Cassin's Sparrow

Peucaea cassinii



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of North America. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign In

Literature Cited

1. Phillips, A. R., J. T. Marshall Jr., and G. B. Monson (1964). The Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

2. Woodhouse, S. W. (1852). Descriptions of new species of the genus Vireo, Vielle, and Zonotrichia, Swains. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6:60.

3. Wolf, L. L. (1977). Species relationships in the avian genus Aimophila. Ornithological Monographs 23.

4. Hubbard, J. P. (1977c). The status of Cassin's Sparrow in New Mexico and adjacent states. American Birds 31:933-941.

5. Phillips, A. R. (1944b). Status of Cassin's Sparrow in Arizona. Auk 61:409-412.

6. Maurer, B. A., E. A. Webb and R. K. Bowers. (1989). Nest characteristics and nestling development of Cassin's and Botteri's Sparrows in southeastern Arizona. Condor 91:736-738.

7. Schnase, J. L., W. E. Grant, T. C. Maxwell and J. J. Leggett. (1991). Time and energy budgets of Cassin's Sparrow (Aimophila cassinii) during the breeding season: evaluation through modelling. Ecological Modelling 55:285-319.

8. Borror, D. J. (1971). Songs of Aimophila sparrows occurring in the United States. Wilson Bulletin 83:132-151.

9. Schnase, J. L. and T. C. Maxwell. (1989). Use of song patterns to identify individual male Cassin's Sparrows. Journal of Field Ornithology 60:12-19.

10. Willoughby, E. J. (1986). An unusual sequence of molts and plumages in Cassin's and Bachman's Sparrows. Condor 88:461-473.

11. Thompson, C. W., and M. Leu (1994). Determining homology of molts and plumages to address evolutionary questions: A rejoinder regarding emberizid finches. Condor 96:769–782.

12. Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock. (1988). "Grassland birds in southeastern Arizona: impacts of fire, grazing, and alien vegetation." In Ecology and conservation of grassland birds., edited by P. Goriup, 43-58. Cambridge, U.K: Intl. Council for Bird Preservation Tech. Publ. 7.

13. Bock, C. E. and J. H. Bock. (1992). Response of birds to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. Southwestern Naturalist 37:73-81.

14. Bock, C. E. and B. Webb. (1984). Birds as grazing indicator species in southeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1045-1049.

15. Lloyd, J., R. W. Mannan, S. DeStefano and C. Kirkpatrick. (1998). The effects of mesquite invasion on a southeastern Arizona grassland bird community. Wilson Bulletin 110:403-408.

16. Gordon, C. E. (2000a). Fire and cattle grazing on wintering sparrows in Arizona grasslands. Journal of Range Management 53 (4):384-389.

17. Smythe, L. A., and D. A. Haukos (2010). Response of grassland birds in sand shinnery oak communities restored using tebuthiuron and grazing in eastern New Mexico. Restoration Ecology 18 (2):215-223. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00443.x.

18. Coffman, J. M., B. T. Bestelmeyer, J. F. Kelly, T. F. Wright, and R. L. Schooley (2014). Restoration practices have positive effects on breeding bird species of concern in the Chihuahuan Desert. Restoration Ecology 22 (3):336-344. doi: 10.1111/rec.12081.

19. Holcomb, E. D., C. A. Davis, and S. D. Fuhlendorf. (2014). Patch-burn management: Implications for conservation of avian communities in fire-dependent sagebrush ecosystems. Journal of Wildlife Management 78 (5):848-856. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.723.

20. Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

21. Kaufman, K. (1990). A Field Guide to Advanced Birding: Birding Challenges and How to Approach Them. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.

22. Webb, E. A. and C. E. Bock. (1996). "Botteri's Sparrow (Aimophila botterii)." In The birds of North America. no. 216., edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. Washington, D.C: Acad. of Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, and Am. Ornithol. Union.

23. Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

24. Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, NY, USA.

25. Ridgway, R. (1901). The birds of North and Middle America, Part 1. United States National Museum Bulletin 50.

26. Byers, C., J. Curson, and J. Olsson. (1995). Sparrows and Buntings: A Guide to the Sparrows and Buntings of North America and the World. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, USA.

