet, I. C. T. and J. Baird. 1959. The autumn migration of the Double-crested Cormorant through eastern New England. Massachusetts Audubon no. 43:224-227.

Noble, D. G. and J. E. Elliott. 1986. Environmental contaminants in Canadian seabirds 1968-1985: trends and effects. Can. Wildl. Serv. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. no. 13.

O'Malley, J. B. E. and R. M. Evans. 1983. Kleptoparasitism and associated foraging behaviors in American White Pelicans. Colon. Waterbirds no. 6:126-129.

O'Meara, T. E., W. R. Marion, O. B. Myers and W. M. Hetrick. 1982. Food habits of three bird species on phosphate-mine settling ponds and natural wetlands. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. no. 36:515-526.

Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.

Owre, O. T. 1967a. Adaptations for locomotion and feeding in the Anhinga and the Double-crested Cormorant. Ornithol. Monogr. no. 6:1-138.

Palmer, R. S. 1962a. Handbook of North American Birds, Vol. 1: Loons through Flamingos. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.

Pearce, P. A., J. E. Elliott, D. B. Peakall and R. J. Norstrom. 1989. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of seabirds in the northwest Atlantic 1968-1984. Environ. Pollut. no. 56:217-236.

Pearse, A. T., B. S. Dorr, S. J. Dinsmore and R. M. Kaminski. 2007. Comparison of sampling strategies to estimate abundance of Double-crested Cormorants in western Mississippi. Human-Wildlife Conflicts no. 1 (1):27-34.

Peck, G. K. and R. D. James. 1983. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution Vol. 1: Nonpasserines. Toronto: R. Ontario Mus.

Pennycuick, C. J. 1989. Bird flight performance: a practical calculation manual. Oxford, U.K: Oxford Univ. Press.

Pennycuick, C. J. 1991. "Flight of seabirds." In Seabirds: feeding ecology and role in Marine ecosystems., edited by J. P. Croxall, 43-62. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Pense, D. B. and G. E. Childs. 1972. Pathology of Amphimerus elongatus (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) in the liver of the Double-crested Cormorant. J. Wildl. Dis. no. 8:221-224.

Pilon, C., J. Burton and R. McNeil. 1983a. Reproduction du Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo) et du Cormoran á aigrettes (P. auritus) aux Îles de la Madeleine, Québec. Can. J. Zool. no. 61:524-530.

Podolsky, R. H. and S. W. Kress. 1989. Plastic debris incorporated into Double-crested Cormorant nests in the Gulf of Maine. J. Field Ornithol. no. 60:248-250.

Post, W. 1988c. Spread of the Double-cresed Cormorant into inerior of the southeastern United States. Colon. Waterbirds no. 11:115-116.

Post, W. and C. A. Seals. 1991b. Breeding biology of a newly-established Double-crested Cormorant population in South Carolina. Colon. Waterbirds no. 14:34-38.

Postupalsky, S. 1978b. Toxic chemicals and cormorant populations in the Great Lakes. Ottawa: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Potts, G. R. 1971. Moult in the shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis, and the ontogeny of the "Staffelmauser.". Ibis no. 113:298-305.

Powell, D. C., R. J. Aulerich, J. C. Meadows, D. E. Tillett, K. L. Stromberg and et al. 1997b. Organochlorine contaminants in Double-crested Cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin. II. Effects of an extract derived from cormorant eggs on the chicken embryo. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 32:316-322.

Price, I. M. and D. V. Weseloh. 1986. Increased numbers and productivity of Double-crested Cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, on Lake Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. no. 100:474-482.

Pyle, P. 2005c. Remigial molt patterns in North American Falconiformes as related to age, sex, breeding status, and life-history strategies. Condor no. 107 (4):823-834.

Pyle, P. 2006. Staffelmauser and other adaptive strategies for wing molt in larger birds. Western Birds no. 37 (3):179-185.

Pyle, P. 2008. Identification guide to North American birds. Part 2: Anatidae to Alcidae. Point Reyes Station: Slate Creek Press.

Quinn, J. S., M. Lozer and C. M. Somers. 2012. Tethered raptor displaces roosting cormorants. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):77-81.

Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith and J. Raffaele. 1998. A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Rail, J. F. and G. Chapdelaine. 1998. Food of Double-crested Cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, in the gulf and estuary of the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Can. J. Zool. no. 76:635-643.

Rasmussen, P. C. 1987. Molts of the Rock Shag and new interpretations of the plumage sequence. Condor no. 89 (4):760-766.

