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Double-crested Cormorant

Phalacrocorax auritus

Order:
Suliformes
Family:
Phalacrocoracidae
Sections

References

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Adkins, J. Y. and D. D. Roby. 2010. A status assessment of the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America: 1998-2009. Final report to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Corvallis: U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit.

Ainley, D. G. and R. J. Boekelheide. 1990. Seabirds of the Farallon Islands: ecology, dynamics, and structure of an upwelling-system community. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

Ainley, D. G., D. W. Anderson and P. R. Kelly. 1981a. Feeding ecology of marine cormorants in southwestern North America. Condor no. 83:120-131.

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Anderson, D. W., J. J. Hickey, R. W. Risebrough, D. F. Hughes and R. E. Christensen. 1969b. Significance of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues to breeding pelicans and cormorants. Can. Field-Nat. no. 83:91-112.

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Andrews, R. 1990b. Coastal waterbird colonies: Maine to Virginia 1984-1985. Newton Corner, MA: U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv.

BOURC. 1993. British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee, 18th Report. Ibis no. 135:220-222.

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Banerjee, M., W. M. Reed, S. D. Fitzgerald and B. Panigrahy. 1994. Neurotropic velogenic Newcastle disease in cormorants in Michigan: pathology and virus characterization. Avian Dis. no. 38:873-878.

Barras, S. C. and M. E. Tobin. 2003. The role of research in expanded regional management of Double-crested Cormorants. Paper read at Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference.

Bartholomew, G. A. 1942. The fishing activities of Double-crested Cormorants on San Francisco Bay. Condor no. 44:13-21.

Bartholomew, G. A., R. C. Lasiewski and Jr. Crawford, E. C. 1968. Patterns of panting and gular flutter in cormorants, pelicans, owls, and doves. Condor no. 70:31-34.

Bastola, U. and C. R. Engle. 2012. Economically important production relationships in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) foodfish production. Reviews in Aquaculture no. 4 (2):94-107.

Bayer, R. D. 1989c. The cormorant/Fisherman conflict in Tillamook County, Oregon. Newport, OR: Gahmken Press.

Belyea, G. Y., S. L. Maruca, J. S. Diana, P. J. Schneeberger, S. J. Scott and et al. 1997. Impact of Double-crested Cormorant predation on the Yellow Perch population of the Les Cheneaux Islands of Michigan. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

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Birt, V. L., T. P. Birt, D. Goulet, D. K. Cairns and W. A. Montevecchi. 1987. Ashmole's halo: direct evidence for prey depletion by a seabird. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. no. 40:205-208.

Bishop, C. A., D. V. Weseloh, N. M. Burgess, J. Struger and R. J. Norstrom. 1992. An atlas of contaminants in eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes (1970-1988). In Techn. Rep. Ser. no. 152. Ottawa, Ontario: Can. Wildl. Serv.

Blackwell, B. F. and J. A. Sinclair. 1995. Evidence of secondary consumption of fish by Double-crested Cormorants. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. no. 123:1-4.

Blackwell, B. F. and W. B. Krohn. 1997. Spring foraging distribution and habitat selection by Double-crested Cormorants on the Penobscot River, Maine USA. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:66-76.

Blackwell, B. F., W. B. Krohn and R. B. Allen. 1995. Foods of nestling Double-crested Cormorants in Penobscot Bay, Maine, U.S.A.: temporal and spatial comparisons. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):199-208.

Blackwell, B. F., W. B. Krohn, N. R. Dube and A. J. Godin. 1997. Spring prey use by Double-crested Cormorants on the Penobscot River, Maine USA. Colon. Waterbirds no. 20:77-86.

Blem, C. R., W. H. N. Gutzke and C. Filemyr. 1980. First breeding record of the Double-crested Cormorant in Virginia. Wilson Bull. no. 92:127-128.

Blomme, C. 1981. Status and breeding success of Double-crested Cormorant in two North Channel (Lake Huron) colonies in 1979. Ont. Field Biol. no. 35:70-78.

Bostwick, K. S. and M. J. Brady. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of wing feather taxis in birds: Macroevolutionary patterns of genetic drift? Auk no. 119 (4):943-954.

Boutin, C., T. Dobbie, D. Carpenter and C. E. Hebert. 2011. Effects of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus Less.) on island vegetation, seedbank, and soil chemistry: Evaluating island restoration potential. Restoration Ecology no. 19 (6):720-727.

