You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of BNA. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.
For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required. Subscriptions are available for as little as $5 for 30 days of complete access! If you would like to subscribe to BNA, please visit the Cornell Lab of Ornithology E-Store or call us at 877-873-2626 (M-F, 8:00-4:00 ET).
Adams, C. J., S. H. Feldman and J. M. Sleeman. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. Avian Diseases no. 49 (4):601-605.
Aldrich, J. W. 1945a. Additional breeding and migration records of the Black-backed Robin. Auk no. 62:310-311.
Aldrich, J. W. and D. C. Nutt. 1939. Birds of eastern Newfoundland. Sci. Pubs. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 4:13-42.
Aldrich, J. W. and F. C. James. 1991. Ecogeographic variation in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 108:230-249.
Allen, F. H. 1913. More notes on morning awakening. Auk no. 30:229-235.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. 7th edition Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists' Union.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1957. Check-list of North American birds, 5th ed. Washington, D.C: Am. Ornithol. Union.
Amos, E. J. R. 1991. A Guide to the Birds of Bermuda. Warwick, Bermuda: E. J. R. Amos.
Apperson, Charles S., Bruce A. Harrison, Thomas R. Unnasch, Hassan K. Hassan, William S. Irby, Harry M. Savage, Stephen E. Aspen, D. Wesley Watson, Leopoldo M. Rueda, Barry R. Engber and Roger S. Nasci. 2002. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 39 (5):777-785.
Apperson, Charles S., Hassan K. Hassan, Bruce A. Harrison, Harry M. Savage, Stephen E. Aspen, Ary Farajollahi, Wayne Crans, Thomas J. Daniels, Richard C. Falco, Mark Benedict, Michael Anderson, Larry McMillen and Thomas R. Unnasch. 2004. Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases no. 4 (1):71-82.
Applegate, Roger D., Kyle Van Why and Brian E. Flock. 2000. American robin re-uses nest site. Kansas Ornithological Society Bulletin no. 51 (4):37.
Armstrong, R. H. 1995a. Guide to the birds of Alaska. 4th ed. Seattle, WA: Alaska Northwest Books.
Askham, L. R. and J. K. Fellman. 1989. "The use of DMA to reduce robin depredation on cherries." In Ninth Great Plains Wildlife Damage Control Workshop Proceedings., edited by J. Ardell, J. Bjugstad, W. Daniel, W. Uresk and R. Hamre, 116-119. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-171.
Aslan, C. and M. Rejmánek. 2012. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants. NeoBiota (12):1-24.
Bagne, K. E. and K. L. Purcell. 2011. Short-term responses of birds to prescribed fire in fire-suppressed forests of California. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 75 (5):1051-1060.
Baird, S. F. 1864. Review of American birds in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Pt. 1: North and Middle America. Smithson. Misc. Collect. no. 181, vol. no. 12.
Baldwin, Michael J., Wylie C. Barrow, Jr., Clinton Jeske and Frank C. Rohwer. 2008. Metabolizable energy in Chinese tallow fruit for yellow-rumped warblers, northern cardinals, and American robins. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 120 (3):525-530.
Barrows, W. B. 1912b. Michigan Bird Life. Lansing, MI: Michigan Agricultural College.
Bartel, K. E. 1987. [On sexing American Robins]. Passenger Pigeon no. 49:53-54.
Bartuszevige, A. M. and D. L. Gorchov. 2006. Avian seed dispersal of an invasive shrub. Biological Invasions no. 8 (5):1013-1022.
Battaly, G. R. and D. Fish. 1993. Relative importance of bird species as hosts for immature Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in a suburban residential landscape of southern New York State. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 30 (4):740-747.
Bayer, R. D. 1980c. Novel use of an unusual food: American Robin eating parts of fish. J. Field Ornithol. no. 51:74-75.
Beal, F. E. L. 1915b. Food of the robins and bluebirds of the United States. U.S. Dep. Agric. Bull. no. 171.
Beaver, D. L. 1980b. Recovery of an American Robin population after earlier DDT use. J. Field Ornithol. no. 51:220-228.
Beck, Maurie J. and Stephen B. Vander Wall. 2011. Diplochory in western chokecherry: you can't judge a fruit by its mesocarp. Oecologia (Berlin) no. 165 (1):131-141.
Bell, Tom. 2010. Winter roost site for American robins. Loon no. 82 (1):44.
Benson, A. M. and K. Winker. 2001. Timing of breeding range occupancy among high-latitude passerine migrants. Auk no. 118 (2):513-519.
Benson, T. J., M. P. Ward, R. L. Lampman, A. Raim and P. J. Weatherhead. 2012. Implications of spatial patterns of roosting and movements of American Robins for West Nile virus transmission. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases no. 12 (10):877-885.
Bent, A. C. 1938b. Life histories of North American Birds of Prey (Part 2). Orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. (170):viii-482.
Bergtold, W. H. 1930. Intoxicated robins. Auk no. 37:571.
Bernard, K. 1981. American Robins and Cedar Waxwings rain-bathing under lawn sprinklers. Fla. Field Nat. no. 9:9-10.
Best, L. B. 2001. Temporal patterns of bird abundance in cornfield edges during the breeding season. American Midland Naturalist no. 146 (1):94-104.
Beyer, W. N., J. Dalgarn, S. Dudding, J. B. French, R. Mateo, J. Miesner, L. Sileo and J. Spann. 2004. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 48 (1):108-117.
Bicknell, E. P. 1884. A study of the singing of our birds. Auk no. 1:60-71.
Bird, J., J. Alcock and W. J. Erckmann. 1973. Starlings stealing worms from robins. Wilson Bull. no. 85:480-482.
Black, J. D. 1932. A winter robin roost in Arkansas. Wilson Bull. no. 29:13-19.
Blair, Robert. 2004. The effects of urban sprawl on birds at multiple levels of biological organization. Ecology and Society no. 9 (5):21pp.
Bondesen, P. 1977. North American bird songs-a world of music. Klampenborg, Denmark: Scand. Sci. Press Ltd.
Borgmann, Kathi L. and Amanda D. Rodewald. 2004. Nest predation in an urbanizing landscape: the role of exotic shrubs. Ecological Applications no. 14 (6):1757-1765.
Brehmer, P. M. and R. K. Anderson. 1992. Effects of urban pesticide applications on nesting success of songbirds. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 48:352-359.
Brewer, R. G., A. McPeak and Jr. Adams, R. J. 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing: Mich. State Univ. Press.
Brewster, W. 1890d. Summer robin roosts. Auk no. 7:360-373.
Briskie, J. V., S. G. Sealy and K. A. Hobson. 1992. Behavioral defenses against avian brood parasitism in sympatric and allopatric host populations. Evolution no. 46:334-340.
Brown, D., G. Miller and Y. Wang. Alternative migration strategies in American Robins.
Browning, M. R. 1974b. Taxonomic remarks on recently described subspecies of birds that occur in the northwestern United States. Murrelet no. 55:32-38.
Browning, M. R. 1990. Taxa of North American birds described from 1957 to 1987. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. no. 103:432-451.
Brugger, K. E. 1992. Repellency of sucrose to captive American Robins. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 56:794-799.
Brugger, K. E. and C. O. Nelms. 1991. Sucrose avoidance by American Robins (Turdus migratorius): implications for control of bird damage to fruit crops. Crop Protection no. 10:455-460.
Cameron, E. K. and E. M. Bayne. 2012. Invasion by a non-native ecosystem engineer alters distribution of a native predator. Diversity and Distributions no. 18 (12):1190-1198.
Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, M. C. E. McNall and G. E. J. Smith. 1997b. The birds of British Columbia. Vol. 3. Passerines: Flycatchers through vireos. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Cancellieri, S. and M. T. Murphy. 2013. Experimental examination of nest reuse by an open-cup-nesting passerine: Time/energy savings or nest site shortage? Animal Behaviour no. 85 (6):1287-1294.
Catesby, M. 1754. The natural history of Carolina, Florida, and Bahama Islands. London, UK: C. Marsh.
Chavez-Ramirez, F. and R. D. Slack. 1994. Effects of avian foraging and post-foraging behavior on seed dispersal patterns of Ashe juniper. Oikos no. 71:40-46.
Chestem, M. 1990. American Robins feed fledgling crows. Maryland Birdlife no. 46:83-84.
Ching, H. L. 1993. Helminths of Varied Thrushes, Ixoreus naevius, and robins, Turdus migratorius, from British Columbia. J. Helminthol. no. 60:239-242.
Chubb, K. Robin anecdotes 2006.
