American Golden-Plover

Pluvialis dominica



Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of North America. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign In

Literature Cited

1. Gabrielson, I. N., and F. C. Lincoln (1959). The Birds of Alaska. Stackpole Company, Harrisburg, PA, USA.

2. Johnson, O. W., and P. M. Johnson (2004). Morphometric features of Pacific and American Golden-Plovers with comments on field identification. Wader Study Group Bulletin 103:42–49.

3. Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater (1986). Shorebirds: An Identification Guide to the Waders of the World. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA, USA.

4. Dunn, J. L., J. Morlan, and C. P. Wilds (1987). Field identification of forms of Lesser Golden-Plover. International Bird Identification: Proceedings of the 4th International Identification Meeting, Eilat, Israel.

5. Marchant, S., and P. J. Higgins (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, Volume 2. Raptors to Lapwings. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

6. Paulson, D. R. (1993). Shorebirds of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, USA.

7. Kaufman, K. (2000). Birds of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY, USA.

8. Connors, P. G. (1983). Taxonomy, distribution, and evolution of golden plovers (Pluvialis dominica and Pluvialis fulva). Auk 100:607–620.

9. Golley, M., and A. Stoddart (1991). Identification of American and Pacific golden-plovers. Birding World 4:195–204.

10. Beaman, M., and S. Madge (1998). The Handbook of Bird Identification for Europe and the Western Palearctic. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

11. Johnson, O. W., and P. M. Johnson (1983). Plumage-molt-age relationships in "over- summering" and migratory Lesser Golden-Plovers. Condor 85:406–419.

12. Pyle, P. (2008). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part II: Anatidae to Alcidae. Slate Creek Press, Point Reyes Station, CA, USA.

13. Jukema, J., O. W. Johnson, J. Aldabe, and P. Rocca (2011). Wing and tail moult of American Golden-Plovers Pluvialis dominica on wintering grounds in Uruguay, with confirmation that juveniles replace all primaries during their first non-breeding season. Wader Study Group Bulletin 118:129–131.

14. Jukema, J., J. B. Dunning Jr., P. Vlas, L. Brierley, and P. Brooks (2015). Morphological variation in spring migrant and wintering American Golden-Plovers Pluvialis dominica. Wader Study 122:128–134.

15. Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons (1983). The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 3: Waders to Gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

16. Johnson, O. W., P. G. Connors, and P. Pyle (2018). Pacific Golden-Plover (Pluvialis fulva), version 3.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York, USA.

17. Ridgway, R. (1919). The birds of North and Middle America: A descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, Part 8. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 50.

18. Dement'ev, G. P., R. N. Meklenburtsev, A. M. Sudilovskaya, and E. P. Spangenberg (1968). Birds of the Soviet Union. Volume 2. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel.

19. Roberts, T. S. (1955). A Manual for the Identification of the Birds of Minnesota and Neighboring States. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

20. Stresemann, E., and V. Stresemann (1966). Die Mauser der Vögel. Journal für Ornithologie 107, Sonderheft.

21. Palmer, R. S. (1967). Shorebirds of North America. Viking Press, New York, NY, USA.

22. Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

23. Prater, A. J., J. H. Marchant, and J. Vuirinen (1977). Guide to the Identification and Aging of Holarctic Waders. British Trust for Ornithology, Tring, United Kingdom.

24. Pym, A. (1982). Identification of Lesser Golden-Plover and status in Britain and Ireland. British Birds 75:112–124.

25. Johnson, O. W. (1985a). Timing of primary molt in first-year Golden-Plovers and some evolutionary implications. Wilson Bulletin 97:237–239.

26. Roselaar, C. S. (1990). Identification and occurrence of American and Pacific golden-plover in the Netherlands. Dutch Birding 12:221–232.

27. Paulson, D. (2005). Shorebirds of North America: The Photographic Guide. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

28. Rosair, D., and D. Cottridge (1995). Hamlyn Photographic Guide to the Waders of the World. Hamlyn Limited, Melbourne, Australia.

29. O'Brien, M., R. Crossley, and K. Karlson (2006). The Shorebird Guide. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY, USA.

30. Chandler, R. (2009). Shorebirds of North America, Europe, and Asia: A Photographic Guide. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

31. Byrkjedal, I., and D. B. A. Thompson (1998). Tundra Plovers: The Eurasian, Pacific and American Golden Plovers and Grey Plover. T & AD Poyser Ltd, London, United Kingdom.

32. Dwight, J., Jr. (1900b). The moult of the North American shore birds (Limicolae). Auk 17:368–385.

33. Stone, W. (1900). Report on the birds and mammals collected by the McIlhenny Expedition to Pt. Barrow, Alaska. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1900:4–49.

34. Bostwick, K. S., and M. J. Brady (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of wing feather taxis in birds: Macroevolutionary patterns of genetic drift? Auk 119:943–954.

35. Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1–31.

36. Jukema, J., J. G. van Rhijn, P. Olsson, and T. Piersma (2014). In tundra plovers the frequency of inner flight feather replacement varies with length of long-distance flights. Ardea 101:121–132.

37. Connors, P. G., B. J. McCaffery, and J. L. Maron (1993). Speciation in golden-plovers, Pluvialis dominica and P. fulva: evidence from the breeding grounds. Auk 110:9–20.

38. Witherby, H. F., F. C. R. Jourdain, N. T. Ticehurst, and B. W. Tucker (1940). The Handbook of British Birds, Volume 4. H. F. and G. Witherby, London, United Kingdom.

39. Van Tyne, J., and W. H. Drury Jr. (1959). The birds of southern Bylot Island, 1954. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 615:1–37.

40. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.

41. Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.

42. Jukema, J., and T. Piersma (1987). Special moult of breast and belly feathers during breeding in Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria. Ornis Scandinavica 18:157–162.

43. Jukema, J., I. Tulp, and L. Bruinzeel (2003). Differential moult patterns in relation to antipredator behaviour during incubation in four tundra plovers. Ibis 145:270–276.

44. Parmelee, D. F., H. A. Stephens, and R. H. Schmidt (1967). The birds of Southeastern Victoria Island and adjacent small islands. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 222.

45. Morrison, R. I. G. (1984). Migration system of some New World shorebirds. In Behavior of Marine Animals. Volume 6. Shorebirds: Migration and Foraging Behavior (J. Burger and B. L. Olla, Editors). Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 125–202.

46. Dabbene, R. (1920). Notas sobre los chorlos de Norte América que invernan en la República Argentina. Hornero 2:99–128.

47. Hudson, W. H. (1920). Birds of La Plata. Volume 1. Dent & Sons, London, United Kingdom.

48. Haverschmidt, F. (1969b). The migration of the American Golden-Plover through Surinam. Wilson Bulletin 81:210–211.

49. Belton, W. (1984). Birds of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pt. 1: Rheidae through Furnariidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 4:371–631.

50. Hayes, F. E., S. M. Goodman, J. A. Fox, T. G. Tamayo, and N. E. López (1990). North American bird migrants in Paraguay. Condor 92:947–960.