Rasmussen, P. C. 1988. Stepwise molt of remiges in Blue-eyed and King shags. Condor no. 90 (1):220-227.

Rattner, B. A., N. H. Golden, J. L. Pearson, J. B. Cohen and L. J. Garrett. Biological and ecotoxicological characteristics of terrestrial vertebrate species residing in estuaries: Double-crested Cormorant. USGS 1999. Available from

Reinhold, D. S., A. J. Mueller and G. Ellis. 1999. Observations of nesting Double-crested Cormorants in the Delta region of Mississippi. Colon. Waterbirds no. 21:466-467.

Ridgway, M. S. 2010a. A review of estimates of daily energy expenditure and food intake in cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.). Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (1):93-99.

Ridgway, M. S. 2010b. Line transect distance sampling in aerial surveys for Double-crested Cormorants in coastal regions of Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (3):403-410.

Ridgway, M. S., J. B. Pollard and D. V. C. Weseloh. 2006. Density-dependent growth of Double-crested Cormorant colonies on Lake Huron. Canadian Journal of Zoology no. 84 (10):1409-1420.

Ridgway, M. S., T. A. Middel and J. B. Pollard. 2012. Response of Double-crested Cormorants to a large-scale egg oiling experiment on Lake Huron. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 76 (4):740-749.

Robbins, C. S., and E. A. T. Blom (1996). Atlas of Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Robbins, M. A. and D. A. Easterla. 1992. Birds of Missouri: Their distribution and abundance. Columbia: Univ. Missouri Press.

Robbins, S. D., Jr. 1991. Wisconsin birdlife: population and distribution, past and present. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Robertson, I. 1971a. The influence of brood-size on reproductive success in two species of cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus and P. pelagicus, and its relation to the problem of clutch size. Master's Thesis, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Robertson, I. 1974. The food of nesting Double-Crested and Pelagic cormorants at Mandarte Island, British Columbia, with notes on feeding ecology. Condor no. 76 (3):346-348.

Root, T. R. (1988). Atlas of wintering North American birds: an analysis of Christmas Bird Count data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Ross, R. K. 1974b. A comparison of the feeding and nesting requirements of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) and Double-crested Cormorant (P. auritus Lesson), in Nova Scotia. Proc. N.S. Inst. Sci. no. 27:114-132.

Ross, R. M. and J. H. Johnson. 1995. Seasonal and annual changes in the diet of Double-crested Cormorants: implications for Lake Ontario's fishery. Great Lakes Res. Rev. no. 2:1-9.

Ross, R. M. and J. H. Johnson. 1997. Fish losses to Double-crested Cormorant predation in eastern Lake Ontario, 1992-1997. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Rudstam, L. G., A. J. VanDeValk, C. M. Adams, J. T. H. Coleman, J. L. Forney and M. E. Richmond. 2004. Cormorant predation and the population dynamics of walleye and yellow perch in Oneida Lake. Ecological Applications no. 14 (1):149-163.

Runge, M. C., J. R. Sauer, M. L. Avery, B. F. Blackwell and M. D. Koneff. 2009. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 73 (4):556-565.

Russell, A. F., S. Wanless and M. P. Harris. 1995. Factors affecting the production of pellets by Shags, Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Seabird no. 17:44-49.

Russell, S. M. and G. Monson. 1998. The birds of Sonora. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

Ryckman, D., D. V. Weseloh, P. Hamr, G. A. Fox and B. Collins. 1998. Spatial and temporal trends in organochlorine contamination and bill deformities in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Canadian Great Lakes. Environ. Monit. Assess. no. 53:169-195.

Sanderson, J. T., R. J. Norstrom, J. Elliot, L. E. Hart, K. M. Cheng and G. D. Bellward. 1994. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in Double-crested Cormorant chicks (Phalacrocorax auritus). J. Toxicol. Env. Health no. 41:247-265.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines and J. Fallon. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2006. Version 7.23.2007. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center 2007.

Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, G. Gough, I. Thomas and B. G. Peterjohn. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-1996. Version 96.3. Patuxent Wildl. Res. Center 1997.

Sauer, J. R., S. Schwartz and B. Hoover. The Christmas Bird Count homepage. Version 95. 1. Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr. 1996c.

Scharf, W. C. and G. W. Shugart. 1998. Distribution and abundance of gull, tern, and cormorant nesting colonies of the U.S. Great Lakes, 1989 and 1990. Edited by W. W. Bowerman and A. S. Roe. Sault Ste. Marie, MI: Publ. no. 1, Gale Gleason Environ. Inst., Lake Superior State Univ. Press.

