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Double-crested Cormorant

Phalacrocorax auritus

Order:
Suliformes
Family:
Phalacrocoracidae
Sections

Tables and Appendices

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Table 1

Pre-1947 dimensions of eggs of Double-crested Cormorants, rangewide. From Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology. Data shown as mean (range).

Subspecies n (clutches, eggs)albociliatus 22, 83auritus 23, 90floridanus 24, 85
Length (mm)60.92 (55.53–71.59)61.22 (56.93–68.97)60.90 (55.90–65.66)
Breadth (mm)38.22 (34.80–41.14)38.58 (35.71–41.12)37.58 (34.50–40.11)
True thickness (mm)0.387 (0.316–0.508)0.392 (0.326–0.461)(1)0.368 (0.300–0.434)
Maximum thickness (mm)(2)0.455 (0.330–0.690)0.443 (0.371–0.620)(1)0.464 (0.340–0.759)
Shell mass (g)4.78 (3.78–6.18)4.89 (4.13–5.68)4.47 (3.54–5.31)

  • (1)n = 20 clutches, 79 eggs.(2)Includes variable soft chalky covering.

Appendix 1

Fish species mentioned in the text, arranged alphabetically by family. The Double-crested Cormorant feeds in a wide variety of habitats over an extensive range. More than 250 fish species have been reported as prey (52 taxa are listed here). M = marine; F = freshwater.

                                                     
FamilyAmmodytidae (M)Common NameFamilyLabridae (M)Common Name
SpeciesAmmodytes spp.Sandlance-SpeciesTautogolabrus adspersusCunner
FamilyAnguillidae (M, F)-
SpeciesAnguilla rostrataAmerican eel-FamilyLutjanidae (M)
FamilyBatrachoididae (M, F)-SpeciesLutjanus griseusGray snapper
SpeciesOpsanus betaGulf toadfish-
FamilyCatostomidae (F)-FamilyOsmeridae (M, F)
SpeciesCatostomus commersoniWhite sucker-SpeciesMallotus villosusCapelin
FamilyCentrarchidae (F)-SpeciesOsmerus mordaxRainbow smelt
SpeciesLepomis macrochirusBluegill-
SpeciesPomoxis nigromaculatusBlack crappie-FamilyPercidae (F)
SpeciesMicropterus dolomieuSmallmouth bass-SpeciesPerca flavescensYellow perch
SpeciesLepomis spp.Sunfish-SpeciesStizostedion canadenseSauger
FamilyCichlidae (F)-SpeciesStizostedion vitreumWalleye
SpeciesTilapia aureaBlue tilapia-
FamilyClupeidae (M, F)-FamilyPercichthyidae (M, F)
SpeciesAlosa pseudoharengusAlewife-SpeciesMorone americanaWhite perch
SpeciesAlosa aestivalisBlueback herring-
SpeciesDorosoma cepedianumGizzard shad-FamilyPercopsidae (F)
SpeciesDorosoma spp.Shad-SpeciesPercopsis omiscomaycusTrout perch
FamilyCottidae (M, F)-
SpeciesMyoxocephalus spp.Marine sculpins-FamilyPholidae (M)
SpeciesCottus cognatusSlimy sculpin-SpeciesPholis gunnelusRock gunnel
FamilyCryptacanthodidae (M)-
SpeciesCryptacanthodes maculatusWrymouth-FamilyPleuronectidae (M)
FamilyCyprinidae (F)-SpeciesPseudopleuronectes americanusWinter flounder
SpeciesCyprinus carpioCommon carp-FamilyPoecilidae (F)
SpeciesNotropis atherinoidesEmerald shiner-SpeciesGambusia affinisMosquitofish
SpeciesvariousMinnows-FamilySalmonidae (M, F)
FamilyGadidae (M, F)-SpeciesCoregonus clupeaformisCommon whitefish
SpeciesLota lotaBurbot-SpeciesCoregonus artediiTullibee
SpeciesGadus morhuaCod-SpeciesSalmo salarAtlantic salmon
SpeciesUrophycisHake spp.-SpeciesSalvelinus fontinalisBrook trout
SpeciesPollachius virensPollock-SpeciesSalvelinus namaycushLake trout
FamilyGasterosteidae (M, F)-FamilyScaridae (M)
SpeciesGasterosteus spp.Stickleback-SpeciesSparisoma radiansBucktooth parrotfish
SpeciesPungitius pungitiusNinespine stickleback-FamilySciaenidae (M, F)
FamilyHaemulidae (M)-SpeciesAplodinotus grunniensFreshwater drum
SpeciesHaemulon sciurusBluestriped grunt-FamilyScorpaenidae (M)
SpeciesHaemulon plumieriWhite grunt-SpeciesScorpaena brasiliensisBarbfish
FamilyIctaluridae (F)-FamilySerranidae (M)
SpeciesIctalurus nebulosusBrown bullhead-SpeciesDiplectrum formosumSandperch
SpeciesIctalurus spp.Catfish-FamilySparidae (M)
SpeciesIctalurus punctatusChannel catfish-SpeciesLagodon rhomboidesPinfish


Appendix 2

Reproductive parameters for Double-crested Cormorants.