51. Sick, H. (1993). Birds in Brazil: A Natural History. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

52. Pyle, P. 2019. Sunset Sanderlings: Digital photography leads to novel insights about the presupplemental molt of the Sanderling. Birding 52:30–41.

53. Sutton, G. M., and D. F. Parmelee (1956). On certain charadriiform birds of Baffin Island. Wilson Bulletin 68:210–223.

54. Blake, E. R. (1977). Manual of Neotropical Birds, Volume 1: Spheniscidae (Penguins) to Laridae (Gulls and Allies). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

55. Bailey, A. M. (1948). Birds of Arctic Alaska. Colorado Museum of Natural History, Popular Series 8.

56. Vaurie, C. (1964). Systematic notes on palearctic birds. No. 53. Charadriidae: the genera Charadrius and Pluvialis. American Museum Novitates 2177.

57. Irving, L. (1960). Birds of Anaktuvuk Pass Kobuk and Old Crow: A study in Arctic adaptation. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 217:1–409.

58. Musacchia, X. J. (1953). A study of lipids in arctic migratory birds. Condor 55:305–312.

59. Johnston, D. W. (1964). Ecologic aspects of lipid deposition in some postbreeding arctic birds. Ecology 45:848–852.

60. Stodola, K. W., B. J. O'Neal, M. G. Alessi, J. L. Deppe, T. R. Dallas, T. A. Beveroth, T. J. Benson, and M. P. Ward (2014). Stopover ecology of American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) in Midwestern agricultural fields. Condor 116:162–172.

61. Bock, W. J. (1958). A generic review of the plovers (Charadriinae, Aves). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118:27–97.

62. Jehl, J. R., Jr. (1968b). Relationships in the Charadrii (shorebirds): a taxonomic study based on color patterns of the downy young. Memoirs of the San Diego Society of Natural History 3.

63. Strauch, J. G., Jr. (1978). The phylogeny of the Charadriiformes (Aves): a new estimate using the method of character compatibility analysis. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 34:263–345.

64. Mickevich, M. F., and L. R. Parenti (1980). Review of "The phylogeny of the Charadriiformes (Aves): a new estimate using the method of character compatibility analysis". Systematic Zoology 29:108–113.

65. Chu, P. C. (1995). Phylogenetic reanalysis of Strauch's osteological data set for the Charadriiformes. Condor 97:174–196.

66. Baker, A. J., and J. G. Strauch Jr. (1988). Genetic variation and differentiation in shorebirds. Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici 1639–1645.

67. Christian, P. D., L. Christidis, and R. Schodde (1992a). Biochemical systematics of the Australian dotterels and plovers (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae). Australian Journal of Ecology 40:225–233.

68. Christian, P. D., L. Christidis, and R. Schodde (1992). Biochemical systematics of the Charadriiformes (shorebirds): relationships between the Charadrii, Scolopaci, and Lari. Australian Journal of Ecology 40:291–302.

69. Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA.

70. Miller, E. H. (1996a). Acoustic differentiation and speciation in shorebirds. In Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds (D. E. Kroodsma and E. H. Miller, Editors). Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. pp. 241–257.

71. Thomas, G. H., M. A. Wills, and T. Szekely (2004). A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology 4:1–18.

72. Baker, A. J., S. L. Pereira, and T. A. Paton (2007). Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds. Biology Letters 3:205–209.

73. Withrow, J. J., and K. Winker (2014). Genetics of a high-latitude cryptic speciation event: American and Pacific Golden-Plovers. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126:429–442.

74. Larson, S. (1957). The suborder Charadrii in arctic and boreal areas during the Tertiary and Pleistocene. Acta Vertebratica 1:1–84.

75. Portenko, L. A. (1973). Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

76. McCarthy, E. M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

77. Richards, J. M., and A. J. Gaston (2018). Birds of Nunavut. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

78. Nouvet, S., S. Wilson, and K. Martin (2008). Breeding records of the Surfbird, Wandering Tattler, American Golden-Plover, and Upland Sandpiper in the southwest Yukon Territory. Western Birds 39:22–30.

79. Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. E. McNall (1990). The Birds of British Columbia, Volume 2. Diurnal Birds of Prey Through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC, Canada.

80. Davidson, P. J. A., R. J. Cannings, A. R. Couturier, D. Lepage, and C. M. Di Corrado (Editors) (2015). The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of British Columbia, 2008–2012. Bird Studies Canada, Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

81. Conover, B. (1945). The breeding golden plover of Alaska. Auk 62:568–574.

82. American Ornithologists' Union (1998). Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.

83. Peck, G. K., and R. D. James (1983). Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution Volume 1: Nonpasserines. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

84. Ross, K., K. Abraham, R. Clay, B. Collins, J. Iron, R. James, D. McLachlin, and R. Weeber (2003). Ontario Shorebird Conservation Plan. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

85. Cadman, M. D., D. A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage, and A. R. Couturier (2007). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario 2001–2005. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto, ON, Canada.

86. Robertson, S. (2013). American Golden Plover Discovery! Alberta Wildlifer 24:6–7.

87. Bennett, A. J. (1996). Pacific and American Golden-Plovers breeding in southwestern Alaska. Northwestern Naturalist 77:49–51.

88. Godfrey, W. E. (1986). The Birds of Canada. Revised Edition. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

89. Sage, B. L. (1975). Recent observations in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska. Condor 77:206–207.

90. Nelson, E. W. (1887). Report upon natural history collections made in Alaska between the years 1877 and 1881. U.S. Signal Service, Arctic Series no. 3, part 1. Birds of Alaska.

91. Minton, C. D. T., T. Piersma, D. E. Blanco, A. J. Baker, and L. G. Benegas (1996). Wader numbers and the use of high tide roosts at the Hemispheric Reserve "Costa Atlantica de Tierra del Fuego," Argentina–January and February 1995. Wader Study Group Bulletin 79:109–114.

92. Blanco, D. E., P. Yorio, P. F. Petracci, and G. Pugnali (2006). Distribution and abundance of non-breeding shorebirds along the coasts of the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Waterbirds 29:381–390.

93. Clay, R. P., A. J. Lesterhuis, and O. Johnson (2010). Conservation plan for the American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica). Version 1.1. Manomet Center Conservation Science, Manomet, MA, USA.

94. Unitt, P. (2001). Some bird observations from Baja California Sur. Monographs in Field Ornithology 3:107–111.

95. Carmona, R., G. Ruiz Campos, and R. Vazquez (2008b). Annotated checklist of shorebirds recorded at Ensenada de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Wader Study Group Bulletin 115:140–147.

96. Erickson, R. A., and S. N. G. Howell (2001). Birds of the Baja California Peninsula: Status, distribution, and taxonomy. Monographs in Field Ornithology No. 3. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

97. Mlodinow, S. (1993). Finding the Pacific Golden-Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in North America. Birding 25:322–329.