Braune, B. M. 1987a. Comparison of total mercury levels in relation to diet and molt for nine species of marine birds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 16:217-224.

Brechtel, S. H. 1983. The reproductive ecology of Double-crested Cormorants in southern Alberta. M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton.

Brinker, D. F. 2010b. "Double-crested Cormorant." In 2nd atlas of the breeding birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia, edited by W. G. Ellison, 70-71. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Brodkorb, P. 1963a. Catalogue of fossil birds Part 1 (Archaeopterygiformes through Ardeiformes). Bull. Florida State Mus. Vol. 7, No. no. 4:179-293.

Brugger, K. E. 1993. Digestibility of three fish species by Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 95:25-32.

Brugger, K. E. 1995. Double-crested Cormorants and fisheries in Florida. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):110-117.

Bur, M. T., S. L. Tinnirello, C. D. Lovell and J. T. Tyson. 1997. Diet of the Double-crested Cormorant in western Lake Erie. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Burnett, J. A. D., N. H. Ringler, B. F. Lantry and J. H. Johnson. 2002. Double-crested Cormorant predation on Yellow Perch in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):202-211.

Busby, W. H. and J. L. Zimmerman. 2001. Kansas breeding bird atlas. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1995a. Double-crested Cormorant culling in the St. Lawrence River estuary. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):78-85.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1995b. Double-crested Cormorant morphometry and field sexing in the St. Lawrence River estuary. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):86-90.

Bédard, J., A. Nadeau and M. Lepage. 1997c. Double-crested Cormorant culling in the St. Lawrence river estuary: results of a five-year program. Paper read at Symposium on Double-crested Cormorant.

Cairns, D. K. 1992b. "Population regulation of seabird colonies." In Current ornithology, edited by D. M. Power, 37-61. New York: Plenum Press.

Cairns, D. K. 1998. Deit of cormorants, mergansers, and kingfishers in northeastern North America. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Cairns, D. K., R. L. Dibblee and P. Y. Daoust. 1998. Displacement of a large Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, colony following human disturbance. Can. Field Nat. no. 112:520-522.

Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser and M. C. E. McNall. 1990b. The birds of British Columbia, Vol. I. Introduction and loons through waterfowl. Victoria: R. Br. Columbia Mus.

Campo, J. J., B. C. Thompson, J. C. Barron, R. C. Telfair II, P. P. Durocher and S. J. Gutreuter. 1993. Diet of Double-crested Cormorants wintering in Texas. J. Field Ornithol. no. 64:135-144.

Carney, K. M. and W. J. Sydeman. 1999. A review of human disturbance effects on nesting colonial waterbirds. Waterbirds no. 22 (1):68-79.

Carss, D. N. 1997. Technique for assessing cormorant diet and food intake: towards a consensus view. Suppl. Ric. Biol. Selvaggina no. 26:197-230.

Carter, H. R., A. L. Sowls, M. S. Rodway, U. W. Wilson and R. W. Lowe. 1995b. Population size, trends, and conservation problems of the Double-crested Cormorant on the Pacific Coast of North America. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):189-215.

Chapdelaine, G. and J. Bédard. 1995. Recent changes in the abundance and distribution of the Double-crested Cormorant in the St. Lawrence River, estuary and gulf, Quebec, 1978-1990. Colon. Waterbirds no. 18 (Spec. Publ. 1):70-77.

Chastant, J. E., D. T. King, D. V. C. Weseloh and D. J. Moore. 2014. Population dynamics of Double-crested Cormorants in two interior breeding areas. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 78 (1):3-11.

Christie, W. J., K. A. Scott, P. G. Sly and R. H. Strus. 1987. Recent changes in the aquatic food web of eastern Lake Ontario. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 44 (Suppl. 2)):37-52.

Clapp, R. B., R. C. Banks, D. Morgan-Jacobs and W. A. Hoffman. 1982a. Marine birds of the southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico, Part I. Gaviiformes through Pelecaniformes. Washington, D.C.: USFWS.

Clark, A. C., T. M. Kollasch and D. A. Williamson. 2006a. Movements of Double-crested Cormorants fledged on the Columbia River estuary. Northwestern Naturalist no. 87 (2):150-152.

Coleman, J. T. H. 2009. Diving behavior, predator-prey dynamics, and management efficacy of Double-crested Cormorants in New York State. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.