Location(1)Year(2)Clutch size mean (SE or SD)Hatching success (%)Annual reproductive success(3)(young/nest) mean (SE or SD)Source
Quebec19753.0 (0.95)0.98(4)Ellison and Cleary 1978
19773.4 (0.81)732.3 (1.2)(4)Pilon et al. 1983a
19803.3 (0.09)(5)2.59 (1.27)McNeil and Léger 1987
S. Carolina19892.7 (1.08)652.47 (0.93)Post and Seals 1991b
Great Lakes19700.15Postupalsky 1978b
19722.40.06-0.11Weseloh et al. 1983
19741.1Postupalsky 1978b
19793.8521.5Blomme 1981
1981, 19852.28Weseloh and Ewins 1994
19883.61.93Weseloh and Ewins 1994
19912.1Weseloh et al. 1995b
Manitoba19871.19 (0.99)Hobson et al. 1989
Alberta19783.53591.58Brechtel 1983
Utah19723.9 (0.26)54Mitchell 1977
British Columbia19584.1602.5Drent et al. 1964
19722.9883.52.0Van Der Veen 1973
Washington19843.0<0.29Henny et al. 1989
California19690.01Gress et al. 1973
19883.2 (0.1)76.51.27 (0.06)(4)Stenzel et al. 1995

  • (1)Locations arranged east to west and north to south.(2)Year or first year of multiyear study.(3)Number of prefledged young per nest.(4)Number of young known or thought to have fledged per nest.(5)Late breeders.

Appendix 3

Linear measurements (mm) of Double-crested Cormorant. Data shown as mean ± SD (range, n).

Subspecies(1)/locationCulmenTailTarsusWingSource(2)
cincinatus: AlaskaA
Male59 (52–63, 9)68 (64–72, 9)331 (312–349, 9)
Female58 (54–61, 4)66 (62–71, 9)334 (330–340, 4)
albociliatus: PacificA
Male57.4 (53–63, 19)64 (61–71, 19)311 (255–332, 19)
Female55.2 (52–61, 12)63 (61–65, 12)297 (277–320, 12)
auritus: unknownA
Male57 (52–60, 11)61 (59–65, 11)311 (302–333, 11)
Female53 (51–55, 8)303 (285–321, 8)
auritus: MississippiB
Male55.6 ± 0.1 (50–61, 160)68.8 ± 0.1 (65–73, 160)336.2 ± 0.6 (317–355, 160)
Female51.7 ± 0.3 (49–56, 41)67.2 ± 0.3 (64–74, 41)317.4 ± 0.9 (304–331, 41)
auritus: QuebecC
Male58.4 ± 0.12 (n = 760)316.4 ± 0.24 (n = 759)
Female54.3 ± 0.15 (n = 375)300.3 ± 0.36 (n = 372)
floridanus: unknownA
Male53.4 (52–55, 5)57 (56–60, 5)299 (282–310, 5)
Female51 ± 0.3 (50–54, 6)55.8 (53–58, 6)287 (273–296, 6)
floridanus: FloridaD
Male56.5 (47–61, 32)144.3 (130–157, 30)62.6 (57.6–66.5, 32)303.2 (282–316, 32)
Female54.6 ± 1.47 (51–60, 19)135.5 (125–152, 15)60.6 (56–66, 19)288.9 (275–305, 17)
floridanus: CubaD
Male56.8 (53–59, 4)145.5 (140–154, 4)62 (60–66, 4)299.3 (290–307, 4)
Female53 (44–58, 11)139.2 (123–158, 9)60.5 (55.5–65, 11)286.6 (262–305, 11)
heuretus(3): San SalvadorD
Male45.8 (43.5–49, 5)128.3 (123–132, 8)53.6 (49–57, 5)270.6 (260–280, 8)
Female45.2 (43–49.5, 5)121.9 (117–132, 7)53.1 (51–54, 5)263.1 (259–276, 8)

  • (1)Subspecies are listed in order by decreasing size(2)Sources: A = Palmer 1962a; B = Glahn and McCoy 1995; C = Bédard et al. 1995b; D = Watson et al. 1991.(3)For comparison, mean of male and female Neotropic Cormorant: culmen, 46.8; tail, 152.8; wing, 254.7 (Telfair II and Morrison 1995).

Recommended Citation

Dorr, Brian S., Jeremy J. Hatch and D. V. Weseloh. 2014. Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.441