98. Small, A. (1994). California Birds: Their Status and Distribution. Ibis Publishing Company, Vista, CA, USA.

99. Paulson, D. R., and D. S. Lee (1992). Wintering of Lesser Golden-Plovers in eastern North America. Journal of Field Ornithology 63:121–128.

100. Vaurie, C. (1965). The Birds of the Palearctic Fauna, Volume 2: Non-passeriformes. H. F. & G. Witherby, London, United Kingdom.

101. Portenko, L. A. (1972a). Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island, Volume 1 (in Russian). Nauka, Leningrad, Russia.

102. Tomkovich, P. S. (1988a). American plover in Siberia. In Bulletin of the Working Group on Waders (A. Ya Kondratiev, Editor) [Translated by M. G. Wilson in Wader Study Group Bulletin 55:29–31]. All-Union Ornithological Society and Institute for the Study of Biological Problems of the North. Vladivostock, Russia. pp. 38–39.

103. Tomkovich, P. S., and M. Yu. Soloviev (1988). New records of waders in Chukotskiy Peninsula (in Russian). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 67:1756–1757.

104. Stishov, M. S., and V. I. Pridatko (1990). American Golden-Plover and Semipalmated Plover on Wrangel Island and Herald Island (in Russian). Vestnik Zoologii 2:82–84.

105. Lappo, E., P. P. Tomkovich, and E. E. Syroechkovskiy (2012). Atlas of breeding waders in the Russian Arctic. UF Ofsetnaya Pechat, Moscow, Russia.

106. Arkhipov, V. Y., T. Noah, S. Koschkar, and F. A. Kondrashov (2013). Birds of Mys Shmidta, north Chukotka, Russia. Forktail 29:25–30.

107. Arkhipov, V. Y., T. Noah, S. Koschkar, and F. A. Kondrashov (2014). Birds of Cape Schmidt and its surroundings (in Russian). Russian Journal of Ornithology 23 (Express issue 1076):3771–3797.

108. Taldenkov, I. A. (2006). Record of mixed breeding of American Plover and Gray Plover at northern Chukchi Peninsula (in Russian). Information Materials of the Working Group on Waders 19:39–41.

109. Brazil, M. (1991). The Birds of Japan. Christopher Helm, London, United Kingdom.

110. Watanabe, T. (2000). The first record of American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica from Honshu, Japan. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 32:34–36.

111. Miskelly, C. M., A. C. Crossland, P. M. Sagar, I. Saville, A. J. D. Tennyson, and E. A. Bell (2015). Vagrant and extra-limital bird records accepted by the Birds New Zealand Records Appraisal Committee 2013–2014. Notornis 62:85–95.

112. Schmaljohann, H., and M. Thoma (2005). First record of American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica for Mauritania, and its status in western Africa. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 12:158–161.

113. Morrison, R. I. G., C. Downes, and B. Collins (1994b). Population trends of shorebirds on fall migration in eastern Canada 1974–1991. Wilson Bulletin 106:431–447.

114. Williams, T. C., and J. M. Williams (1990). The orientation of transoceanic migrants. In Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology (E. Gwinner, Editor). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. pp. 7–21.

115. Wilson, N. C., and R. D. McRae (1993). Seasonal and geographical distribution of birds for selected sites in Ontario's Hudson Bay lowland. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON, Canada.

116. Gudmundsson, G. A., T. Alerstam, M. Green, and A. Hedenström (2002). Radar observations of Arctic bird migration at the Northwest Passage, Canada. Arctic 55:21–43.

117. Antas, P. T. Z. (1983). Migration of Nearctic shorebirds (Charadriidae and Scolopacidae) in Brazil-flyways and their different seasonal use. Wader Study Group Bulletin 39:52–56.

118. Stotz, D. F., R. O. Bierregaard, M. Cohn-Haft, P. Peterman, and J. Smith (1992). The status of North American migrants in central Amazonian Brazil. Condor 94:608–621.

119. Wetmore, A. (1927b). Our migrant shorebirds in southern South America. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 26.

120. Olrog, C. C. (1959). Las Aves Argentinas. Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacinoal de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.

121. Myers, J. P. and, L. P. Myers (1979). Shorebirds of coastal Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Ibis 121:186–200.

122. Isacch, J. P., and M. M. Martínez (2003b). Temporal variation in abundance and the population status of non-breeding Nearctic and Patagonian shorebirds in the flooding pampa grasslands of Argentina. Journal of Field Ornithology 74:233–242.

123. Scherer, A. L., and M. V. Petry (2012). Seasonal variation in shorebird abundance in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124:40–50.

124. Fjeldså, J., and N. Krabbe (1990). Birds of the High Andes. Apollo Books, Svendborg, Denmark.

125. Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, NY, USA.

126. Correa-Sandoval, J., and A. J. Contreras-Balderas (2008). Distribution and abundance of shorebirds in the coastal wetlands of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Wader Study Group Bulletin 115:148–156.

127. Roberts, T. S. (1936b). The Birds of Minnesota, 2nd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

128. Lowery, G. H., Jr. (1974). Louisiana Birds, revised third edition. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

129. Dinsmore, J. J., T. A. Kent, D. Koening, P. C. Petersen, and D. Rossa (1984). Iowa Birds. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, USA.

130. Mumford, R. E., and C. E. Keller (1984). The Birds of Indiana. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA.

131. Tufts, R. W. (1986). Birds of Nova Scotia. 3rd edition. Nimbus Publishing, Ltd. and Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, NS, Canada.

132. Janssen, R. B. (1987). Birds in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

133. Bohlen, H. D. (1989). The Birds of Illinois. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA.

134. Peterjohn, B. G. (1989). The Birds of Ohio. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, USA.

135. Thompson, M. C., and C. Ely (1989). Birds in Kansas, Volume I. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Public Education Series 11.

136. South Dakota Ornithologists' Union (1991). The Birds of South Dakota, 2nd edition. South Dakota Ornithologists' Union, Aberdeen, SD, USA.

137. Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson (1994). The Birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

138. Alexander, S. A., and C. Gratto-Trevor (1997). Shorebird migration and staging at a large prairie lake and wetland complex: The Quill Lakes, Saskatchewan. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers no. 97. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

139. Montana Bird Distribution Committee (2012). P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution. 7th edition. Montana Audubon, Helena, MT, USA.

140. Marks, J. S., P. Hendricks, and D. Casey (2016). Birds of Montana. Buteo Books, Arrington, VA, USA.

141. Smith, P. A., H. G. Gilchrist, M. R. Forbes, J.-L. Martin, and K. Allard (2010b). Inter-annual variation in the breeding chronology of arctic shorebirds: Effects of weather, snow melt and predators. Journal of Avian Biology 41:292–304.

142. Drury, W. H., Jr. (1961). The breeding biology of shorebirds on Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Auk 78:176–219.