27. Rising, J. D. (1996b). Relationship between testis size and mating systems in American sparrows (Emberizinae). Auk 113 (1):224-228.

28. Baicich, P. J., and C. Harrison (1997). A Guide to the Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.

29. Schnase, J. L. (1984). The breeding biology of Cassin's Sparrow (Aimophila cassinii) in Tom Green County, Texas. Master's Thesis, Angelo State Univ., San Angelo, TX.

30. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.

31. Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1–31.

32. Bevier, L. (1990). Eleventh report of the California Bird Records Committee. Western Birds 21:145-176.

33. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.

34. Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

35. Pyle, P. (1997). Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22:49–89.

36. Sutton, G. M. (1935). The juvenal plumage and postjuvenal molt in several species of Michigan sparrows. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 3. Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.

37. Rohwer, S., L. K. Butler and D. R. Froehlich. (2005). Ecology and demography of East-West differences in molt scheduling of Neotropical migrant passerines. Edited by R. Greenberg and P. P. Marra, Birds of two worlds: The ecology and evolution of migration. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

38. Pyle, P., W. A. Leitner, L. Lozano-Angulo, F. Avilez-Teran, H. Swanson, E. Gómez Limón and M. K. Chambers. (2009). Temporal, spatial, and annual variation in the occurrence of molt-migrant passerines in the Mexican monsoon region. Condor 111 (4):583-590.

39. Dunning, J. B. and R. K. Bowers. (1986). Bander's Forum: Weights and measurements no. 1. Arizona sparrows. North American Bird Bander 11:59-60.

40. Deviche, P., K. McGraw and E. C. Greiner. (2005a). Interspecific differences in hematozoan infection in Sonoran desert Aimophila sparrows. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41 (3):532-541.

41. Ridgway, R. (1898a). Descriptions of supposed new genera, species, and subspecies of American birds, I. Fringillidae. Auk 15:223-230.

42. Chesser, R. T., R. C. Banks, F. K. Barker, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, Jr. Remsen, J. V., J. D. Rising, D. F. Stotz and K. Winker. (2010). Fifty-first supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 127 (3):726-744.

43. Baird, S. F., T. M. Brewer, and R. Ridgway (1874). A History of North American Birds, Land Birds, Volume 2. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, USA.

44. Klicka, J., K. Burns, and G. M. Spellman (2007). Defining a monophyletic Cardinalini: A molecular perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45:1014-1032.

45. Paynter, R. A.. and R. W. Storer (1970). Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters. M.S. thesis, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

46. Grapputo, A., A. Pilastro, A. J. Baker and G. Marin. (2001). Molecular evidence for phylogenetic relationships among buntings and American sparrows (Emberizidae). Journal of Avian Biology 32 (2):95-101.

47. Klicka, J., F. K. Barker, K. J. Burns, S. M. Lanyon, I. J. Lovette, J. A. Chaves and Jr. Bryson, R. W. (2014). A comprehensive multilocus assessment of sparrow (Aves: Passerellidae) relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 77:177-182.

48. Hobart, H. H. (1991). Comparative karyology in nine-primaried oscines (Aves). Ph. D. diss., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.

49. McKitrick, M. (1981). Generic limits and relationships of Aimophila (Aves: Emberizidae). Master's Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson.

50. DaCosta, J. M., G. M. Spellman, P. Escalante and J. Klicka. (2009). A molecular systematic revision of two historically problematic songbird clades: Aimophila and Pipilo. Journal of Avian Biology 40 (2):206-216.

51. Storer, R. W. (1955). A preliminary survey of the sparrows of the genus Aimophila. Condor 57:193-201.

52. Wickersham, L. E. (2016). The Second Colorado Breeding Bird Atlas. Colorado Bird Atlas Partnership and Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Denver, CO.

53. Faulkner, D. W. (2010). Birds of Wyoming. Roberts and Co, Greenwood Village, CO, USA.

54. Bock, C. E. and W. C. Scharf. (1994). A nesting population of Cassin's Sparrows in the sandhills of Nebraska. Journal of Field Ornithology 65:472-475.