Cipollini, M. L. and E. W. Stiles. 1993. Fruit rot, antifungal defense, and palatability of fleshy fruits for frugivorous birds. Ecology no. 74:751-762.
Clement, P. 2000. Thrushes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Clench, M. H. and R. C. Leberman. 1978. Weights of 151 species of Pennsylvania birds analyzed by month, age and sex. Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. no. 5.
Clucas, B. and J. M. Marzluff. 2012. Attitudes and actions toward birds in urban areas: Human cultural differences influence bird behavior. Auk no. 129 (1):8-16.
Cobb, George P., Ron Mellott, Larry W. Brewer, Catherine M. Bens and Ronald J. Kendall. 2000. Diazinon dissipation from vegetation, occurrence in earthworms, and presence in avian gastrointestinal tracts collected from apple orchards following D-Z-N registered trademark 50W application. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry no. 19 (5):1360-1367.
Courtney, S. P. and R. Sallabanks. 1992. It takes guts to handle fruits. Oikos no. 65:163-166.
Cox, T. M. 1986. More on the bird-eating activities of the black rat snake, Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta (Say). North. Ohio Assoc. Herpetol. Notes no. 14:18-19.
Cramp, S. 1988. The birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 5: tyrant flycatchers to thrushes. Oxford, U.K: Oxford Univ. Press.
Crossland, D. R. and S. P. V. Kloet. 1996. Berry consumption by the American Robin, Turdus migratorius, and the subsequent effect on seed germination, plant vigour, and dispersal of the Lowbush Blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium. Can. Field-Nat. no. 110:303-309.
Crossman, Carla A., Vanya G. Rohwer and Paul R. Martin. 2011. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario. PLoS ONE no. 6 (4):e19086, 1-10.
Cruz, A. and L. Cooper. Behavioral defenses against brood parasitism in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Final report submitted to City of Boulder 2001.
Dail, D. and L. Madsen. 2011. Models for Estimating Abundance from Repeated Counts of an Open Metapopulation. Biometrics no. 67 (2):577-587.
Davis, W. F. 1969c. Robin kills snake. Wilson Bull. no. 81:470-471.
de Juana, Eduardo and Ornitologia Comite de Rarezas de la Sociedad Espanola de. 2004. Report on rare birds in Spain in 2002. Ardeola no. 51 (2):515-541.
DeLap, Jack H. and Richard L. Knight. 2004. Wildlife response to anthropogenic food. Natural Areas Journal no. 24 (2):112-118.
Dellinger, R. L., P. B. Wood and P. D. Keyser. 2007a. Occurrence and nest survival of four thrush species on a managed central Appalachian forest. Forest Ecology and Management no. 243 (2-3):248-258.
Dellinger, R. L., P. B. Wood, P. D. Keyser and G. Seidel. 2007b. Habitat partitioning of four sympatric thrush species at three spatial scales on a managed forest in West Virginia. Auk no. 124 (4):1425-1438.
Deutsche, Seltenheitenkommission. 2006. Rare birds in Germany in the year 2000. Limicola no. 20 (6):281-353.
Dickson, B. G., B. R. Noon, C. H. Flather, S. Jentsch and W. M. Block. 2009b. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States. Ecological Applications no. 19 (3):608-621.
Dimond, J. B., G. Y. Belyea, R. A. Kadunce, A. S. Getchell and J. A. Blease. 1970. DDT residues in robins and earthworms associated with contaminated forest soils. Can. Entomol. no. 102:1122-1130.
Diuk-Wasser, Maria A., Goudarz Molaei, Jennifer E. Simpson, Corrine M. Folsom-O'Keefe, Philip M. Armstrong and Theodore G. Andreadis. 2010. Avian communal roosts as amplification foci for west Nile virus in urban areas in northeastern United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene no. 82 (2):337-343.
Dowling, J. L., D. A. Luther and P. P. Marra. 2012. Comparative effects of urban development and anthropogenic noise on bird songs. Behavioral Ecology no. 23 (1):201-209.
Dunson, W. A. 1965. Adaptation of heart and lung weight to high altitude in the robin. Condor no. 67:215-219.
Dwight, Jr., J. 1900. The sequence of plumages and moults of the passerine birds of New York. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 13:73-360.
Décarie, R., J. L. Desgranges, C. Lépine and F. Morneau. 1993. Impact of insecticides on the American Robin (Turdus migratorius) in a suburban environment. Environ. Pollut. no. 80:231-238.
Eason, Perri K., Peter T. Sherman, Otwell Rankin and Brian Coleman. 2006. Factors affecting flight initiation distance in American robins. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 70 (6):1796-1800.
Edwards, W. R., R. E. Duzan and R. J. Siemers. 1983. Organochlorine insecticide residues and PCBs in tissues of woodcock, Mourning Doves, and robins from east-central Illinois, 1978-79. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 31:407-414.
Eiserer, L. 1980a. Ontogeny of roosttime restlessness in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 97:194-196.
Eiserer, L. A. 1976. The American Robin. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
Eiserer, L. A. 1979. Roosttime restlessness in captive American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Anim. Learning Behav. no. 7:406-412.
Eiserer, L. A. 1980b. Effects of grass length and mowing on foraging behavior of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 97:576-580.
Eiserer, L. A. 1980c. Roosting behavior of the American Robin. Passenger Pigeon no. 42:96-101.
Elliott, J. E., P. A. Martin, T. W. Arnold and P. H. Sinclair. 1994. Organochlorines and, reproductive success of birds in orchard and non-orchard areas of central British Columbia, Canada, 1990-1991. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. no. 26:435-443.
Ellis, Margaret. 2003. 2002 May species count for birds. Alberta Naturalist no. 33 (1):1A-9A.
English, Philina A. and Robert Montgomerie. 2011. Robin's egg blue: does egg color influence male parental care? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 65 (5):1029-1036.
Erickson, D. B. 1978. Robin feeding upon snake. Murrelet no. 59:26.
Ericson, P. G. P. and U. S. Johansson. 2003. Phylogeny of Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 29 (1):126-138.
Ericson, P. G. P., M. Irestedt and U. S. Johansson. 2003a. Evolution, biogeography, and patterns of diversification in passerine birds. Journal of Avian Biology no. 34 (1):3-15.
Erskine, A. J., B. T. Collins, E. Hayakawa and C. Downes. 1992. The cooperative Breeding Bird Survey in Canada, 1989-1991. Can. Wildl. Ser. Progress Notes no. 199.
Estep, Laura K., Christopher J. W. McClure, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Hassan K. Hassan, Tyler L. Hicks, Thomas R. Unnasch and Geoffrey E. Hill. 2011. A Multi-Year Study of Mosquito Feeding Patterns on Avian Hosts in a Southeastern Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene no. 84 (5):718-726.
Farner, D. S. 1945. Age groups and longevity in the American Robin. Wilson Bull. no. 57:56-74.
Farner, D. S. 1949. Age groups and longevity in the American Robin: comments, further discussion, and certain revisions. Wilson Bull. no. 61:68-81.
Ferguson, B. and D. R. Ludwig. 1991. Post-release behavior of captive-reared American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Wildl. Rehab. no. 9:193-205.
Fisk, E. J. 1976. A deadly rain of robins. Fla. Nat. no. 49 (2):13-14.
Floyd, T., C. S. Elphick, G. Chisholm, K. Mack, R. G. Elston, E. M. Ammon and J. D. Boone. 2007. Atlas of the breeding birds of Nevada. Reno and Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press.
Fluetsch, K. M. and D. W. Sparling. 1994. Avian nesting success and diversity in conventionally and organically managed apple orchards. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. no. 13:1651-1659.
Foppa, Ivo M., Raphaelle H. Beard and Ian H. Mendenhall. 2011. The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds. BMC Veterinary Research no. 7:9pp.
Ford, Michelle T. and David J. Flaspohler. 2010. Scale-dependent response by breeding songbirds to residential development along Lake Superior. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 122 (2):296-306.
Foreman, A. (2017). Robin vs snake. Ohio Cardinal 40:193.
Friedmann, H. 1929. The cowbirds: a study in the biology of social parasitism. Springfield, IL: C. Thomas Publ.
Fuller-Perrine, L. D. and M. E. Tobin. 1993. A method for applying and removing bird-exclusion netting in commercial vineyards. Wildl. Soc. Bull. no. 21:47-51.
Gagnon, C. and K. A. Hobson. 2009. Using stable isotopes to track frugivory in migratory passerines. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie no. 87 (11):981-992.
Gainey, Paul. 2003. The American robin in Cornwall. Birding World no. 16 (12):500-502.
Gardali, Thomas and Jennifer D. White. 2003. Autumn and winter breeding records for the American robin, Turdus migratorius. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 117 (2):311-312.