143. Jehl, J. R., Jr., and B. A. Smith (1970). Birds of the Churchill region, Manitoba. Special Publication no. 1. Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

144. Martin, P. D., and C. S. Moiteret (1981). Bird populations and habitat use, Canning River delta, Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

145. Kessel, B. (1989). Birds of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Their Biogeography, Seasonality and Natural History. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

146. Johnston, V. H., and S. T. Pepper (2009). The birds of Prince Charles Island and Air Force Island, Foxe Basin, Nunavut. Occasional Paper No. 117, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

147. Hussell, D. J. T., and G. L. Holroyd (1974). Birds of the Truelove Lowland and adjacent areas of Northeastern Devon Island, N.W.T. Canadian Field-Naturalist 88:197–212.

148. Richardson, W. J., and S. R. Johnson (1981). Waterbird migration near the Yukon and Alaskan coast of the Beaufort Sea: 1. Timing, routes, and numbers in spring. Arctic 34:108–121.

149. Blanco, D. E., and P. Canevari (1998). Identifying wetlands of critical value to shorebirds in South America: an updated panorama about distribution and numbers. Canadian Wildlife Service Report, Latin American Program. Wetlands International, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

150. Wetmore, A. (1926). Observations on the birds of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Chile. United States National Museum Bulletin 133.

151. Rocque, D.A., M. Ben-David, R. P. Barry, and K. Winker (2006). Assigning birds to wintering and breeding grounds using stable isotopes: lessons from two feather generations among three intercontinental migrants. Journal of Ornithology 147:395–404.

152. Jorgensen, J. G. (2004). An overview of shorebird migration in the eastern Rainwater Basin, Nebraska: Occasional Paper No. 8, Nebraska Ornithogists' Union.

153. Jorgensen, J. G. (2008b). Update to an overiew of shorebird migration in the eastern Rainwater Basin, Nebraska. Published by the author, Lincoln, NE, USA.

154. Erickson, H. T. (1992). Spring migration of Lesser Golden-Plovers in Benton County, Indiana. Indiana Audubon Quarterly 70:87–92.

155. Braile, T. M. (1999). Migration studies of shorebirds in west-central Indiana. M.S. thesis, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, USA.

156. Cooke, W. W. (1910). Distribution and migration of North American shorebirds. U.S. Department of Agriculture Biological Survey Bulletin 35.

157. Todd, W. E. C. (1963). Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adjacent Areas: A Distributional List. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON, Canada.

158. Alerstam, T., and G. A. Gudmundsson (1999a). Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean. Procedings of the Royal Society of London B 226:2499–2505.

159. Alerstam, T., and G. A. Gudmundsson (1999b). Migration patterns of tundra birds: tracking radar observations along the Northeast passage. Arctic 52:346–371.

160. Alerstam, T., J. Bäckman, G. A. Gudmundsson, A. Hedenström, S. S. Henningsson, H. Karlsson, M. Rosén, and R. Strandberg (2007). A polar system of intercontinental bird migration. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274(1625):2523–2530.

161. Hedenström, A., T. Alerstam, J. Bäckman, G. A. Gudmundsson, S. Henningsson, H. Karlsson, M. Rosén, and R. Strandberg (2009). Radar observations of arctic bird migration in the Beringia region. Arctic 62:25–37.

162. Richardson, W. J. (1979). Southeastward shorebird migration over Nova Scotia and New Brunswick in autumn: A radar study. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:107–125.

163. Cooper, B. A., and R. J. Ritchie (1995). The altitude of bird migration in east-central Alaska: A radar and visual study. Journal of Field Ornithology 66:590–608.

164. O'Reilly, K. M., and J. C. Wingfield (1995). Spring and autumn migration in Arctic shorebirds: same distance, different strategies. American Zoologist 35:222–233.

165. Klaassen, M. (1996). Metabolic constraints on long-distance migration in birds. Journal of Experimental Biology 199:57–64.

166. Piersma, T., and R. E. Gill Jr. (1998). Guts don't fly: Small digestive organs in obese Bar-tailed Godwits. Auk 115:196–203.

167. Battley, P. F., T. Piersma, M. W. Dietz, S. Tang, A. Dekinga, and K. Hulsman (2000). Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 267(1439):191–195.

168. Battley, P. F., A. Dekinga, M. W. Dietz, T. Piersma, S. X. Tang, and K. Hulsman (2001). Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots. Condor 103:838–845.

169. Piersma, T., and J. Jukema (2002). Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 269(1496):1101–1105.

170. Tulp, I., H. Schekkerman, R. H. G. Klaassen, B. J. Ens, and G. H. Visser (2009b). Body condition of shorebirds upon arrival at their Siberian breeding grounds. Polar Biology 32:481–491.

171. Conklin, J. R., N. R. Senner, P. F. Battley, and T. Piersma (2017). Extreme migration and the individual quality spectrum. Journal of Avian Biology 48:19–36.

172. Johnson, O. W., R. R. Porter, L. Fielding, M. F. Weber, R. S. Gold, R. H. Goodwill, P. M. Johnson, A. E. Bruner, P. A. Brusseau, N. H. Brusseau, K. Hurwitz, and J. W. Fox (2015). Tracking Pacific Golden-Plovers Pluvialis fulva: Transoceanic migrations between non-breeding grounds in Kwajalein, Japan and Hawaii and breeding grounds in Alaska and Chukotka. Wader Study 122:4–11.

173. Johnson, O. W., P. L. Bruner, A. E. Bruner, and P. M. Johnson (2007c). American Golden-Plovers on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: a new longevity record for the species and other breeding ground observations. Wader Study Group Bulletin 114:56–59.

174. Montgomerie, R. D., R. D. Cartar, R. L. McLaughlin, and B. Lyon (1983). Birds of Sarcpa Lake, Melville Peninsula, Northwest Territories: breeding phenologies, densities and biogeography. Arctic 36:65–75.

175. Miller, P. A., C. S. Moitoret, and M. A. Masteller (1985b). Species accounts of migratory birds at three study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Alaska, 1984. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

176. Byrkjedal, I. (1989b). Nest habitat and nesting success of Lesser Golden-Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 101:93–96.

177. Jehl, J. R., Jr. (2004a). Birdlife of the Churchill Region: Status, History, Biology. Trafford, Victoria, BC, Canada.

178. Johnson, J. A., R. B. Lanctot, B. A. Andres, J. R. Bart, S. C. Brown, S. J. Kendall, and D. C. Payer (2007b). Distribution of breeding shorebirds on the arctic coastal plain of Alaska. Arctic 60:277–293.

179. Bucher, E. H., and M. Nores (1988a). Present status of birds in steppes and savannas of northern and central Argentina. In Ecology and Conservation of Grassland Birds (P. Goriup, Editor). International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication 7.

180. Soriano, A., R. J. C. León, O. E. Sala, R. S. Lavado, V. A. Deregibus, M. A. Cauhépé, O. A. Scaglia, C. A. Velázquez, and J. H. Lemcoff (1991). Río de la Plata Grasslands. In Natural Grasslands. Elsevier, New York, NY, USA. pp. 367–407.

181. Blanco, D. E., R. B. Lanctot, J. P. Isacch, and V. A. Gill (2004). Temperate grasslands of southern South America as habitat for migratory shorebirds. Ornitología Neotropical 15:159–167.