55. Busby, W. H., and J. L. Zimmerman (2001). Kansas Breeding Bird Atlas. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.

56. Reinking, D. L. (2004). Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.

57. Benson, K. L. P., and K. A. Arnold (2001). The Texas Breeding Bird Atlas. Texas A&M University System, College Station and Corpus Christi, TX, USA.

58. Hubbard, J. P. (1978). Revised check-list of the birds of New Mexico. New Mexico Ornithological Society Publication 6.

59. Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais (2005). Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

60. American Ornithologists' Union (1998). Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.

61. Russell, S. M., and G. Monson (1998). The Birds of Sonora. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

62. Monson, G. and A. R. Phillips. (1981a). Checklist of the birds of Arizona. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.

63. Wauer, R. H. (1973). Birds of Big Bend National Park and Vicinity. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

64. Garrett, K., and J. Dunn (1981). Birds of Southern California: Status and Distribution. Los Angeles Audubon Society, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

65. Small, A. (1994). California Birds: Their Status and Distribution. Ibis Publishing Company, Vista, CA, USA.

66. Macías-Duarte, A., A. B. Montoya, C. E. Méndez-González, J. R. Rodríguez-Salazar, W. G. Hunt and P. G. Krannitz. (2009). Factors influencing habitat use by migratory grassland birds in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Auk 126 (4):896-905.

67. Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock (1999). Response of winter birds to drought and short-duration grazing in southeastern Arizona. Conservation Biology 13:1117-1123.

68. Weir, R. D. (1990b). The spring season. American Birds 44:422-423.

69. Hayward, C. L., C. Cottam, A. M. Woodbury and H. H. Frost. (1976a). Birds of Utah. Great Basin Nat. Mem. 1.

70. Kingery, H. E. (1989). The spring season: Mountain West region. American Birds 43:514-517.

71. Brock, K. J. and S. T. Patti. (1985). A Cassin's Sparrow in Indiana. Indiana Audubon Quarterly 63:148-149.

72. Brock, K. J. (1993). The nesting season-Middlewestern Prairie region. American Birds 47:1112-1115.

73. Finch, D. W. (1975). The spring season. American Birds 29:129.

74. Peterjohn, B. G. (1983). Middlewestern prairie region. American Birds 37:874-878.

75. Peterjohn, B. G. (1987c). The spring season. American Birds 41:440.

76. Stotz, D. F., J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, and D. K. Moskovits. (1996). Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

77. Ohmart, R. D. (1966). Breeding record of the Cassin Sparrow (Aimophila cassinii) in Arizona. Condor 68:400.

78. Williams, F. C. and A. L. LeSarrier. (1968). "Aimophila cassinii (Woodhouse) Cassin's Sparrow." In Life histories of North American towhees, sparrows and buntings., edited by A. C. Bent and O. L. Austin, 981-990. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull 237.

79. Simmons, G. F. (1925). Birds of the Austin region. Austin, TX: Univ. of Texas Press.

80. Gordon, C. E. (2000b). Movement patterns of wintering grassland sparrows in Arizona. Auk 117 (3):748-759.

81. Levalley, R. and J. Evens. (1982). The nesting season. American Birds 36:1014.

82. Campbell, K. F. and R. LeValley. (1984). The nesting season. American Birds 38:1059.

83. McCaskie, G. (1976). The spring season. American Birds 30:893.

84. McCaskie, G. (1978b). The spring season. American Birds 32:1057.

85. McCaskie, R. G. (1994c). Southern Pacific coast region. American Birds 48:151-155.

86. Moore, F. (1984a). Age-dependent variability in the migratory orientation of the Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Auk 101:875-879.

87. Berthold, P. (1973). Relationship between migratory restlessness and migratory distance in six Sylvia species. Ibis 115:594-599.

88. Bergtold, W. H. (1916). Cassin's Sparrow in Colorado. Auk 33:435.

89. Faanes, C. A., B. A. Hanson and H. A. Kantrud. (1979). Cassin's Sparrow-first record for Wyoming and recent range extensions. Western Birds 10:163-164.