Scherr, H., J. Bowman and K. F. Abraham. 2010. Migration and winter movements of Double-crested Cormorants breeding in Georgian Bay, Ontario. Waterbirds no. 33 (4):451-460.

Schneider, C. P., Jr. Schiavone, A., T. H. Eckert, R. D. McCullough and B. F. Lantry. 1998. Double-crested Cormorant predation on smallmouth bass and other warm water fishes of the eastern basin of Lake Ontario: overview and summary. Watertown, NY: New York Dept. Environ. Conserv. Spec. Rep., Dec. 15, 1998.

Schramm, Jr., H. L., B. French and M. Ednoff. 1984. Depredation of channel catfish by Florida Double-crested Cormorants. Progr. Fish-Cult. no. 46:41-43.

Seamans, M. E., J. P. Ludwig, K. Stromborg, F. E. Ludwig II and F. E. Ludwig. 2012. Annual survival of Double-crested Cormorants from the Great Lakes, 1979-2006. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):23-30.

Seefelt, N. E. 2012. Comparing decadal census trends and yearly variation in abundance and distribution of breeding Double-crested Cormorants: Importance of monitoring a managed species. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):40-49.

Seefelt, N. E. and J. C. Gillingham. 2006a. A comparison of three methods to investigate the diet of breeding Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Beaver Archipelago, northern Lake Michigan. Hydrobiologia no. 567:57-67.

Seefelt, N. E. and J. C. Gillingham. 2006b. Foraging locations of Double-crested Cormorants in the Beaver Archipelago of northern Lake Michigan: Potential for impacts on smallmouth bass. Waterbirds no. 29 (4):473-480.

Seefelt, N. E. and J. C. Gillingham. 2008. Bioenergetics and prey consumption of breeding Double-crested Cormorants in the Beaver Archipelago, northern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 34 (1):122-133.

Sellers, R. M. 1995. Wing-spreading behaviour of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Ardea no. 83:27-36.

Sepulveda, M. S., R. H. Poppenga, J. J. Arrecis and L. B. Quinn. 1998. Concentrations of mercury and selenium in tissue of Double-crested Cormorants from southern Florida. Colon. Waterbirds no. 21:35-42.

Sheppard, Y. 1994. Cormorants and pelicans. Birds Wild. no. 3:30-35.

Shieldcastle, M. C. and L. Martin. 1997. "Colonial waterbird nesting on West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge and the arrival of Double-crested Cormorants." In Symposium on Double-crested Cormorants: Population status and management issues in the Midwest, edited by M. E. Tobin, 115-120. Washington: U.S. Dept. Agricul. Tech. Bull. 1879.

Shonk, K. A., S. D. Kevan and D. V. Weseloh. 2004. The effect of oil spraying on eggs of Double-crested Cormorants. Environmentalist no. 24 (2):119-124.

Shugart, G. W. and S. Rohwer. 1996. Serial descendant primary molt or Staffelmauser in Black-crowned Night-Herons. Condor no. 98 (2):222-233.

Shutt, J. L., D. W. Andrews, D. V. C. Weseloh, D. J. Moore, C. E. Hebert, G. D. Campbell and K. Williams. 2014. The importance of island surveys in documenting disease-related mortality and Botulism E in Great Lakes colonial waterbirds. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 40 (1):58-63.

Sibley, C. G. and B. L. Monroe, Jr. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Siegel-Causey, D. 1980. Progenicide in Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 82:101.

Siegel-Causey, D. 1988b. Phylogeny of the Phalcrocoracidae. Condor no. 90:885-905.

Siegel-Causey, D. 1990. Phylogenetic patterns of the size and shape of the nasal gland depression in the Phalacrocoracidae. Auk no. 107:110-118.

Siegel-Causey, D. 1997. "Phylogeny of the Pelecaniformes: molecular systematics of a privative group." In Avian molecular evolution and systematics., edited by D. P. Mindell, 159-171. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Siegel-Causey, D. and Jr. Hunt, G. L. 1981. Colonial defence behavior in Double-crested and Pelagic Cormorants. Auk no. 98:522-531.

Siegel-Causey, D. and Jr. Hunt, G. L. 1986. Breeding-site selection and colony formation in Double Crested and Pelagic cormorants. Auk no. 103:230-234.

Siegel-Causey, D., C. Lefevre and A. B. Savinetskii. 1991. Historical diversity of cormorants and shags from Amchitka Island, Alaska. Condor no. 93:840-852.