Garner, Robert L. 2003. Late nesting of American robin in Maryland. Maryland Birdlife no. 59 (3-4):5.
Garrido, O. and A. Kirkconnell. Catalogue of Cuban birds. Unpublished.
Garrido, O. H. and A. Kirkconnell. 2000. Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Comstock/Cornell U. Press.
George, T. L. and L. A. Brand. 2002. The effects of habitat fragmentation on birds in coast redwood forests. Studies in Avian Biology no. 25:92-102.
George, T. Luke and Steve Zack. 2008. Bird occupancy and richness in ponderosa pine forests with contrasting forest structure and fire history. Canadian Journal of Forest Research no. 38 (5):936-942.
Gern, Lise and Pierre-Francois Humair. 2000. American robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochaetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases no. 6 (6):657-658.
Getz, L. L., L. B. Best and M. Prather. 1977. Lead in urban and rural song birds. Environ. Pollut. no. 12:235-238.
Giardina, A. R., K. A. Schmidt, E. M. Schauber and R. S. Ostfeld. 2000. Modeling the role of songbirds and rodents in the ecology of Lyme disease. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie no. 78 (12):2184-2197.
Gill, H., L. K. Wilson, K. M. Cheng, S. Trudeau and J. E. Elliott. 2000. Effects of azinphos-methyl on American robins breeding in fruit orchards. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 65 (6):756-763.
Gill, Harpreet, Laurie K. Wilson, Kimberly M. Cheng and John E. Elliott. 2003. An assessment of DDT and other chlorinated compounds and the reproductive success of American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in fruit orchards. Ecotoxicology no. 12 (1-4):113-123.
Ginsberg, H. S., P. A. Buckley, M. G. Balmforth, E. Zhioua, S. Mitra and F. G. Buckley. 2005. Reservoir competence of native North American birds for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 42 (3):445-449.
Girard, Jessica, Tony L. Goldberg and Gabriel L. Hamer. 2011. Field investigation of innate immunity in passerine birds in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 47 (3):603-611.
Glista, David J. and Travis L. DeVault. 2008. Road mortality of terrestrial vertebrates in Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science no. 117 (1):55-62.
Gloger, C. L. 1833. Das Abandern der Vogel durch Einfluss des Klimas. Breslan: A. Schultz.
Gochfield, M. and J. Burger. 1984. Age differences in foraging behavior of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Anim. Behav. no. 32:227-239.
Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised Edition. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
Goodman, J. D. 1983. Communal sunbathing in American Robins. Indiana Audubon Q. no. 61:62-63.
Gottfried, B. M., K. Andrews and M. Haug. 1985. Breeding robins and nest predators: effect of predator type and defense strategy on initial vocalization patterns. Wilson Bull. no. 97:183-190.
Govoni, Paul W., Keith S. Summerville and Muir D. Eaton. 2009. Nest sharing between and American robin and a northern cardinal. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 121 (2):424-426.
Gowaty, P. A. and J. H. Plissner. 1987. Association of male and female American Robins (Turdus migratorius) during the breeding season: paternity assurance by sexual access or mate-guarding. Wilson Bull. no. 99:56-62.
Graber, R. R., J. W. Graber and E. L. Kirk. 1971. Illinois birds: Turdidae. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes no. 75:1-44.
Griffing, Sean M., A. Marm Kilpatrick, Larry Clark and Peter P. Marra. 2007. Mosquito landing rates on nesting American robins (Turdus migratorius). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases no. 7 (3):437-443.
Grinnell, J. S. 1910e. Composition of the Prince William Sound avifauna: discussion of its origin. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. no. 5:419-428.
Grinnell, J., S. Stephens, J. Dixon and E. Heller. 1909. Birds and mammals of the 1907 Alexander expedition to southeastern Alaska. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. no. 5:171-264.
Griscom, L. 1934. The ornithology of Guerrero, Mexico. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. no. 75:367-422.
Grove, Greg. 2011. Notes on 20 years of breeding bird surveys in Rothrock State Forest. Pennsylvania Birds no. 25 (3):146-150.
Guglielmo, C. G., D. J. Cerasale and C. Eldermire. 2005. A field validation of plasma metabolite profiling to assess refueling performance of migratory birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology no. 78 (1):116-125.
Hall, K. J. and T. G. Northcote. 1986. A novel terrestrial-freshwater linkage: robin predation on damselfly nymphs. Discovery (Vancouver Nat. Hist. Soc.) no. 15:107-109.
Hamel, P. B. 1992. Land manager's guide to the birds of the south. Atlanta, GA: The Nature Conserv., Chapel Hill, North Carolina and the U.S. For. Serv., southern region.
Hamer, Gabriel L., Uriel D. Kitron, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Scott R. Loss, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Tony L. Goldberg and Edward D. Walker. 2008. Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): a bridge vector of West Nile virus to humans. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 45 (1):125-128.
Hamer, Gabriel L., Uriel D. Kitron, Ton L. Goldberg, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Scott R. Loss, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Daniel B. Hayes and Edward D. Walker. 2009. Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene no. 80 (2):268-278.
Hamilton, Jr., W. J. 1935. Notes on nestling robins. Wilson Bull. no. 47:109-111.
Hamilton, Jr., W. J. 1940. Summer food of the Robin determined by fecal analyses. Wilson Bull. no. 52:179-182.
Hansen, James A., Daniel Audet, Brian L. Spears, Kate A. Healy, Roy E. Brazzle, David J. Hoffman, Anne Dailey and W. Nelson Beyer. 2011. Lead Exposure and Poisoning of Songbirds Using the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho, USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management no. 7 (4):587-595.
Harris, M. L., L. K. Wilson, J. E. Elliott, C. A. Bishop, A. D. Tomlin and K. V. Henning. 2000c. Transfer of DDT and metabolites from fruit orchard soils to American robins (Turdus migratorius) twenty years after agricultural use of DDT in Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 39 (2):205-220.
Hartup, B. K. and H. Steinberg. 1996. Osteosarcoma in an American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Avian Dis. no. 40:938-940.
Hayes, J. P., J. M. Weikel and M. M. P. Huso. 2003. Response of birds to thinning young Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications no. 13 (5):1222-1232.
Hazelton, P. K., R. J. Robel and A. D. Dayton. 1984. Preferences and influence of paired food items on energy-intake of American Robins and Gray Catbirds. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 48 (1):198-202.
Hellmayr, C. E. 1934. Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. Zool. Ser., Vol. 13, pt. no. 7:106-110.
Henning, Miranda H., Scott K. Robinson, Kelly J. McKay, Joseph P. Sullivan and Heather Bruckert. 2003. Productivity of American robins exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls, Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry no. 22 (11):2783-2788.
Heppner, F. 1965. Sensory mechanisms and environmental clues used by the American Robin in locating earthworms. Condor no. 67:247-256.
Hickey, J. J. 1961. Some effects of insecticides on terrestrial birdlife in the Middle West. Wilson Bull. no. 73:398-424.
Hickey, J. J. and L. B. Hunt. 1960. Initial songbird mortality following a Dutch elm disease control program. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 24:259-265.
Hirth, D. H., A. E. Hester and F. Greeley. 1969. Dispersal and flocking of marked young robins (Turdus migratorius migratorius) after fledging. Bird-Banding no. 40:208-215.
Hofer, C., F. J. Gallagher and C. Holzapfel. 2010. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site. Environmental Pollution no. 158 (5):1207-1213.
Holtz, R. E. 1980. Robin defends mountain ash food supply. Loon no. 52:87-88.
Hothem, R. L., D. F. Mott, R. W. DeHaven and J. L. Guarino. 1981. Mesurol as a bird repellent on wine grapes in Oregon and California. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. no. 32:150-154.
Howard, D. V. 1967. Variation in the breeding season and clutch size of the robin in the northeastern United States and the maritime provinces of Canada. Wilson Bull. no. 79:432-439.
Howell, J. C. 1940. Spring roosts of the robin. Wilson Bull. no. 52:19-23.
Howell, J. C. 1942. Notes on the nesting habits of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius L.). Am. Midl. Nat. no. 28:529-603.
Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.
Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2003. The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105 (4):635-653.
Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle and D. I. Rogers. 2004. The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106 (1):206-210.
Hsu, Y. 1992. The function of aggressive interactions and singing behavior in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Phd Thesis, State Univ. of New York, New York.
Hubbard, J. P. (1978). Revised check-list of the birds of New Mexico. New Mexico Ornithological Society Publication no. 6.
Humphrey, P. S. and K. C. Parkes. 1959. An approach to the study of molts and plumages. The Auk 76 (1):1-31.