182. Azpiroz, A. B., J. P. Isacch, R. A. Dias, A. S. Di Giacomo, C. S. Fontana, and C. M. Palarea (2012). Ecology and conservation of grassland birds in southeastern South America: A review. Journal of Field Ornithology 83:217–246.

183. Blanco, D. E., R. Banchs, and P. Canevari (1993a). Critical sites for the Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis), and other Nearctic grassland shorebirds in Argentina and Uruguay. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA.

184. Isacch, J. P., and M. M. Martínez (2003a). Habitat use by non-breeding shorebirds in flooding pampas grasslands of Argentina. Waterbirds 26:494–500.

185. Azpiroz, A. B., and J. G. Blake (2009). Avian assemblages in altered and natural grasslands in the Northern Campos of Uruguay. Condor 111:21–35.

186. Blanco, D. E., B. López-Lanús, R. A. Dias, A. Azpiroz, and F. Rilla (2006a). Use of rice fields by migratory shorebirds in southern South America: Implications for conservation and management. Wetlands International, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

187. Morrison, R. I. G., and R. K. Ross (1989a). Atlas of Neararctic shorebirds on the coast of South America. Volume 1. Canadian Wildlife Service Special Publication. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

188. Blanco, D. E. (1998). Habitat use by three shorebird species (Pluvialis dominica, Limosa haemastica and Calidris fuscicollis) in relation to tide in Punta Rasa, Argentina. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural 71:87–94.

189. Olson, S. L. (1985). The Fossil Record of Birds. In Avian Biology (D. S. Farner, J. R. King, and K. C. Parkes, Editors), Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 79–238.

190. Steadman, D. W., J. Arroyo-Cabrales, E. Johnson, and A. F. Guzman (1994). New information on the late Pleistocene birds from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Condor 96:577–589.

191. Proctor, V. H. (1968). Long-distance dispersal of seeds by retention in the digestive tract of birds. Science 160:321–322.

192. Baker, M. C. (1977c). Shorebird food habits in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Condor 79:56–62.

193. Wishart, R. A., P. J. Caldwell, and S. G. Sealy (1981a). Feeding and social behavior of some migrant shorebirds in southern Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist 95:183–185.

194. Bent, A. C. (1929). Life histories of North American shorebirds, Part 2. United States National Museum Bulletin 146.

195. Mackay, G. H. (1892d). The migration of Charadrius dominicus in Massachusetts in 1891. Auk 9:199–200.

196. Mackay, G. H. (1929). Shooting journal of George Henry Mackay 1865–1922. Cosmos Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.

197. Iribarne, O. O., and M. M. Martinez (1999). Predation on the southwestern Atlantic Fiddler Crab (Uca uruguayensis) by migratory shorebirds (Pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, Arenaria interpres, and Numenius phaeopus). Estuaries 22:47–54.

198. Isacch, J. P., C. A. Darrieu, and M. M. Martínez (2005). Food abundance and dietary relationships among migratory shorebirds using grasslands during the non-breeding season. Waterbirds 28:238–245.

199. Brooks, W. S. (1967). Organisms consumed by various migrating shorebirds. Auk 84:128–130.

200. McCaffery, B. J. (1996). The status of Alaska's large shorebirds: A review and an example. In Shorebird Ecology and Conservation in the Western Hemisphere (P. Hicklin, Editor). International Wader Studies 8:28–32.

201. Mackay, G. H. (1891a). The habits of the Golden Plover (Charadrius dominicus) in Massachusetts. Auk 8:17–24.

202. Edwards, J. S., and P. C. Banko (1976). Arthropod fallout and nutrient transport: a quantitative study of Alaskan snowpatches. Arctic and Alpine Research 8:237–245.

203. Underhill, L. G. (1994). Reviving the calcium-from-lemmings hypothesis. Wader Study Group Bulletin 75:35–36.

204. Piersma, T., G. A. Gudmundsson, N. C. Davidson, and R. I. G. Morrison (1996e). Do arctic-breeding Red Knots (Calidris canutus) accumulate skeletal calcium before egg laying? Canadian Journal of Zoology 74:2257–2261.

205. Klaassen, M., A. Lindstrom, H. Meltofte, and T. Piersma (2001). Ornithology– Arctic waders are not capital breeders. Nature 413(6858):794.

206. Morrison, R. I. G., and K. A. Hobson (2004). Use of body stores in shorebirds after arrival on High-Arctic breeding grounds. Auk 121:333–344.

207. Tulp, I. (2007). The arctic pulse. Timing of breeding in long-distance migrant shorebirds. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

208. Hobson, K. A., and J. R. Jehl (2010). Arctic waders and the capital-income continuum: Further tests using isotopic contrasts of egg components. Journal of Avian Biology 41:565–572.

209. Mathiu, P. M., O. W. Johnson, P. M. Johnson, and G. C. Whittow (1989). Basal metabolic rate of Pacific Golden-Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 101:652–654.

210. Lindström, A., and M. Klaassen (2003). High basal metabolic rates of shorebirds while in the arctic: A circumpolar view. Condor 105:420–427.

211. Visser, G. H., and R. E. Ricklefs (1993b). Temperature regulation in neonates of shorebirds. Auk 110:445–457.

212. Krijgsveld, K. L., J. W. H. Reneerkens, G. D. McNett, and R. E. Ricklefs (2003). Time budgets and body temperatures of American Golden-Plover chicks in relation to ambient temperature. Condor 105:268–278.

213. Williams, J. B., B. I. Tieleman, G. H. Visser, and R. E. Ricklefs (2007b). Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the arctic? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 80:500–513.

214. Schekkerman, H., I. Tulp, T. Piersma, and G. H. Visser (2003). Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds. Oecologia 134:332–342.

215. Murdoch, J. (1885). Birds. In Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 104–128.

216. Höhn, E. O. (1957). Observations on display and other forms of behavior of certain Arctic birds. Auk 74:203–214.

217. Kondratiev, A. Y. (1982). Biology of waders on the tundra of northeast Asia (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow, Russia.

218. Sauer, E. G. F. (1962). Ethology and ecology of golden plovers on St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea. Psychologische Forschung 26:399–470.

219. Urner, C. A. (1933). The voice of the golden plover. Auk 50:420–425.

220. Alström, P. (1990). Calls of American and Pacific Golden Plovers. British Birds 83:70–72.

221. Johnson, O. W., and R. M. Nakamura (1981). The use of roofs by American Golden-Plovers Pluvialis dominica fulva wintering on Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Wader Study Group Bulletin 31:45–46.

222. Johnson, O. W., L. Fielding, J. W. Fox, R. S. Gold, R. H. Goodwill, and P. M. Johnson (2011). Tracking the migrations of Pacific Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis fulva) between Hawaii and Alaska: New insight on flight performance, breeding ground destinations, and nesting from birds carrying light level geolocators. Wader Study Group Bulletin 118:26–31.