Sinclair, P. H., W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert and N. L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Sivak, J. G., J. L. Lincer and W. Bobier. 1977. Amphibious visual optics of the eyes of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and the Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). Can J. Zool. no. 55:782-788.

Small, A. 1994. California birds: their status and distribution. Vista, CA: Ibis Publ. Co.

Smith, M. R., Jr. Mattocks, P. W. and K. M. Cassidy. 1997. "Breeding birds of Washington State." In WA State gap analysis - final report, edited by K. M. Cassidy, C. E. Grue, M. R. Smith and K. M. Dvornich. Seattle: Seattle Audubon Soc. Pubs. in Zoology No. 1.

Somers, C. M., J. L. Doucette, D. V. C. Weseloh, V. A. Kjoss and R. M. Brigham. 2011. Interactions between Double-crested Cormorants and other ground-nesting species. Waterbirds no. 34 (2):168-176.

Somers, C. M., M. N. Lozer and J. S. Quinn. 2007. Interactions between Double-crested Cormorants and Herring Gulls at a shared breeding site. Waterbirds no. 30 (2):241-250.

Somers, C. M., M. N. Lozer, V. A. Kjoss and J. S. Quinn. 2003. The invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the diet of nestling Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 29 (3):392-399.

Somers, J. D., B. C. Goski, J. M. Barbeau and M. W. Barrett. 1993. Accumulation of organochlorine contaminants in Double-crested Cormorants. Environ. Pollut. no. 80:17-23.

Stapanian, M. A. 2002. Interspecific interactions, habitat use, and management of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes: An introduction. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):119-124.

Stapanian, M. A., M. T. Bur, J. T. Tyson, T. W. Seamans and B. F. Blackwell. 2002. Foraging locations of Double-crested Cormorants on western Lake Erie: Site characteristics and spatial associations with prey fish densities. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):155-171.

Stenzel, L. E., H. R. Carter, R. D. Henderson, S. D. Emslie and J. D. Rauzon. 1995. Breeding success of Double-crested Cormorants in the San Francisco Bay area, California. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):216-224.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994b. The birdlife of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Stickley, A. R. and K. J. Andrews. 1989. Survey of Mississippi catfish farmers on means, effort, and costs to repel fish-eating birds from ponds. In Fourth Eastern Wildlife Damage Control Conference, 1989.

Stickley, Jr., A. R., G. L. Warrick and J. F. Glahn. 1992. Impact of Double-crested Cormorant depredations on channel catfish farms. J. World Aquacult. Soc. no. 23:192-198.

Stresemann, E. and V. Stresemann. 1966b. The molt of birds. J. Ornithol. no. 107 (Suppl.):1-448.

Stromborg, K. L., J. S. Ivan, J. K. Netto and C. R. Courtney. 2012. Survivorship and mortality patterns of Double-crested Cormorants at Spider Island, Wisconsin, 1988-2006. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):31-39.

Sutton, G. M. 1967b. Oklahoma birds, their ecology and distribution with comments on the avifauna of the southern Great Plains. Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.

Tate, J. and D. J. Tate. 1982. The Blue List and the list of species with Special Concerns. Am. Birds. no. 36:129-134.

Taverner, P. A. 1915. The Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and its relation to the salmon industries of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Biol. Series no. 5. Ottawa: Govt. Printing Bureau.

Taylor II, J. D. and B. S. Dorr. 2003. "Double-crested Cormorant impacts to commercial and natural resources." In Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, edited by K. A. Fagerstone and G. W. Witmer, 43-51. Fort Collins: The Wildlife Damage Management Working Group of the Wildlife Society.

Taylor, P. W. 1992d. Fish-eating birds as potential vectors of Edwardsiella ictaluri. J. Aquat. Anim. Health no. 4:240-243.

Telfair II, R. C. and M. L. Morrison. 1995. "Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)." In The birds of North America, no. 137., edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington, D.C: Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, PA, and Am. Ornithol. Union.

Thompson, B. C., J. J. Campo and R. C. Telfair. 1995a. Origin, population attributes and management conflict resolution for Double-crested Cormorants wintering in Texas. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):181.

Thompson, L. S. 1981. Nest-tree sharing by herons and cormorants in Montana. Can. Field-Nat. no. 95:257-260.

Threlfall, W. 1982a. Ectoparasites (Mallophaga, Acarina) from the Double-crested Cormorant in Florida. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. no. 84:369-375.