Hunt, L. B. 1969. Physiological susceptibility of robins to DDT poisoning. Wilson Bull. no. 81:407-418.
Hunt, L. B. and R. L. Sacho. 1969. Response of robins to DDT and Methoxychlor. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 33:336-345.
Hurd, P. L., P. J. Weatherhead and S. B. McRae. 1991. Parental consumption of nestling feces: good food or sound economics? Behav. Ecol. no. 2:69-76.
Hutto, R. L. 1995c. The composition of bird communities following stand-replacement fires in northern Rocky Mountain conifer forests. Conserv. Biol. no. 9:1-19.
Inouye, David W., Billy Barr, Kenneth B. Armitage and Brian D. Inouye. 2000. Climate change is affecting altitudinal migrants and hibernating species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America no. 97 (4):1630-1633.
Isaacs, W. S. 1985. Partial albino American Robin in Cleveland County, Oklahoma. Bull. Oklahoma Ornithol. Soc. no. 18:23.
James, D. A. and J. C. Neal. 1986. Arkansas birds: Their distribution and abundance. Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press.
James, F. C. 1970a. Geographic size variation in birds and its relationship to climate. Ecology no. 51 (3):365-390.
James, F. C. 1991a. Complementary descriptive and experimental studies of clinal variation in birds. Am. Zool. no. 31:694-706.
James, F. C. and Jr. Shugart, H. H. 1974. The phenology of the nesting season of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius) in the United States. Condor no. 76:159-168.
Johnson, E. V., G. L. Mack and D. Q. Thompson. 1976b. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins. Wilson Bull. no. 88:16-35.
Johnson, G. D., J. L. Pebworth and H. O. Krueger. 1991e. Retention of transmitters attached to passerines using a glue-on technique. J. Field Ornithol. no. 62:486-491.
Johnson, O. L. 1988d. Observations of American Robins with unusual plumage characteristics. Loon no. 60:49.
Johnson, S. G. and R. K. Swihart. 1989. The influence of predation risk on central place foraging variables in the American Robin, Turdus migratorius. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. no. 92:155-158.
Johnson, Steven L. 2006b. Do American robins acquire songs by both imitating and inventing? Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 118 (3):341-352.
Jones, H. L. 2003a. Birds of Belize. Austin: Univ. Texas Press.
Jung, R. E. 1992. Individual variation in fruit choice by American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 109:98-111.
Karasov, W. H. and D. J. Levey. 1990. Digestive system trade-offs and adaptations of frugivorous passerine birds. Physiological Zoology no. 63 (6):1248-1270.
Karasov, William H. 2011. Digestive physiology: a view from molecules to ecosystem. American Journal of Physiology Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology no. 301 (2):R276-R284.
Kemper, D. L. 1971. The breeding biology of the American robin (Turdus migratorius) in southwestern British Columbia. Master's Thesis, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Kemper, D. L. and J. M. Taylor. 1981. Seasonal reproductive changes in the American robin (Turdus migratorius L.) of the Pacific Northwest. Can. J. Zool. no. 59:212-217.
Kendeigh, S. C. 1942. Analysis of losses in the nesting of birds. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 6:19-16.
Kendeigh, S. C. 1952. Parental care and its evolution in birds. Illinois Biol. Monogr. no. 18:1-356.
Kendeigh, S. C. 1969b. Tolerance of cold and Bergmann's Rule. Auk no. 86:13-25.
Kennedy, P. L. 1991b. Reproductive strategies of Northern Goshawks and Cooper's Hawks during brood rearing in north-central New Mexico. Phd Thesis, Utah State Univ., Logan.
Kent, Rebekah, Lara Juliusson, Michael Weissmann, Sara Evans and Nicholas Komar. 2009. Seasonal blood-feeding behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Weld County, Colorado, 2007. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 46 (2):380-390.
Kessel, B. 1953b. Distribution and migration of the European starling in North America. Condor no. 55:49-67.
Kilpatrick, A. Marm, Alan P. Dupuis, II, Gwong-Jen J. Chang and Laura D. Kramer. 2010. DNA Vaccination of American Robins (Turdus migratorius) Against West Nile Virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases no. 10 (4):377-380.
Kilpatrick, A. Marm, Peter Daszak, Matthew J. Jones, Peter P. Marra and Laura D. Kramer. 2006. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B no. 273 (1599):2327-2333.
Kimball, J. W. 1944. A fishy bird story. Auk no. 61:646-647.
Kinsella, John M. and Vasyl V. Tkach. 2009. Molecular identification of an avian dicrocoeliid, Brachylecithum mosquensis, from a vagrant shrew, Sorex vagrans, in Montana, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology no. 76 (2):287-289.
Klimkiewicz, M. K., B. Clapp and A. G. Futcher. 1983. Longevity records of North American birds: Remizidae through Parulinae. J. Field Ornithol. no. 54:287-294.
Klimstra, W. D. and W. O. Stieglitz. 1957. Notes on reproductive activities of robins in Iowa and Illinois. Wilson Bull. no. 69:333-337.
Knight, R. L. and S. A. Temple. 1986b. Why does intensity of avian nest defense increase during the nesting cycle? Auk no. 103:318-327.
Knupp, D. M., Jr. Owen, R. B. and J. B. Dimond. 1977. Reproductive biology of the American Robin in northern Maine. Auk no. 94:80-85.
Kolbeinsson, Yann, Gunnlaugur Prainsson and Gunnlaugur Petursson. 2004. Rare birds in Iceland in 2001. Bliki (Reykjavik) no. 25:25-48.
Komisja, Faunistyczna. 2004. Rare birds recorded in Poland in 2003. Notatki Ornitologiczne no. 45 (3):169-194.
Komisja, Faunistyczna. 2008. Rare birds recorded in Poland in 2007. Notatki Ornitologiczne no. 49 (2):81-115.
Konishi, M. 1965. Effects of deafening on song development in American Robins and Black-headed Grosbeaks. Z. Tierpsychol. no. 22:584-599.
Kroll, A. J., E. B. Arnett and B. Altman. 2010. Effects of salvage logging on avian nest survival in beetle-killed forests. Forest Ecology and Management no. 260 (9):1599-1606.
LaFleur, Nancy E., Margaret A. Rubega and Chris S. Elphick. 2007. Invasive fruits, novel foods, and choice: an investigation of European starling and American robin frugivory. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 119 (3):429-438.
Laird, A. 1987. Sighting of a piebald robin. Passenger Pigeon no. 49:159.
Latta, S., C. Rimmer, A. Keith, J. Wiley, H. Raffaele, K. McFarland and E. Fernandez. 2006. Birds of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Leighton, D. 2006. Predation of a Colombia spotted frog by an American Robin. Wildlife Afield no. 3:134-135.
Lepczyk, C. A. 1993. Assimilation efficiencies and preferences of lipids and reducing sugars in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Bios no. 64:122-129.
Lepczyk, Christopher A., K. Greg Murray, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Paul Bartell, Eric Geyer and Timothy Work. 2000. Seasonal fruit preferences for lipids and sugars by American robins. Auk no. 117 (3):709-717.
Levesque, Anthony, Frantz Duzont and Anasthase Ramsahai. 2005. Information on five new breeding bird species discovered in Guadeloupe (French Antilles) since 1997. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology no. 18 (1):45-47.
Levey, D. J. and G. E. Duke. 1992. How do frugivores process fruit? Gastrointestinal transit and glucose absorption in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum). Auk no. 109:722-730.
Levey, D. J. and W. H. Karasov. 1989. Digestive responses of temperate birds switched to fruit or insect diets. Auk no. 106:675-686.
Lewington, I., P. Alström and P. Colston. 1991b. A field guide to the rare birds of Britain and Europe, Collins Field Guide. London: HarperCollins.
Lindell, Catherine A., Thomas A. Gavin, Roger D. Price and Angela L. Sanders. 2002. Chewing louse distributions on two Neotropical thrush species. Comparative Parasitology no. 69 (2):212-217.
Linnaeus, C. 1766a. Systema naturae. 12th ed. Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii.
Livingston, R. B. 1972. Influence of birds, stones and soil on the establishment of pasture Juniper, Juniperus communis, and red cedar, J. virginiana in New England pastures. Ecology no. 53:1141-1147.
Lowther, P. E. 1981. American Robin rears Brown-headed Cowbird. J. Field Ornithol. no. 52:145-147.
Lundelius, E. L., R. W. Graham, E. Anderson, J. Guilday, J. A. Holman, D. W. Steadman and S. D. Webb. 1983. "Terrestrial vertebrate faunas." In Late-Quaternary environments of the United States. Vol. 1: The late Pleistocene., edited by S. C. Porter, 311-353. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press.
Macarthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical ecology, patterns in the distribution of species. New York: Harper and Row.
Madhav, Nita K., John S. Brownstein, Jean I. Tsao and Durland Fish. 2004. A dispersal model for the range expansion of blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology no. 41 (5):842-852.
Marshall, J. T. 2001. The Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus minimus, and its New England subspecies, Bicknell's Thrush, Catharus minimus bicknelli. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club, no. 28.
Martin, K. 1973e. Breeding density and reproductive success of robins in relation to habitat structure on logged areas of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Master's Thesis, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton.
Martin, K. 1979c. Common garter snake predation on robin nestlings. Can. Field-Nat. no. 93:70-71.
Maslowski, K. 1991. Share and share alike: Cardinals and robins use the same nest-at the same time. Wildbird no. 5:32-33.
Mayfield, H. (1961). Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bulletin 73 (3):255-261.
Mayfield, H. F. 1975a. Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bulletin no. 87 (4):456-466.
Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.
McCusker, C. E., M. P. Ward and J. D. Brawn. 2010. Seasonal responses of avian communities to invasive bush honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.). Biological Invasions no. 12:2459-2470.
McKenzie, Valerie J. and Nicolas E. Goulet. 2010. Bird Community Composition Linked to Human West Nile Virus Cases Along the Colorado Front Range. EcoHealth no. 7 (4):439-447.
McNeil, R., A. McSween and P. Lachapelle. 2005. Comparison of the retinal structure and function in four bird species as a function of the time they start singing in the morning. Brain Behavior and Evolution no. 65 (3):202-214.
McNicholl, M. K. 1978b. Mid-March singing by American Robin and Varied Thrush in southwestern Alberta. Blue Jay no. 36:118-119.
McRae, S. B., P. J. Weatherhead and R. Montgomerie. 1993. American Robin nestlings compete by jockeying for position. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. no. 33:101-106.
McWhorter, Todd J., Adam K. Green and William H. Karasov. 2010. Assessment of radiolabeled D-glucose and the nonmetabolizable analog 3-O-methyl-d-glucose as tools for in vivo absorption studies. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology no. 83 (2):376-384.
Mearns, E. A. 1879. Observations on the avifauna of portions of Arizona. Auk no. 7:251-264.
Mehner, J. F. and G. J. Wallace. 1959. Robin populations and insecticides. Atlantic Nat. no. 14:4-9.
Mengel, R. M. 1965b. The birds of Kentucky, Ornithol. Monogr. 3. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Ornith. Union.
Michael, C. W. 1934. Unusual behavior of the western robin. Condor no. 36:33-34.
Miller, Mark W. 2006. Apparent effects of light pollution on singing behavior of American robins. Condor no. 108 (1):130-139.
Mineau, Pierre, Connie M. Downes, David Anthony Kirk, Erin Bayne and Myriam Csizy. 2005. Patterns of bird species abundance in relation to granular insecticide use in the Canadian prairies. Ecoscience no. 12 (2):267-278.
Mjos, Alf Tore. 2002. Re-examination of older records and changes to the Norwegian list. Ornis Norvegica no. 25 (2):64-92.
Molaei, G., J. Oliver, T. G. Andreadis, P. M. Armstrong and J. J. Howard. 2006c. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus in New York. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene no. 75 (6):1140-1147.
Molaei, Goudarz and Theodore G. Andreadis. 2006b. Identification of avian- and mammalian-derived bloodmeals in Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura (Diptera: Culicidae) and its implication for West Nile virus transmission in Connecticut, U.S.A. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 43 (5):1088-1093.
Molaei, Goudarz, Theodore G. Andreadis, Philip M. Armstrong and Maria Diuk-Wasser. 2008. Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, USA: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 45 (6):1143-1151.
Molaei, Goudarz, Theodore G. Andreadis, Philip M. Armstrong, John F. Anderson and Charles R. Vossbrinck. 2006a. Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases no. 12 (3):468-474.
Molaei, Goudarz, Theodore G. Andreadis, Philip M. Armstrong, Rudy Bueno, Jr., James A. Dennett, Susan V. Real, Chris Sargent, Adilekhidir Bala, Yvonne Randle, Hilda Guzman, Amelia Travassos de Rosa, Taweesak Wuithiranyagool and Robert B. Tesh. 2007. Host feeding pattern of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) an its role in transmission of West Nile virus in Harris County, Texas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene no. 77 (1):73-81.
Mongomery, Matthew J., Tara Thiemann, Paula Macedo, David A. Brown and Thomas W. Scott. 2011. Blood-Feeding Patterns of the Culex pipiens Complex in Sacramento and Yolo Counties, California. Journal of Medical Entomology no. 48 (2):398-404.
Monson, G. and A. R. Phillips. 1981a. Checklist of the birds of Arizona. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.
Moore, F. R. 1977. Flocking behavior and territorial competitors. Anim. Behav. no. 25:1063-1066.
Morrison, D. W. and D. F. Caccamise. 1990. Comparison of roost use by three species of communal roostmates. Condor no. 92:405-412.
Morshed, M. G., J. D. Scott, K. Fernando, L. Beati, D. F. Mazerolle, G. Geddes and L. A. Durden. 2005. Migratory songbirds disperse ticks across Canada, and first isolation of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from the avian tick, Ixodes auritulus. Journal of Parasitology no. 91 (4):780-790.
Morton, M. L. and M. E. Pereyra. 2004. Clutch sizes and nesting habits of birds at Tioga Pass. Western Birds no. 35 (2):62-70.
Morton, M. L. and M. E. Pereyra. 2010. Development of incubation temperature and behavior in thrushes nesting at high altitude. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 122 (4):666-673.
Murray, K. G., K. Winnett-Murray, E. A. Cromie, M. Minor and E. Meyers. 1993. The influence of seed packaging and fruit color on feeding preferences of American Robins. Vegetatio no. 107/108:217-226.
Nelson, G. S. and S. M. Nelson. 2001. Bird and butterfly communities associated with two types of urban riparian areas. Urban Ecosystems no. 5 (2):95-108.
Netting, M. G. 1969. Does the robin eat DeKay's snake? Wilson Bull. no. 81:471.
Niles, D. M. 1985. The survival of nests of American Robins in northern Delaware. Delmarva Ornithol. no. 18:10-19.
Norvell, Russell E., Frank P. Howe and Jimmie R. Parrish. 2005. Riparian bird population monitoring in Utah, 1992-2001. U S Forest Service General Technical Report PSW no. 191:559-566.
Oberholser, H. C. 1917d. Notes on North American birds I. Auk no. 34:191-196.
Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The bird life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.
Odum, E. P. and T. D. Burleigh. 1946. Southward invasion in Georgia. Auk no. 63:388-401.
Ortega, C. P., J. C. Ortega, C. A. Rapp, S. Vorisek, S. A. Backensto and D. W. Palmer. 1997. Effect of research activity on the success of American Robin nests. J. Wildl. Manage. no. 61:948-52.
Oyugi, Joseph O. and Joel S. Brown. 2003. Giving-up densities and habitat preferences of European Starlings and American Robins. Condor no. 105 (1):130-135.
Parmelee, D. F. and J. M. Parmelee. 1979. Nest switching among American Robins and Eastern Phoebes at Itasca State Park. Loon no. 51:169-170.
Paszkowski, C. A. 1982. Vegetation, ground, and frugivorous foraging of the American Robin. Auk no. 99:701-709.
Pearson, S. F. and D. A. Manuwal. 2001. Breeding bird response to riparian buffer width in managed Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications no. 11 (3):840-853.
Pence, D. B., R. A. Cole, K. E. Brugger and J. R. Fischer. 1999. Epizootic podoknemidokoptiasis in American Robins. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 35 (1):1-7.
Penny, C. and R. W. Knapton. 1977. Record of an American Robin killing a shrew. Can. Field-Nat. no. 91:393.
Peshek, Kathleen R. and Daniel T. Blumstein. 2011. Can rarefaction be used to estimate song repertoire size in birds? Current Zoology no. 57 (3):300-306.
Peters, H. S. 1936. A list of external parasites from birds of the eastern part of the United States. Bird-Banding no. 7:9-27.
Peterson, R. T. 1960. A Field Guide to the birds of Texas. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Phillips, A. R. 1991. The known birds of North and Middle America, Part II: Bombycillidae; Sylviidae to Sturnidae; Vireonidae. Denver: A. R. Phillips.
Phillips, J. C. 1927. Catbirds and robins as fisheaters. Bird-Lore no. 29:342-343.