223. Johnson, O. W., L. Fielding, J. P. Fisher, R. S. Gold, R. H. Goodwill, A. E. Bruner, J. F. Furey, P. A. Brusseau, N. H. Brusseau, P. M. Johnson, J. Jukema, L. L. Prince, M. J. Tenney, and J. W. Fox (2012). New insight concerning transoceanic migratory pathways of Pacific Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis fulva): The Japan stopover and other linkages as revealed by geolocators. Wader Study Group Bulletin 119:1–8.

224. Johnson, O. W., P. S. Tomkovich, R. R. Porter, E. Y. Loktionov, and R. H. Goodwill (2017). Migratory linkages of Pacific Golden-Plovers Pluvialis fulva breeding in Chukotka, Russian Far East. Wader Study 124:33–39.

225. Piersma, T., B. Spaans, and A. Dekinga (2002). Are shorebirds sometimes forced to roost on water in thick fog? Wader Study Group Bulletin 97:42–44.

226. Myers, J. P. (1984). Spacing behavior of non-breeding shorebirds. In Shorebirds: Migration and Foraging Behavior (J. Burger and B. L. Olla, Editors). Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 271–321.

227. Calbrade, N., C. A. Entwistle, A. J. Smith, and K. G. Spencer (2001). Roof assemblies of lapwings and plovers in Britain. British Birds 94:35–38.

228. Myers, J. P. (1980b). Territoriality and flocking by Buff-breasted Sandpipers: variations in non-breeding dispersion. Condor 82:241–250.

229. Myers, J. P., P. G. Conners, and F. A. Pitelka (1979a). Territoriality in non-breeding shorebirds. Studies in Avian Biology 2:231–246.

230. Colwell, M. A. (2000). A review of territoriality in non-breeding shorebirds (Charadrii). Wader Study Group Bulletin 93:58–66.

231. Johnson, O. W., P. M. Johnson, P. L. Bruner, A. E. Bruner, R. J. Kienholz, and P. A. Brusseau (1997c). Male-biased breeding ground fidelity and longevity in American Golden-Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 109:348–351.

232. Johnson, O. W., P. L. Bruner, A. E. Bruner, P. M. Johnson, R. J. Kienholz, and P. A. Brusseau (2001e). Features of breeding biology in Pacific and American Golden-Plovers nesting on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Wader Study Group Bulletin 95:59–65.

233. Yezerinac, S., R. B. Lanctot, G. K. Sage, and S. L. Talbot (2013). Social and genetic mating system of the American Golden-Plover. Condor 115:808–815.

234. Johnson, D. D. P., and J. V. Briskie (1999). Sperm competition and sperm length in shorebirds. Condor 101:848–854.

235. Byrkjedal, I. (1987). Short-billed Dowitchers associate closely with Lesser Golden-Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 99:494–495.

236. Lima, S. L. (1993). Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on escape from predatory attack: A survey of North American birds. Wilson Bulletin 105:1–47.

237. Byrkjedal, I. (1989a). Nest defense behavior of Lesser Golden-Plovers. Wilson Bulletin 101:579–590.

238. Sordahl, T. A. (1981b). Predator-mobbing behaviour in the shorebirds of North America. Wader Study Group Bulletin 31:41–44.

239. McCaffery, B. J. (1982). Geographic variation in predator-mobbing behavior-a hypothesis. Wader Study Group Bulletin 35:30.

240. Gochfeld, M. (1984). Antipredator behavior: aggressive and distraction displays of shorebirds. In Behavior of Marine Animals, Volume 5. Shorebirds: Breeding Behavior and Populations (J. Burger and B. L. Olla, Editors). Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 289–377.

241. Murie, A. (1946). Observation on the birds of Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. Condor 48:253–261.

242. Byrkjedal, I. (1991). The role of drive conflicts as a mechanism for nest-protection behaviour in the shorebird Pluvialis dominica. Ethology 87:149–159.

243. Moiteret, C. S., T. R. Martin, and P. D. Martin (1996). Predevelopment surveys of nesting birds at two sites in the Kuparuk Oilfield, Alaska, 1988–1992. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Alaska Ecological Services, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

244. Troy, D. M. (1996). Population dynamics of breeding shorebirds in arctic Alaska. International Wader Studies 8:15–27.

245. Peck, G. K., and R. D. James (1993). Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution Volume 1: Nonpasserines (First revision–Part B: Vultures to Phalaropes). Ontario Birds 11:83–91.

246. Andreev, A. V. (1984). Experimental study of energetic parameters of incubation in some arctic birds. Doklady Biological Sciences 278:559–563.

247. Johnson, O. W., R. H. Goodwill, R. S. Gold, and P. M. Johnson (2008e). Clutch replacement and between-clutch mate fidelity of Pacific Golden-Plovers Pluvialis fulva breeding near Nome, Alaska. Wader Study Group Bulletin 115:157–160.

248. Herzog, P., S. T. Saalfeld, H-H. Kaatz, and R. B. Lanctot (2018). Nest reuse in arctic‐breeding shorebirds: an analysis of potential benefits and factors affecting the occurrence of this rare behavior. Journal of Avian Biology e01737.

249. Parmelee, D. F., and J. M. Parmelee (1995). Additional bird nesting records and egg masses for the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Northwestern Naturalist 76:134–136.

250. Baicich, P. J., and C. Harrison (1997). A Guide to the Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of North American Birds. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.

251. Bowman, T. (2004). Field Guide to Bird Nests and Eggs of Alaska's Coastal Tundra. Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

252. Montgomerie, R. D., R. V. Cartar, B. Lyon, and R. McLaughlin (1982). Shorebird studies at Sarcpa Lake, Melville Peninsula, Northwest Territories. Wader Study Group Bulletin 34:30–32.

253. Liebezeit, J. R., P. A. Smith, R. B. Lanctot, H. Schekkerman, I. Tulp, S. J. Kendall, D. M. Tracy, R. J. Rodrigues, H. Meltofte, J. A. Robinson, C. Gratto-Trevor, B. J. McCaffery, J. Morse, and S. W. Zack (2007). Assessing the development of shorebird eggs using the flotation method: Species-specific and generalized regression models. Condor 109:32–47.

254. Piersma, T., A. Lindstrom, R. H. Drent, I. Tulp, J. Jukema, R. I. G. Morrison, J. Reneerkens, H. Schekkerman, and G. H. Visser (2003). High daily energy expenditure of incubating shorebirds on High Arctic tundra: A circumpolar study. Functional Ecology 17:356–362.

255. Tulp, I., H. Schekkerman, L. W. Bruinzeel, J. Jukema, G. H. Visser, and T. Piersma (2009a). Energetic demands during incubation and chick rearing in a uniparental and a biparental shorebird breeding in the High Arctic. Auk 126:155–164.