90. Dorn, R. D. and J. L. Dorn. (1995). Cassin's Sparrow nesting in Wyoming. Western Birds 26:104-106.

91. Webb, E. A. and C. E. Bock. (1990). "Relationship of the Botteri's Sparrow to sacaton grassland in southeastern Arizona." In Managing wildlife in the southwest: proceedings of the symposium., edited by P. R. Krausman and N. S. Smith, 199-209. Tucson: Arizona Chpt. Wildl. Soc.

92. Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock, K. L. Jepson and J. C. Ortega. (1986). Ecological effects of planting African lovegrasses in Arizona. Natl. Geogr. Res. 2:456-463.

93. Sutton, G. M. and T. D. Burleigh. (1941b). Some birds recorded in Nuevo León, Mexico. Condor 43:158-159.

94. Webster, J. D. and R. T. Orr. (1954a). Miscellaneous notes on Mexican birds. Wilson Bulletin 66:267-269.

95. Urban, E. K. (1959). Birds from Coahuila, Mexico. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 11:443–516.

96. Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock, W. R. Kenney and V. M. Hawthorne. (1984). Responses of birds, rodents, and vegetation to livestock exclosure in a semidesert grassland site. Journal of Range Management 37:239-242.

97. Johnson, N. K. (1994d). Pioneering and natural expansion of breeding distribution in western North American birds. Studies in Avian Biology 15:27-44.

98. Williams, S. O. and J. P. Hubbard. (1991c). The autumn season. American Birds 45:139.

99. American Ornithologists' Union. (1931). Check-list of North American birds, 4th ed. Lancaster, PA: Am. Ornithol. Union.

100. Rosenberg, G. H. and D. Stejskal. (1989b). The autumn season. American Birds 43:148.

101. Rosenberg, G. H. and D. Stejskal. (1990b). The autumn season. American Birds 44:138.

102. Williams, F. C. (1974c). The nesting season. American Birds 28:922.

103. Grzybowski, J. (1989a). The nesting season. American Birds 43:1336.

104. Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock and M. C. Grant. (1992a). Effects of bird predation on grasshopper densities in an Arizona grassland. Ecology 73:1706-1717.

105. Kirkpatrick, C., S. DeStefano, R. W. Mannan and J. Lloyd. (2002). Trends in abundance of grassland birds following a spring prescribed burn in southern Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 47 (2):282-292.

106. Walsberg, G. (1983a). Avian ecological energetics. Avian Biol. 8:161-220.

107. Johnson, J. C. (1956a). Breeding of Cassin's Sparrow in central Oklahoma. Wilson Bulletin 68:75-76.

108. Dunning, J. B., P. Pyle, and M. A. Patten (2018). Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), version 3.1. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.

109. Thompson, T. R., C. W. Boal, and D. Lucia. (2009). Grassland bird associations with introduced and native grass Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Southern High Plains. Western North American Naturalist 69 (4):481-490. doi: 10.3398/064.069.0408.

110. Witzeman, J., J. P. Hubbard and K. Kaufman. (1978b). The spring season. American Birds 32:1043.

111. Podos, J. (1997). A performance constraint on the evolution of trilled vocalizations in a songbird family (Passeriformes: Emberizidae). Evolution 51:537-551.

112. Deviche, P., P. J. Sharp, A. Dawson, J. Sabo, B. Fokidis, S. Davies, and L. Hurley. (2012). Up to the challenge? Hormonal and behavioral responses of free-ranging male Cassin's Sparrows, Peucaea cassinii, to conspecific song playback. Hormones and Behavior 61 (5):741-749. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.03.012.

113. Stober, J. M. (1996). Territory dynamics and basic biology of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. M. S. thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens.

114. Cooper, B. S., R. D. Elmore, F. S. Guthery, and P. van Els. (2014). Territory characteristics of Cassin's Sparrows in northwestern Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 171 (1):90-96. doi: 10.1674/0003-0031-171.1.90.

115. Austin, G. T. and S. M. Russell. (1972). Interspecific aggression of Ash-throated Flycatchers on Cassin's Sparrows. Condor 74:481.

116. Montoya, A. B., P. J. Zwank and M. Cardenas. (1997). Breeding biology of Aplomado Falcons in desert grasslands of Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:135-143.