Pietz, M. A. and P. J. Pietz. 1987. American Robin defends fruit resource against Cedar Waxwings. J. Field Ornith. no. 58:442-444.
Pitts, T. D. 1984. Description of American Robin territories in northwest Tennessee. Migrant no. 55:1-6.
Pitzrick, V. M. 1983. Albinistic American Robin in Alleghany County. Kingbird no. 33:256.
Powers, L. R. 1973. Record of a robin feeding shrews to its nestlings. Condor no. 75:248.
Preston, M. I. 2005. Attempted capture of a redlegged frog by an American Robin. Wildlife Afield no. 2:80-81.
Purcell, K. L., and D. A. Drynan (2008). Use of hardwood tree species by birds nesting in ponderosa pine forests. In Proceedings of the Sixth California Oak Symposium: Today's Challenges, Tomorrow's Opportunities (A. Merenlender, D. McCreary, and K. L. Purcell, Editors). USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-217.
Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.
Pyle, P. 1997. Molt limits in North American passerines. North American Bird Bander 22 (2):49-89.
Raffaele, H., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith and J. Raffaele. 1998. A Guide to the Birds of the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
Rand, A. L. 1948a. Birds of southern Alberta. Natl. Mus. Canada Bull. no. 111.
Rand, A. L. 1948b. Distributional notes on Canadian birds. Can. Field-Nat. no. 62:175-180.
Rand, A. L. 1948d. Probability in subspecific identification of single specimens. Auk no. 65:416-432.
Randolph, Sarah. 2000. American robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochaetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases no. 6 (6):658-659.
Rasmussen, J. L., S. G. Sealy and T. J. Underwood. 2009. Video recording reveals the method of ejection of Brown-headed Cowbird eggs and no cost in American Robins and Gray Catbirds. The Condor no. 111:570-574.
Rasmussen, J. L., T. J. Underwood and S. G. Sealy. 2010. Functional morphology as a barrier to the evolution of grasp-ejection in hosts of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). Canadian Journal of Zoology no. 88 (12):1210-1217.
Ratti, J. T., A. M. Moser, E. O. Garton and R. Miller. 2006. Selenium levels in bird eggs and effects on avian reproduction. Journal of Wildlife Management no. 70 (2):572-578.
Reale, Joseph A. and Robert B. Blair. 2005. Nesting success and life-history attributes of bird communities along an urbanization gradient. Urban Habitats no. 3 (1):1-24.
Reinkensmeyer, Daniel P., Richard E. Miller, Robert G. Anthony, Vern E. Marr and Corinne M. Duncan. 2008. Winter and early spring bird communities in grasslands, shrubsteppe, and juniper woodlands in central Oregon. Western North American Naturalist no. 68 (1):25-35.
Renne, I. J., Jr. Gauthreaux, S. A. and C. A. Gresham. 2000. Seed dispersal of the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) by birds in coastal South Carolina. American Midland Naturalist no. 144 (1):202-215.
Renne, Ian J., Wylie C. Barrow, Jr., Lori A. Johnson Randall and William C. Bridges. 2002. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness. Diversity and Distributions no. 8 (5):285-295.
Richardson, T. Will and Stephen B. Vander Wall. 2007. Yellow pine chipmunks cannot climb quaking aspens: Implications for avian nest site selection. Western North American Naturalist no. 67 (2):251-257.
Richmond, M. L. 1975. American Robin feeds garter snake to its nestlings. Wilson Bull. no. 87:552.
Richter, Dania, Andrew Spielman, Nicholas Komar and Franz-Rainer Matuschka. 2000. Competence of American robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases no. 6 (2):133-138.
Ricklefs, Robert E. and Kimberly S. Sheldon. 2007. Malaria prevalence and white-blood-cell response to infection in a tropical and in a temperate thrush. Auk no. 124 (4):1254-1266.
Ridgway, R. 1877b. Report of the U.S. Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel. Pt. 3. Ornithology. Washington, D.C: U.S. Gov. Printing Office.
Ridgway, R. 1901. The birds of North and Middle America, Pt. 1. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. no. 50.
Ridgway, R. 1902. The birds of North and Middle America, Pt. 2. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. no. 50.
Ridgway, R. 1904. The birds of North and Middle America. Part III. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum no. 50 (3):1-801.
Ridgway, R. 1907. The birds of North and Middle America. Part 4. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum no. 50 (4):1-973.
Ridgway, R. 1912. Color standars and color nomenclature. Washington, D. C.: R. Ridgway.
Rifai, L. 2007. Sexual and seasonal dimorphism: A case study in American Robins (Turdus migratorius) and Eastern Pondhawks (Erythemis simplicicollis). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Louisville, Louisville.
Ripley, S. D. 1964b. "Subfamily Turdinae, thrushes." In Check-list of birds of the world. Vol. 10., edited by E. Mayr and Jr R. A. Paynter, 13-227. Cambridge, MA: Mus. Comp. Zool.
Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrack and P. H. Geissler. 1986a. The Breeding Bird Survey: its first fifteen years, 1965-1979. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. resour. publ. no. 157.
Roberts, T. S. 1955. A manual for the identification of the birds of Minnesota and neighboring states. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Robertson, Jr., W. B. and G. E. Woolfenden. 1992a. Florida bird species: an annotated list. Fla. Ornithol. Soc. Spec. Publ. no. 6.
Rodewald, A. D., L. J. Kearns and D. P. Shustack. 2013. Consequences of urbanizing landscapes to reproductive performance of birds in remnant forests. Biological Conservation no. 160:32-39.
Rogge, C. and G. Rogge. 1984. Abnormally plumaged robin. S. D. Bird Notes no. 36:76.
Rondeau, G. and J. L. Desgranges. 1995. Effects of insecticide use on breeding birds in Christmas tree plantations in Quebec. Ecotoxicology no. 4:281-298.
Rosenberg, K. V., R. D. Ohmart, W. C. Hunter and B. W. Anderson. 1991. Birds of the lower Colorado River Valley. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.
Roth II, T. C., S. L. Lima and W. E. Vetter. 2006. Determinants of predation risk in small wintering birds: The hawk's perspective. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 60 (2):195-204.
Rowe, Karen M. C. and Patrick J. Weatherhead. 2007. Social and ecological factors affecting paternity allocation in American robins with overlapping broods. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology no. 61 (8):1283-1291.
Rowe, Karen M. C. and Patrick J. Weatherhead. 2009. A third incubation tactic: delayed incubation by American robins (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 126 (1):141-146.
Rowe, Karen M. C. and Patrick J. Weatherhead. 2011. Assortive mating in relation to plumage traits shared by male and female American Robins. Condor no. 113 (4):881-889.
Russell, R. E., J. A. Royle, V. A. Saab, J. F. Lehmkuhl, W. M. Block and J. R. Sauer. 2009a. Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: Avian responses to prescribed fire. Ecological Applications no. 19 (5):1253-1263.
Russell, S. M. and G. Monson. 1998. The birds of Sonora. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press.
Sallabanks, R. 1992a. Fruits and frugivores: interactions and decision-making mechanisms. Phd Thesis, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene.
Sallabanks, R. 1992b. Fruit fate, frugivory, and fruit characteristics: a study of the hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna (Rosaceae). Oecologia no. 91:296-304.
Sallabanks, R. 1993a. Fruit defenders vs. fruit thieves: winter foraging behavior in American Robins. J. Field Ornithol. no. 64:42-48.
Sallabanks, R. 1993b. Fruiting plant attractiveness to avian seed dispersers: native vs. invasive Crataegus in western Oregon. Madroño no. 40:108-116.
Sallabanks, R. 1993c. Hierarchical mechanisms of fruit selection by an avian frugivore. Ecology no. 74:1326-1336.
Sallabanks, R. 1995. Effects of wildfire on breeding bird communities in coniferous forests of northeastern Oregon. Meridian, ID: Sustainable Ecosystems Inst.
Sallabanks, R. 1997. Packing fruits at dusk: Fuel storage in an American Robin wintering in western Oregon. Northwest. Nat. no. 78:62-64.
Sallabanks, R. and S. P. Courtney. 1992c. Frugivory, seed predation, and insect-vertebrate interactions. Ann. Rev. Entomol. no. 37:377-400.
Sallabanks, R. and S. P. Courtney. 1993d. On fruit-frugivore relationships: variety is the spice of life. Oikos no. 68:567-570.
Sample, Bradley E., James A. Hansen, Anne Dailey and Bruce Duncan. 2011. Assessment of Risks to Ground-Feeding Songbirds from Lead in the Coeur d'Alene Basin, Idaho, USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management no. 7 (4):596-611.
Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, J. E. Fallon, K. L. Pardieck, Jr. Ziolkowski, D. J. and W. A. Link. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2011 (Version 07.03.2013). USGS Patuxtent Wildlife Research Center 2012.
Saunders, Sari C., Kenneth P. Lertzman and Marilyn A. Fuchs. 2006. Bird assemblages associated with vine maple gaps in coastal western hemlock forests of British Columbia. Northwest Science no. 80 (3):165-176.
Saur, J. R., J. E. Hines, G. Gough, I. Thomas and B. G. Peterjohn. The North American Breeding Bird Survey results and analysis. Version 96.3, Pautexent Wildlife Research Center 1997.
Savage, Harry M., Deepak Aggarwal, Charles S. Apperson, Charles R. Katholi, Emily Gordon, Hassan K. Hassan, Michael Anderson, Dawn Charnetzky, Larry McMillen, Emily A. Unnasch and Thomas R. Unnasch. 2007. Host choice and West Nile Virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002-2003. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases no. 7 (3):365-386.
Savard, J. P. L. and J. B. Falls. 1981. Influence of habitat structure on the nesting height of birds in urban areas. Can. J. Zool. no. 59:924-932.
Saveraid, E. H., D. M. Debinski, K. Kindscher and M. E. Jakubauskas. 2001. A comparison of satellite data and landscape variables in predicting bird species occurrences in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Landscape Ecology no. 16 (1):71-83.
Schantz, W. E. 1939. A detailed study of a family of robins. Wilson Bull. no. 51:157-169.
Schimmel, K. L. and F. E. Wasserman. 1991. An interspecific comparison of individual and species recognition in the passerines Turdus migratorius and Cyanocitta cristata. Behaviour no. 118:115-126.
Schimmel, K. L. and F. E. Wasserman. 1994. Individual and species preference in two passerine birds: auditory and visual cues. Auk no. 111:634-642.
Scott, D. M. 1993e. On egg-laying times of American Robins. Auk no. 110:156.
Scott, J. D., M. -K Lee, K. Fernando, L. A. Durden, D. R. Jorgensen, S. Mak and M. G. Morshed. 2010b. Detection of Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, including three novel genotypes in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from songbirds (Passeriformes) across Canada. Journal of Vector Ecology no. 35 (1):124-139.
Seger-Fullam, K. D., A. D. Rodewald and J. A. Soha. 2011. Urban noise predicts song frequency in Northern Cardinals and American Robins. Bioacoustics no. 20 (3):267-276.
Sharp, M. H. 1990. America's songbird-species profile: American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Wildbird no. 4:22-27.
Shaver, J. M. and R. Walker. 1931. A preliminary report on the influence of light intensity upon the time of ending of the evening song of the Robin and Mockingbird. Wilson Bull. no. 43:9-18.
Shedd, D. H. 1982. Seasonal variation and function of mobbing and related antipredator behaviors of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Auk no. 99:342-346.
Shirley, S. M. 2005. Habitat use by riparian and upland birds in old-growth coastal British Columbia rainforest. Wilson Bulletin no. 117 (3):245-257.
Simpson, Jennifer E., Corrine M. Folsom-O'Keefe, James E. Childs, Leah E. Simons, Theodore G. Andreadis and Maria A. Diuk-Wasser. 2009. Avian host-selection by Culex pipiens in experimental trials. PLoS ONE no. 4 (11):e7861, 1-5.
Sinclair, P. H., W. A. Nixon, C. D. Eckert and N. L. Hughes. 2003. Birds of the Yukon Territory. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Skopec, Michele M., Adam K. Green and William H. Karasov. 2010. Flavonoids have differential effects on glucose absorption in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and American robins (Turdis Turdus migratorius). Journal of Chemical Ecology no. 36 (2):236-243.
Skoracki, M., M. E. Flannery and G. S. Spicer. 2009. New data on systematics of the quill mites of the genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acari, Syringophilidae) from North American birds. Acta Parasitologica no. 54 (1):64-72.
Skorupa, J. P. and R. L. Hothem. 1985. Consumption of commercially grown grapes by American Robins: a field evaluation and laboratory estimates. J. Field Ornithol. no. 56:369-378.
Slagsvold, T. 1997a. Brood division in birds in relation to offspring size: sibling rivalry and parental control. Anim. Behav. no. 54:1357-1368.
Slagsvold, T. 1997b. Is there a sexual conflict over hatching asynchrony in American Robins? Auk no. 114:593-600.
Slater, R. L. 1967. Helminths of the Robin, Turdus migratorius Ridgway, from Northern Colorado. Am. Midl. Nat. no. 77:190-199.
Slowik, T. J. and R. S. Lane. 2001. Birds and their ticks in northwestern California: minimal contribution to Borrelia burgdorferi enzootiology. J. Parasitol. no. 87:755-761.
Small, A. 1994. California birds: their status and distribution. Vista, CA: Ibis Publ. Co.
Small, Brian. 2004. Rare birds in Suffolk 2003. Suffolk Birds no. 53:166-174.
Smith, H. G. and R. Montgomerie. 1991a. Nestling American Robins compete with siblings by begging. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. no. 29:307-312.
Smith, Steve and Terry Moore. 2004. The American robin in Lincolnshire. Birding World no. 17 (1):13-14.
Sousa, C. M. 1999. How male singing behaviors affect extra-pair copulations in a population of American Robins. Senior Honors thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Squires, J. R. 2000. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming. Wilson Bull. no. 112:536-539.
Staniforth, Richard J. 2002. Effects of urbanization on bird populations in the Canadian central Arctic. Arctic no. 55 (1):87-93.
Stansfield, Steve. 2003. The American robin on Bardsey. Birding World no. 16 (11):462-463.
Stansley, W., D. E. Roscoe, E. Hawthorne and R. Meyer. 2001. Food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology no. 40 (2):285-291.
Steadman, D. W. 1998. "From glaciers to global warning: Long-term changes in the birdlife of New York state." In Bull's birds of New York state., edited by E. Levine, 56-71. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
Stevenson, A. B. and B. B. Virgo. 1971. Damage by robins and starlings to grapes in Ontario. Can. J. Plant Sci. no. 51:201-210.
Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994b. The birdlife of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Stewart, Andrew C. 2003. Observations of nest predation by Cooper's hawks on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. British Columbia Birds no. 13:7-8.
Stewart, R. E. and C. S. Robbins. 1958. Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. N. Am. Fauna 62.
Stewart, Rebecca L. M., Melanie F. Guigueno and Spencer G. Sealy. 2011. How small is too small? Incubation of large eggs by a small host. Canadian Journal of Zoology no. 89 (10):968-975.
Stokes, D. W. 1979. A guide to the behavior of common birds. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
Stone, C. P., W. F. Shake and D. L. Langowski. 1974. Reducing bird damage to highbush blueberries with a carbamate repellent. Wildl. Soc. Bull. no. 2:135-139.
Stone, Ward B., Joseph C. Okoniewski, Joseph E. Therrien, Laura D. Kramer, Elizabeth B. Kauffman and Millicent Eidson. 2004. VecTest as diagnostic and surveillance tool for West Nile virus in dead birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases no. 10 (12):2175-2181.
Storer, T. I. 1926. Range extensions by the western robin in California. Condor no. 28:264-267.
Suarez-Rubio, Marcela, Peter Leimgruber and Swen C. Renner. 2011. Influence of exurban development on bird species richness and diversity. Journal of Ornithology no. 152 (2):461-471.
Suom, Channsotha, Howard S. Ginsberg, Andrew Bernick, Coby Klein, P. A. Buckley, Christa Salvatore and Roger A. LeBrun. 2010. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A. Journal of Vector Ecology no. 35 (1):69-74.
Sutton, G. M. 1967b. Oklahoma birds, their ecology and distribution with comments on the avifauna of the southern Great Plains. Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.
Swanson, L., R. A. Sanyaolu, T. Gnoske, C. J. Whelan, E. V. Lonsdorf and N. J. Cordeiro. 2012. Differential response of nest predators to the presence of a decoy parent in artificial nests. Bird Study no. 59 (1):96-101.
Swarth, H. S. 1912b. Report on a collection of birds and mammals from Vancouver Island. University of California Publ. Zoology no. 10:1-124.
Swihart, R. K. and S. G. Johnson. 1986. Foraging decisions of American Robins: somatic and reproductive tradeoffs. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. no. 19:275-282.
Tardif, J. and A. Lanoue. 1996. "American Robin." In The breeding birds of Québec, edited by J. Gauthier and Y. Aubry, 800-803. Montreal: PQ Soc. Protection Birds, CWS, Enviro. Canada.