Threlfall, W. 1982b. Endoparasites of the Double-crested Cormorant (P. auritus) in Florida. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. no. 49:101-108.

Tillitt, D. E., G. T. Ankley, J. P. Giesy, J. P. Ludwig and H. Kurita-Matsuba. 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in Double-crested Cormorants from the Great Lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. no. 11:1281-1288.

Tobin, M. E. 1997. Population status and management issues in the Midwest. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorants, at December 9, 1997, Milwaukee, WI.

Tobin, M. E., D. T. King, B. S. Dorr, S. J. Werner and D. S. Reinhold. 2002. Effect of roost harassment on cormorant movements and roosting in the delta region of Mississippi. Waterbirds no. 25 (1):44-51.

Tobish, Jr., T. G. and M. E. Isleib. 1992a. Alaska Region. Am. Birds no. 46:462-465.

Todd, C. S., L. S. Young, Jr. Owen, R. B. and F. J. Gramlich. 1982. Food habits of Bald Eagles in Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 46:636-645.

Trapp, J. L. 1998. Migratory bird permits; establishment of a depredation order for the Double-crested Cormorant. Federal Register no. 63, no. 42 (March 4 1998):10550-10561.

Trapp, J. L., T. J. Dwyer, J. J. Doggett and J. G. Nickum. 1995. Management responsibilities and policies for cormorants: United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):226-230.

Tucker, V. A. 1991. The effect of molting on the gliding performance of a Harris' Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus). Auk no. 108 (1):108-113.

Tymstra, Y. R. 1997. Bird observations from some southeastern James Bay islands, N.W.T. Ont. Birds no. 15:108-115.

Tyson, L. A., J. L. Belant, F. J. Cuthbert and D. V. Weseloh. 1997. Nesting populations of Double-crested Cormorants in the United States and Canada. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999a. Beringian seabird colony catalog-computer database and colony status record archives. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Migratory Bird Manage.

Van Der Veen, H. E. 1973. Some aspects of the breeding biology and demography of the Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) of Mandarte Island. Ph.D. thesis, Zoologisch Laboratorium der Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen, Groningen.

Van Eerden, M. R. and B. Voslamber. 1995. Mass fishing by cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis at Lake IJsselmeer, the Netherlands: a recent and successful adaptation to a turbid environment. Ardea no. 83:199-212.

Van Eerden, M. R., K. Koffijberg and M. Platteeuw. 1995. Riding on the crest of the wave: possibilities and limitations for a thriving population of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in man-dominated wetlands. Nederlandse Ornithologische Unie, Oegstgeest, the Netherlands. [Republished from Ardea] no. 83 (1).

Van Guilder, M. A. and N. E. Seefelt. 2013. Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) chick bioenergetics following round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion and implementation of cormorant population control. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 39 (1):153-161.

Van Scheik, W. J. 1985. Thermal aspects of the reproductive ecology of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in southern Alberta. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton.

Van Tets, G. F. 1959. A comparative study of the reproductive behaviour and natural history of three sympatric species of cormorants, (Phalacrocorax auritus, P. penicillatus, & P. pelagicus) at Mandarte Island, B.C. Master's Thesis, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Van Tets, G. F. 1965. A comparative study of some social communication patterns in the Pelecaniformes. Washington, D.C: Ornithol. Monogr. no. 2. Am. Ornithol. Union.

van Tets, G. F. 1976. "Australasia and the origin of shags and cormorants, Phalacrocoracidae." In Proc. 16th Inter. Ornith. Congr., edited by H. J. Frith and J. H. Calaby, 121-124. Canberra.

Verbeek, N. A. M. 1982. Egg predation by Northwestern Crows: its association with human and Bald Eagle activity. Auk no. 99:347-352.

Vermeer, K. 1969e. Some aspects of the breeding chronology of Double-crested Cormorants at Lake Newell, Alberta, in 1968. Murrelet no. 50:19-20.

Vermeer, K. and L. M. Reynolds. 1970. Organochlorine residues in aquatic birds in the Canadian prairie provinces. Can. Field-Nat. no. 84:117-130.

Waits, J. L., M. L. Avery, M. E. Tobin and P. L. Leberg. 2003. Low mitochondrial DNA variation in Double-crested Cormorants in Eastern North America. Waterbirds no. 26 (2):196-200.

Watson, G. E., S. L. Olson and J. R. Miller. 1991. A new subspecies of the Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, from San Salvador, Bahama Islands. Proc. Biol Soc. Wash. no. 104:356-369.