117. Bowers, R. K. and J. B. Dunning. (1985). Predator avoidance through burrow use by Cassin's and Black-throated sparrows. Western Birds 16:51.

118. Austin, G. T. and E. L. Smith. (1974). Use of burrows by Brown Towhees and Black-throated Sparrows. Auk 91:167.

119. Bailey, A. M. (1927a). Notes on the birds of southeastern Alaska. Auk 44:1-23.

120. Kingery, H. E. and P. R. Julian. (1971). Cassin's Sparrow parasitized by cowbird. Wilson Bulletin 83:439.

121. Deviche, P., J. Sabo, and P. J. Sharp. (2008). Glutamatergic stimulation of luteinising hormone secretion in relatively refractory male songbirds. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 20 (10):1191-1202. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01771.x.

122. Hersey, L. J. and R. B. Rockwell. (1907). A new breeding bird for Colorado: the Cassin Sparrow (Peucaea cassinii) nesting near Denver. Condor 9:191-194.

123. Friedmann, H. (1963). Host relations of the parasitic cowbirds. Volume 233. U.S. National Museum Bulletin, Washington, DC, USA.

124. Van Els, P., B. S. Cooper, and E. D. Doxon. (2009). First record of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism on Cassin's Sparrow in Oklahoma. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society 42 (4):13-15.

125. Berthelsen, P. S. and L. M. Smith. (1995). Nongame bird nesting on CRP lands in the Texas Southern High Plains. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 50:672-675.

126. Sutton, G. M. (1967). Oklahoma Birds, their Ecology and Distribution with Comments on the Avifauna of the Southern Great Plains. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.

127. Roberts, A. J., C. W. Boal, and H. A. Whitlaw. (2017). Nesting ecology of grassland birds following a wildfire in the southern Great Plains. Southwestern Naturalist 62 (1):39-45. doi: 10.1894/0038-4909-62.1.39.

128. Savage, H., and J. A. Dick. (1969). Fowl pox in Cassin’s Sparrow, Aimophila cassinii. Condor 71 (1):71-72. doi: 10.2307/1366052.

129. Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton, and T. Will (2016). Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee.

130. Mehlman, D. W. (1996). Surveys of grassland birds at the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. N.M. Ornithol. Soc. Bull. 24:69-80.

131. Sauer, J. R., D. K. Niven, J. E. Hines, D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., K. L. Pardieck, J. E. Fallon, and W. A. Link (2017). The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2015. Version 2.07.2017. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA.

132. Webster, F. S. (1979). The nesting season. American Birds 33:879.

133. Lasley, G. W. and C. Sexton. (1993b). The nesting season. American Birds 47:1128.

134. Capinera, J. L. and D. R. Horton. (1989). Geographic variation in effects of weather on grasshopper infestation. Environmental Entomology 18:8-14.

135. Ligon, J. S. (1961). New Mexico Birds and Where to Find Them. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

136. Maurer, B. A. (1986). Predicting habitat quality for grassland birds using density-habitat correlations. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:556-566.

137. Long, A. M., W. E. Jensen, and R. S. Matlack. (2014). Influence of prescribed burning on bird abundance and species assemblage in a semiarid Great Plains grassland. Western North American Naturalist 74 (4):396-404. doi: 10.3398/064.074.0405.

138. Mills, G. S., J. B. Dunning and J. M. Bates. (1989). Effects of urbanization on breeding bird community structure in southwestern desert habitats. Condor 91:416-428.

139. Knopf, F. L. (1994). "Avian assemblages on altered grasslands." In A century of avifaunal change in western North America., edited by J. R. Jehl and N. K. Johnson, 247-257. Stud. Avian Biol. no. 15.

140. Vickery, P. D., Jr. Hunter, M. L. and J. V. Wells. (1992c). Use of a new reproductive index to evaluate relationship between habitat quality and breeding success. Auk 109:697-705.

Recommended Citation

Dunning, J. B., Jr., R. K. Bowers Jr., S. J. Suter, and C. E. Bock (2018). Cassin's Sparrow (Peucaea cassinii), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.