256. Spindler, M. A. (1978). Bird populations and habitat use in the Okpilak River delta area, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska, 1978. Unpublished report, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

257. Ricklefs, R. E. (1984a). Egg dimensions and neonatal mass of shorebirds. Condor 86:7–11.

258. Machin, P., J. Fernández-Elipe, H. Flinks, M. Laso, J. I. Aguirre, and R. H. G. Klaassen (2017). Habitat selection, diet and food availability of European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks in Swedish Lapland. Ibis 159:657–672.

259. Pattie, D. L. (1990). A 16-year record of summer birds on Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arctic 43:275–283.

260. Johnson, O. W., P. G. Connors, P. L. Bruner, and J. L. Maron (1993d). Breeding ground fidelity and mate retention in the Pacific Golden-Plover. Wilson Bulletin 105:60–67.

261. Latour, P. B., C. S. Machtans, and G. W. Beyersbergen (2005). Shorebird and passerine abundance and habitat use at a High Arctic breeding site: Creswell Bay, Nunavut. Arctic 58:55–65.

262. Tulp, I., and H. Schekkerman (2001). Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in summer 2001. Alterra, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

263. Klima, J., K. Ballantyne, J. Perz, A. S. Johnson, J. A. Jackson, J-F. Lamarre, and L. McKinnon (2013). North American longevity records for American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica and Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Wader Study Group Bulletin 120:134–135.

264. Weiser, E. L., R. B. Lanctot, S. C. Brown, H. R. Gates, R. L. Bentzen, J. Bety, M. L. Boldenow, W. B. English, S. E. Franks, L. Koloski, E. Kwon, J-F. Lamarre, D. B. Lank, J. R. Liebezeit, L. McKinnon, E. Nol, J. Rausch, S. T. Saalfeld, N. R. Senner, D. H. Ward, P. F. Woodard, and B. K. Sandercock (2018). Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds. Auk: Ornithological Advances 135:29–43.

265. Peters, H. S. (1936). A list of external parasites from birds of the eastern part of the United States. Bird-Banding 7:9–27.

266. Orfila, R. N. (1959). Mallophaga. Primeras Jornades Entomoepidemiológicas Argentinas 2:509–524.

267. Fain, A., and D. E. Johnston (1966). Nouveaux acariens nasicoles d'oiseaux nord-Americains (Acari: Rhinonyssidae). Bulletins de la Société Royale de Zoologie d'Anvers 38:25–41.

268. Greiner, E. C., G. F. Bennett, E. M. White, and R. F. Coombs (1975). Distribution of avian hematozoa of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1762–1787.

269. Newton, I. (2007). Weather-related mass-mortality events in migrants. Ibis 149:453–467.

270. Hudson, W. H. (1918). Far away and long ago: a childhood in Argentina. Dent & Sons, London, United Kingdom.

271. White, C. M., and R. B. Weeden (1966). Hunting methods of Gyrfalcons and behavior of their prey (ptarmigan). Condor 68:517–519.

272. White, C. M., and T. J. Cade (1971). Cliff-nesting raptors and ravens along the Colville River in arctic Alaska. Living Bird 10:107–150.

273. White, C. M., W. B. Emison, and F. S. L. Williamson (1973a). DDE in a resident Aleutian Island Peregrine population. Condor 75:306–311.

274. Springer, A. M. (1975). Observations on the summer diet of Rough-legged Hawks from Alaska. Condor 77:338–339.

275. Maher, W. J. (1974c). Ecology of Pomarine, Parasitic and Long-tailed Jaegers in northern Alaska. Pacific Coast Avifauna 37.

276. Underhill, L. G., R. P. Prys-Jones, E. E. Syroechkovski Jr., N. M. Groen, V. Karpov, H. G. Lappo, M. W. J. Van Roomen, A. Rybkin, H. Schekkerman, H. Spiekman, and R. W. Summers (1993). Breeding of waders (Charadrii) and Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla at Pronchishcheva Lake, northeastern Taimyr, Russia, in a peak and a decreasing lemming year. Ibis 135:277–292.

277. Schekkerman, H., and M. van Roomen (1995). Breeding waders at Pronchishcheva Lake, northeastern Taimyr, Siberia, in 1991. WIWO Report 55, Zeist, The Netherlands.

278. Ryabitsev, V. K. (2000). On the population ecology of the gray plover in the northern Yamal Peninsula. Russian Journal of Ecology 31:108–112.

279. Schekkerman, H., I. Tulp, K. M. Calf, and J. J. de Leeuw (2004). Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in summer 2002. Alterra, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

280. Smith, P. A., H. G. Gilchrist, and J. N. M. Smith (2007c). Effects of nest habitat, food, and parental behavior on shorebird nest success. Condor 109:15–31.

281. Liebezeit, J. R., and S. Zack (2008). Point counts underestimate the importance of Arctic foxes as avian nest predators: Evidence from remote video cameras in Arctic Alaskan oil fields. Arctic 61:153–161.

282. Wright, J. M. (1979). Reindeer grazing in relation to bird nesting on the northern Seward Peninsula. M.S. thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

283. Tomkovich, P. S., and Y. V. Zharikov (1997). Wader breeding conditions in the Russian tundras in 1996. Wader Study Group Bulletin 83:26–36.

284. De Roos, G. T. (1997). A note on the significance of Wrangel Island (71°N 180°E), East Siberian Sea, for waders and its nature conservation status in the future. Wader Study Group Bulletin 83:55–56.

285. Klima, J. (2002). Demography and Behavior of the American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialais dominica) at Churchill, Manitoba, 2002. Churchill Northern Studies Centre, Churchill, MB, Canada.

286. Klima, J., and O. W. Johnson (2005). Return rates of male and female monogamous shorebirds to their breeding grounds. Wader Study Group Bulletin 106:42–46.

287. Bart, J., and P. A. Smith (2012). Summary. In Arctic Shorebirds in North America: A Decade of Monitoring (J. Bart and V. Johnston, Editors). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA. pp. 211–238.

288. Morrison, R. I. G., B. J. McCaffery, R. E. Gill, S. K. Skagen, S. L. Jones, G. W. Page, C. L. Gratto-Trevor, and B. A. Andres (2006a). Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2006. Wader Study Group Bulletin 111:67–85.

289. Andres, B. A., P. A. Smith, R. I. G. Morrison, C. L. Gratto-Trevor, S. C. Brown, and C. A. Friis (2012). Population estimates of North American shorebirds, 2012. Wader Study Group Bulletin 119:178–194.

290. Lowe, J. D. (1994). Resident bird counts 1993. Journal of Field Ornithology 65 (supplement):114–117.

291. Lowe, J. D. (1995). Resident bird counts 1994. Journal of Field Ornithology 66 (supplement):106–108.

292. Jehl, J. R., Jr., and W. L. Lin (2001). Population status of shorebirds nesting at Churchill, Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115:487–494.

293. Gratto-Trevor, C. L., V. H. Johnston, and S. T. Pepper (1998). Changes in shorebird and eider abundance in the Rasmussen Lowlands, NWT. Wilson Bulletin 110:316–325.

294. Johnston, V. H., C. L. Gratto-Trevor, and S. T. Pepper (2000). Assessment of bird populations in the Rasmussen Lowlands, Nunavut. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper 101:1–56.