Tewksbury, J. J., A. E. Black, N. Nur, V. A. Saab, B. D. Logan and D. S. Dobkin. 2002. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and livestock grazing on western riparian bird communities. Studies in Avian Biology no. 25:158-202.
Titus, R. C. and C. A. Haas. 1990. Singing behavior of American Robins in linear and non-linear habitats. Wilson Bull. no. 102:325-328.
Tobin, M. E. and R. W. DeHaven. 1984. Repellency of methiocarb-treated grapes to three species of birds. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. no. 11:291-297.
Tobin, M. E., P. P. Woronecki, R. A. Dolbeer and R. L. Bruggers. 1988. Reflecting tape fails to protect ripening blueberries from bird damage. Wildl. Soc. Bull. no. 16:300-303.
Todd, W. E. C. 1963a. Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and adjacent areas: A distributional list. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Todte, Ingolf and Bernd Nicolai. 2001. New record of American robin Turdus migratorius in Germany. Limicola no. 15 (3):157-162.
Topp, S. M., L. J. Evans Ogden and K. Martin. 2007. Apparent absence of blood parasites in Winter Wrens in British Columbia. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 78 (3):308-313.
Torti, Vanessa M. and Peter O. Dunn. 2005. Variable effects of climate change on six species of North American birds. Oecologia (Berlin) no. 145 (3):486-495.
Tsipoura, N. K. 1985. Individual variation in the song of the American Robin. M.Sc. thesis, Washington State University, Pullman.
Tucker, V. A., A. E. Tucker, K. Akers and J. H. Enderson. 2000. Curved flight paths and sideways vision in Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). J. Exper. Biol. no. 2023:3755-3763.
Turcotte, W. H. and D. L. Watts. 1999. Birds of Mississippi. Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi.
Tweit, R. C. American Robin (25 Sept. 2013). Texas A&M University System 2009.
Twiest, G. 1965. Some effects of DDT on nesting robins. Jack-Pine Warbler no. 43:62-69.
Tyler, W. M. 1949a. "Eastern Robin." In Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies., edited by A. C. Bent, 14-45. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. no. 196.
Ulmer, Jr., F. A. 1990. A Philadelphia robin roost. Cassinia no. 64:27-28.
Underwood, T. J. and S. G. Sealy. 2006. Influence of shape on egg discrimination in American Robins and Gray Catbirds. Ethology no. 112:164-173.
Valim, M. P. and F. A. Hernandes. 2006. Redescriptions of four species of the feather mite genus Pterodectes Robin, 1877 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) described by Herbert F. Berla. Acarina no. 14 (1):41-55.
Van Rossem, A. J. 1942e. A note on the western robin in the Pasadena area. Condor no. 44:130.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha and Perri K. Eason. 2007. Disparity between adult and juvenile American robins Turdus migratorius foraging for ground invertebrates and cherry fruits. Ethology no. 113 (12):1212-1218.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha and Perri K. Eason. 2008. Influence of environmental variables on foraging by juvenile American robins. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 79 (2):186-192.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha and Perri K. Eason. 2009a. American robin seet calls: aerial alarm of a contact call? Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 121 (2):406-411.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha and Perri K. Eason. 2009b. The response of American robins (Turdus migratorius) to aerial alarms. Behaviour no. 146 (3):415-427.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha and Perri K. Eatson. 2008. Comparisons between juvenile and adult American robins foraging for mulberry fruit. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 120 (1):209-213.
Vanderhoff, E. Natasha. 2007. Predator-prey interaction between an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and a five-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus. Canadian Field-Naturalist no. 121 (2):216-218.
Veit, R. R. and W. R. Petersen. 1993. The birds of Massachusetts. Lincoln, MA: Massachussetts Audubon Society.
Vernes, Karl and Nelson Poirier. 2007. Use of a robin's nest as a cache site for truffles by a red squirrel. Northeastern Naturalist no. 14 (1):145-149.
Voelker, G., S. Rohwer, R. C. K. Bowie and D. C. Outlaw. 2007. Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: Defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution no. 42 (2):422-434.
Vora, Robin S., Catherine Leece and Audrey Evers. 2003. Songbirds in upland openings and recent clearcuts in northeastern Minnesota. Loon no. 75 (2):69-76.
Walcott, C. F. 1974. Changes in bird life of Cambridge, Massachusetts from 1860 to 1964. Auk no. 91:151-160.
Walsberg, G. E. and J. R. King. 1980. The thermoregulatory significance of the winter roost-sites selected by robins in eastern Washington. Wilson Bull. no. 92:33-39.
Warkentin, Ian G., J. Michael Reed and Susie M. Dunham. 2003a. Nest site characteristics of american robins breeding in desert-riparian habitat. Wilson Bulletin no. 115 (1):16-23.
Warkentin, Ian G., J. Michael Reed and Susie M. Dunham. 2004a. Offspring size as an index of habitat degradation. Ornithological Science no. 3 (2):145-153.
Wauer, R. H. 1999a. American Robin. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.
Weatherhead, P. J., R. D. Montgomerie and S. B. McRae. 1991a. Egg-laying times of American Robins. Auk no. 108:965-967.
Weatherhead, R. J. and S. B. McCrae. 1990. Brood care in American Robins: implications for mixed reproductive strategies by females. Anim. Behav. no. 39:1179-1188.
Webster, J. D. 1959b. The taxonomy of the robin in Mexico. Wilson Bull. no. 71:278-280.
Wellehan, James F. X., Maria Calsamiglia, David H. Ley, Mark S. Zens, Alongkorn Amonsin and Vivek Kapur. 2001b. Mycoplasmosis in captive crows and robins from Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Diseases no. 37 (3):547-555.
Weller, M. W. 1971b. Robin mortality in relation to Dutch Elm disease control programs on the Iowa State University campus. Iowa State J. Sci. no. 45:471-475.
Westmoreland, David. 2008. Evidence of selection for egg crypsis in conspicuous nests. Journal of Field Ornithology no. 79 (3):263-268.
Wheelwright, N. T. 1986. The diet of American Robins: an analysis of U.S. Biological Survey records. Auk no. 103:710-725.
Wheelwright, N. T. 1988. Seasonal changes in food preferences of American Robins in captivity. Auk no. 105:374-379.
White, D. W. and E. W. Stiles. 1990. Co-occurances of foods in stomachs and feces of fruit-eating birds. Condor no. 92 (2):291-303.
White, D. W. and E. W. Stiles. 1991. Fruit harvesting by American Robins: influence of fruit size. Wilson Bull. no. 103:690-692.
Whittaker, K. A. and J. M. Marzluff. 2009. Species-specific survival and relative habitat use in an urban landscape during the postfledging period. Auk no. 126 (2):288-299.
Willson, G. D. 1978. Reproductive biology of American Robins following a Dutch elm disease control program. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. no. 85:91-96.
Willson, M. F. 1994. Fruit choice by captive American Robins. Condor no. 96:494-502.
Wise-Gervais, C. 2005l. "American Robin." In Arizona breeding bird atlas, edited by T. Corman and C. Wise-Gervais, 440-441. Albuquerque: Univ. New Mexico Press.
Wolfe, D. H. 1994. Brown-headed Cowbirds fledged from Barn Swallow and American Robin nests. Wilson Bull. no. 106:764-766.
Wright, H. W. 1912b. Morning awakening and even-song. Auk no. 29:307-327.
Wurster, D. H., Jr. Wurster, C. F. and W. N. Strickland. 1965. Bird mortality following DDT spray for Dutch elm disease. Ecology no. 46:488-499.
Yahner. 1983c. Site-related nesting success of Mourning Doves and American Robins in shelterbelts. Wilson Bull. no. 95:573-580.
Yaukey, P. H. 2010. Concentrated migratory morning flight at Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA. Wilson Journal of Ornithology no. 122 (4):738-743.
Young, H. 1949. A comparative study of nesting birds in a five-acre park. Wilson Bull. no. 61:36-47.
Young, H. 1951. Territorial behavior in the eastern robin. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.Y. no. 58-62:1-37.
Young, H. 1955. Breeding behavior and nesting of the eastern robin. Am. Midl. Nat. no. 53:329-352.
Young, H. 1956. Territorial activities of the American Robin Turdus migratorius. Ibis no. 98:448-452.
Young, J. 2012. What the robin knows: How birds reveal the secrets of the natural world. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Zika, Peter F. 2010. Invasive Hollies (Ilex, Aquifoliaceae) and their dispersers in the Pacific northwest. Madrono no. 57 (1):1-10.
Zink, R. M. and Jr. Remsen, J. V. 1986. Evolutionary processes and patterns of geographic variation in birds. Current Ornithology 4:1-69.