Coleman, J. T. H. and M. E. Richmond. 2007. Daily foraging patterns of adult Double-crested Cormorants during the breeding season. Waterbirds no. 30 (2):189-198.

Coleman, J. T. H., C. M. Adams, M. Kandel and M. E. Richmond. 2012. Eating the invaders: The prevalence of Round Goby (Apollonia melanostomus) in the diet of Double-crested Cormorants on the Niagara River. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):103-113.

Coleman, J. T. H., M. E. Richmond, L. G. Rudstam and P. M. Mattison. 2005. Foraging location and site fidelity of the Double-crested Cormorant on Oneida Lake, New York. Waterbirds no. 28 (4):498-510.

Connor, H. A. and R. W. Lofkin. 1985. The birds of Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. Fla. Field Nat. no. 13:77-93.

Courtot, K. N., D. D. Roby, J. Y. Adkins, D. E. Lyons, D. T. King and R. S. Larsen. 2012. Colony connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-crested Cormorants based on post-breeding dispersal from the region's largest colony. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 76 (7):1462-1471.

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Craig, E. C., S. B. Elbin, J. A. Danoff-Burg and M. I. Palmer. 2012. Impacts of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and other colonial waterbirds on plant and arthropod communities on islands in an urban estuary. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):4-12.

Craven, S. R. and E. Lev. 1987. Double-crested Cormorants in the Apostle Islands, Wisconsin, USA: population trends, food habits and fishery depredations. Colon. Waterbirds no. 10:64-71.

Cross, T. A., D. M. Arsnoe, R. B. Minnis, D. T. King, S. Swafford, K. Pedersen and J. C. Owen. 2013. Prevalence of avian paramyxovirus 1 and avian influenza virus in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in eastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 49 (4):965-977.

Cummings, M. V. 1987. The feeding energetics of the Double-crested Cormorant in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL.

Custer, T. W. and C. Bunck. 1992. Feeding flights of breeding Double-crested Cormorants at two Wisconsin colonies. J. Field Ornithol. no. 63:203-211.

Cuthbert, F. J., L. R. Wires and J. E. McKearnan. 2002a. Potential impacts of nesting Double-crested Cormorants on Great Blue Herons and Black-crowned Night-Herons in the U.S. Great Lakes region. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 28 (2):145-154.

Davenport, A. Double-crested Cormorant: direct recoveries of bandings from 1929-1997. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. 1998. Available from http://www.fws.gov/9mbmo/issues/cormorant/migration.html.

DeBruyne, R. L., J. T. H. Coleman, J. R. Jackson, L. G. Rudstam and A. J. VanDeValk. 2013. Analysis of prey selection by Double-crested Cormorants: A 15-year diet study in Oneida Lake, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society no. 142 (2):430-446.

DeBruyne, R. L., T. L. DeVault, A. E. Duerr, D. E. Capen, F. E. Pogmore, J. R. Jackson and L. G. Rudstam. 2012. Spatial and temporal comparisons of Double-crested Cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 38 (1):123-130.

DeVault, T. L., J. L. Belant, B. F. Blackwell and T. W. Seamans. 2011. Interspecific variation in wildlife hazards to aircraft: Implications for airport wildlife management. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 35 (4):394-402.

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Delaronde II, G. G. and Y. A. Greichus. 1972. Care and behavior of penned Double-crested Cormorants. Auk no. 89:644-650.

Derby, C. E. and J. R. Lovvorn. 1997. Comparison of pellets versus collected birds for sampling diets of Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 99:549-553.

DesGranges, J. L. 1982. Weight growth of young Double-crested Cormorants in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec. Colon. Waterbirds no. 5:79-86.

DesGranges, J. L. and A. Reed. 1981. Disturbance and control of selected colonies of Double-crested Cormorants in Quebec. Colonial Waterbirds no. 4:12-19.

Diana, J. S., S. Maruca and B. Low. 2006. Do increasing cormorant populations threaten sportfishes in the Great Lakes? A case study in Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 32 (2):306-320.

Dolbeer, R. A. 1991. Migration patterns of Double-crested Cormorants east of the Rocky Mountains. J. Field Ornithol. no. 62:83-93.

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Dorr, B. S. and C. Somers. 2012. The direction of research and management of Double-crested Cormorants heading into the 2000s: Symposium overview and future information needs. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):138-148.

Dorr, B. S., A. Moerke, M. Bur, C. Bassett, T. Aderman, D. Traynor, R. Singleton, P. H. Butchko and J. D. Taylor II. 2010b. Evaluation of harassment of migrating Double-crested Cormorants to limit depredation on selected sport fisheries in Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):215-223.