Werner, S. J. 2000. "Cormorant research and impacts to southern aquaculture." In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Vertebrate Pest Conference, edited by T. P. Salmon and A. C. Crabb, 81-83. Davis: University of California, Davis.

Werner, S. J. and S. L. Hanisch. 2003. Status of Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus research in North America. Vogelwelt no. 124 (Suppl.):369-374.

Weseloh, C. 2007. "Double-crested Cormorant." In Atlas of the breeding birds of Ontario, 2001-2005, edited by M. D. Cadman, D. A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage and A. R. Couturier, 152-153. Toronto: Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature.

Weseloh, D. V. C. and J. Casselman. 1992. Calculated fish consumption by Double-crested Cormorants in eastern Lake Ontario. Abstracts of Scientific Papers Presented at the 1992 Ann. Meeting of the Colonial Waterbird Society: 76, and Colon. Waterbird Soc. Bull. no. 16 (2):63-64.

Weseloh, D. V. C. and P. J. Ewins. 1994. Characteristics of a rapidly increasing colony of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in Lake Ontario: population size reproductive parameters and band recoveries. J. Great Lakes Research no. 20:443-456.

Weseloh, D. V. C. and S. J. Lewis. 1997. Information needs for the Double-crested Cormorant in midwestern North America, as identified by an audience survey. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Weseloh, D. V. C., C. Pekarik, T. Havelka, G. Barrett and J. Reid. 2002a. Population trends and colony locations of Double-crested Cormorants in the Canadian Great Lakes and immediately adjacent areas, 1990-2000: A manager's guide. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):125-144.

Weseloh, D. V. C., F. J. Cuthbert and D. T. King. 2012. Introduction: Double-crested Cormorants of the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence river basin: Recent studies, movements and responses to management actions. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):1-3.

Weseloh, D. V., D. P. Ryckman, R. W. MacDonald, M. K. McNicholl and J. J. Hatch. 1999. The Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus): a partially annotated bibliography. Can. Wildl. Serv. Ont. Reg. Tech. Rep.

Weseloh, D. V., P. J. Ewins, J. Struger, P. Mineau and C. A. Bishop. 1995b. Double-crested Cormorants of the Great Lakes: Changes in population size, breeding distribution and reproductive output between 1913 and 1991. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):48-59.

Weseloh, D. V., S. M. Teeple and M. Gilbertson. 1983. Double-crested Cormorants of the Great Lakes: egg-laying parameters, reproductive failure and contaminant residues in eggs. Can. J. Zool. no. 61:427-436.

Wiese, F. K., J. K. Parrish, C. W. Thompson and C. Maranto. 2008. Ecosystem-based management of predator-prey relationships: Piscivorous birds and salmonids. Ecological Applications no. 18 (3):681-700.

Williams, D. J., J. Merriman and M. A. Neilson. 1998. Surveillance and monitoring of Lake Ontario and the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers. Great Lakes Research Review: Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River Ecosystem no. 4 (1):21-34.

Williams, L. L., J. P. Giesy, D. A. Verbrugge, S. Jurzysta and K. Stromborg. 1995b. Polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in eggs of Double-crested Cormorants from a colony near Green Bay, WI. Arch Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 29:327-333.

Wilson, R. P., K. Hustler, P. G. Ryan, A. E. Burger and E. C. Noldëke. 1992b. Diving birds in cold water: do Archimedes and Boyle determine energetic costs? Am. Nat. no. 140:179-200.

Wilson, U. W. 1991b. Responses of three seabird species to El Niño events and other warm episodes on the Washington coast, 1979-1990. Condor no. 93:853-858.

Wires, L. R. and F. J. Cuthbert. 2006. Historic populations of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus): Implications for conservation and management in the 21st century. Waterbirds no. 29 (1):9-37.

Wong, P. L. and R. C. Anderson. 1987a. Development of Syncuaria squamata (Linstow, 1883) (Nematoda: Acuariodea) in ostracods (Ostracoda) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus auritus). Can. J. Zool. no. 65:2524-2531.

Yamashita, N., S. Tanabe, J. P. Ludwig, H. Kurita, M. E. Ludwig and R. Tatsukawa. 1993. Embryonic abnormalities and organochlorine contamination in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes in 1988. Environ. Pollut. no. 79:163-173.

Zitko, V. 1976. Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons in eggs of Double-crested Cormorants from 1971 to 1975. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 16:399-405.

Recommended Citation

Dorr, B. S., J. J. Hatch, and D. V. Weseloh (2014). Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.