295. Bart, J., S. Brown, B. Harrington, and R. I. G. Morrison (2007). Survey trends of North American shorebirds: population declines or shifting distributions? Journal of Avian Biology 38:73–82.

296. McAtee, W. L. (1957). The North American birds of Mark Catesby and Eleazar Albin. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 3:177–194.

297. American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds. 6th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.

298. McAtee, W. L. (1923). Local names of migratory game birds. U.S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Circular 13.

299. Osgood, F. (1890). Shore bird shooting on the New England coast, Part 5. Shooting and Fishing 8:513–514.

300. Forbush, E. H. (1916). A History of the Game Birds, Wild-fowl and Shore Birds of Massachusetts and Adjacent States. Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, Boston, MA, USA.

301. Forbush, E. H. (1929). Birds of Massachusetts and Other New England States, Part 3: Land Birds from Sparrows to Thrushes. Massachusetts Department of Agriculture, Boston, MA, USA.

302. Allen, A. A. (1934c). The golden plover. Bird-Lore 36:321–332.

303. Palmer, R. S. (1949). Maine Birds. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 102:1–579.

304. Canevari, P., and D. E. Blanco (1994). Literature search for the Eskimo Curlew. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Conservation International, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

305. Olrog, C. C. (1967a). Observations on migratory birds from the northern hemisphere (in Spanish). Hornero 10:292–298.

306. Watts, B. D., and C. Turrin (2016). Assessing hunting policies for migratory shorebirds throughout the Western Hemisphere. Wader Study 123:6–15.

307. Lindström, A., and J. Agrell (1999). Global change and possible effects on the migration and reproduction of arctic-breeding waders. Ecological Bulletins; Animal responses to global change in the north 47:145–159.

308. Callaghan, T. V., L. O. Bjorn, Y. Chernov, T. Chapin, T. R. Christensen, B. Huntley, R. A. Ims, M. Johansson, D. Jolly, S. Jonasson, N. Matveyeva, N. Panikov, W. Oechel, G. Shaver, J. Elster, I. S. Jonsdottir, K. Laine, K. Taulavuori, E. Taulavuori, and C. Zockler (2004). Responses to projected changes in climate and UV-B at the species level. Ambio 33:418–435.

309. Meltofte, H., T. Piersma, H. Boyd, B. McCaffery, B. Ganter, V. V. Golovnyuk, K. Graham, C. L. Gratto-Trevor, R. I. G. Morrison, E. Nol, H.-U. Röesner, D. Schamel, H. Schekkerman, M. Y. Soloviev, P. S. Tomkovich, D. M. Tracy, I. Tulp, and L. Wennerberg (2007). Effects of climate variation on the breeding ecology of Arctic shorebirds. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 59:1–48.

310. Wauchope, H. S., J. D. Shaw, O. Varpe, E. G. Lappo, D. Boertmann, R. B. Lanctot, and R. A. Fuller (2017). Rapid climate-driven loss of breeding habitat for Arctic migratory birds. Global Change Biology 23:1085–1094.

311. Liebezeit, J. R., S. J. Kendall, S. Brown, C. B. Johnson, P. Martin, T. L. McDonald, D. C. Payer, C. L. Rea, B. Streever, A. M. Wildman, and S. Zack (2009). Influence of human development and predators on nest survival of tundra birds, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska. Ecological Applications 19:1628–1644.

312. Watts, B. D., E. T. Reed, and C. Turrin (2015). Estimating sustainable mortality limits for shorebirds using the Western Atlantic Flyway. Wader Study 122:37–53.

313. Homoya, W., J. W. Moore, P. J. Ruhl, and J. B. Dunning (2017). Do American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) avoid wind-energy turbines in agricultural fields in Indiana during spring migration? Wilson Journal of Ornithology 129:863–871.

314. Walker, W. (1977). Chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in Alaska Gyrfalcons and their prey. Auk 94:442–447.

315. Court, G. S., C. C. Gates, D. A. Boag, J. D. MacNeil, D. M. Bradley, A. C. Fesser, J. R. Patterson, G. B. Stenhouse, and L. W. Oliphant (1990). A toxicological assessment of Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus tundrius, breeding in the Keewatin District of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 104:255–272.

316. Braune, B. M., and D. G. Noble (2009). Environmental contaminants in Canadian shorebirds. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 148(1–4):185–204.

317. Saalfeld, D. T., A. C. Matz, B. J. McCaffery, O. W. Johnson, P. Bruner, and R. B. Lanctot (2016). Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188:276.

318. Perkins, M., L. Ferguson, R. B. Lanctot, I. J. Stenhouse, S. Kendall, S. Brown, H. R. Gates, J. O. Hall, K. Regan, and D. C. Evers (2016). Mercury exposure and risk in breeding and staging Alaskan shorebirds. Condor 118:571–582.

319. Morrison, M. L., and L. F. Kiff (1979). Eggshell thickness in American shorebirds before and since DDT. Canadian Field-Naturalist 93:187–190.

320. Strum, K. M., M. Alfaro, B. Haase, M. J. Hooper, K. A. Johnson, R. B. Lanctot, A. J. Lesterhuis, L. López, A. C. Matz, C. Morales, B. Paulson, B. K. Sandercock, J. Torres-Dowdall, and M. E. Zaccagnini (2008). Plasma cholinesterases for monitoring pesticide exposure in Nearctic-Neotropical migratory shorebirds. Ornitología Neotropical 19(Suppl.):641–651.

321. Strum, K. M., M. J. Hooper, K. A. Johnson, R. B. Lanctot, M. E. Zaccagnini, and B. K. Sandercock (2010). Exposure of nonbreeding migratory shorebirds to cholinesterase-inhibiting contaminants in the Western Hemisphere. Condor 112:15–28.

322. Brown, S., C. Hickey, B. Harrington, and R. Gill (2001). United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Manomet Center Conservation Sciences, Manomet, MA, USA.

323. Alaska Shorebird Group (2019). Alaska Shorebird Conservation Plan. Version III. Alaska Shorebird Group, Anchorage, AK, USA.

324. Galbraith, H., R. Jones, R. Park, J. Clough, S. Herrod-Julius, B. Harrington, and G. Page (2002). Global climate change and sea level rise: Potential losses of intertidal habitat for shorebirds. Waterbirds 25:173–183.

325. Galbraith, H., D. W. DesRochers, S. Brown, and J. M. Reed (2014). Predicting vulnerabilities of North American shorebirds to climate change. PLoS ONE 9:e108899.

326. Machin, P., J. Fernández-Elipe, and R. H. G. Klaassen (2018). The relative importance of food abundance and weather on the growth of a sub-arctic shorebird chick. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72:42.

327. Johnson, O. W. (1973b). Reproductive condition and other features of shorebirds resident at Eniwetok Atoll during the boreal summer. Condor 75:336–343.

Recommended Citation

Johnson, O. W., P. G. Connors, and P. Pyle (2019). American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), version 3.1. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.