Dorr, B. S., J. D. Taylor II, S. J. Werner, D. T. King, J. F. Farquhar, I. M. Mazzocchi and R. D. McCullough. 2012d. Summer and migrational movements of satellite-marked Double-crested Cormorants from a breeding colony managed by egg-oiling in Lake Ontario, USA. Waterbirds no. 35 (sp1):114-123.

Dorr, B. S., K. C. Hanson-Dorr, T. L. DeVault, A. Guillaumet and S. C. Barras. Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird. Integrative Zoology no. INZ-2013-12-124.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger and S. C. Barras. 2008. Evaluation of aerial cluster sampling of Double-crested Cormorants on aquaculture ponds in Mississippi. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 72 (7):1634-1640.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger, S. C. Barras and K. C. Godwin. 2012a. Double-crested Cormorant distribution on catfish aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi. Wildlife Society Bulletin no. 36 (1):70-77.

Dorr, B. S., L. W. Burger, S. C. Barras and K. C. Godwin. 2012b. Economic impact of Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, aquaculture in Mississippi, USA. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society no. 43 (4):502-513.

Dorr, B. S., S. L. Hanisch, P. H. Butchko and D. G. Fielder. 2012c. Management of Double-crested Cormorants to improve sport fisheries in Michigan: Three case studies. Human-Wildlife Interactions no. 6 (1):155-168.

Dorr, B. S., T. Aderman, P. H. Butchko and S. C. Barras. 2010a. Management effects on breeding and foraging numbers and movements of Double-crested Cormorants in the Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron, Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):224-231.

Dorr, B., D. T. King, M. E. Tobin, J. B. Harrel and P. L. Smith. 2004. Double-crested Cormorant movements in relation to aquaculture in eastern Mississippi and western Alabama. Waterbirds no. 27 (2):147-154.

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Drewlen, R. C. and L. F. Fredrickson. 1969. Band recovery distribution of Double-crested Cormorants from South Waubay Lake. S. Dakota Bird Notes no. 21:28-33.

Drury, W. H. 1973. Population changes in New England seabirds. Bird-Banding no. 44 (4):267-313.

Duerr, A. E. 2007. Population dynamics, foraging ecology, and optimal management of Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Vermont, Burlington.

Duerr, A. E., T. M. Donovan and D. E. Capen. 2007. Management-induced reproductive failure and breeding dispersal in Double-crested Cormorants on Lake Champlain. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 71 (8):2565-2574.

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Dunn, E. H. 1975b. Growth, body components and energy content of nestling Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 77:431-438.

Dunn, E. H. 1976a. Development of endothermy and existence energy expenditure of nestling Double-crested Cormorants. Condor no. 78:350-356.

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Farley, J. M., C. H. Romero, M. G. Spalding, M. L. Avery and D. J. Forrester. 2001. Newcastle disease virus in Double-crested Cormorants in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 37 (4):808-812.

Farquhar, J. F., I. M. Mazzocchi, R. D. McCullough, R. B. Chipman and T. L. DeVault. 2012. Mitigation of Double-crested Cormorant impacts on Lake Ontario: From planning and practice to product delivery. Waterbirds no. 35 (1):56-65.

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Fielder, D. G. 2010. Response of Yellow Perch in Les Cheneaux Islands, Lake Huron to declining numbers of Double-crested Cormorants stemming from control activities. Journal of Great Lakes Research no. 36 (2):207-214.

Fike, J. A., T. L. Devault and O. E. Rhodes. 2009. Identification of 24 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Molecular Ecology Resources no. 9 (4):1183-1185.

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Fish, U.S. and Widlife Service. 2009b. Migratory bird permits; Revision of expiration dates for Double-crested Cormorant depredation orders. Federal Register no. 74 (64):15394-15398.

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Fish, U.S. and Wildlife Service. 2003b. Migratory bird permits; Regulations for Double-crested Cormorant management. Federal Register no. 68 (51):12653?12660.

Fowle, M. R. 1997. Population dynamics, food habits, and bioenergetics of Double-crested Cormorants in Lake Champlain. Master's Thesis, Wildl. and Fish. Biol. Prog., School of Nat. Resourc., Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT.

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Recommended Citation

Dorr, Brian S., Jeremy J. Hatch and D. V. Weseloh. 2014. Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.441