Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus

Order:
Piciformes
Family:
Picidae
Sections

References

Welcome to the Birds of North America Online!

You are currently viewing one of the free species accounts available in our complimentary tour of Birds of North America. In this courtesy review, you can access all the life history articles and the multimedia galleries associated with this species.

For complete access to all species accounts, a subscription is required.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign In

Literature Cited

American Ornithologists' Union (1983). Check-list of North American Birds. 6th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC, USA.

Anonymous (1984). For the birds. Time Magazine 124 (January 10):24.

Bailey, S. F. (1979). December observations. Gull 61:22–25.

Barve, S., W. D. Koenig, J. Haydock, and E. L. Walters (2019). Habitat saturation results in joint-nesting female coalitions in a social bird. American Naturalist 193:830–840.

Beal, F. E. L. (1911). Food of the woodpeckers of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biological Survey Bulletin 37.

Bent, A. C. (1939). Life histories of North American woodpeckers. United States National Museum Bulletin 174.

Benz, B. W., M. B. Robbins, and A. T. Peterson (2006). Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:389–399.

Benítez-Díaz, H. (1993). Geographic variation in coloration and morphology of the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 95:63–71.

Bock, C. E. (1970). The Ecology and Behavior of the Lewis Woodpecker (Asyndesmus lewis). University of California Publications in Zoology 92. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock (1974). Geographical ecology of the Acorn Woodpecker: Diversity versus abundance of resources. American Naturalist 108:694–698.

Brownson, A. C. (2015). The behavioral causes of reproductive skew in cooperatively polygynandrous Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). M.S. thesis, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.

Bryant, H. C. (1921). California Woodpecker steals eggs of Wood Pewee. Condor 23:33.

Chapin, J. P. (1921). The abbreviated inner primaries of nestling woodpeckers. Auk 38:531–552.

Chavarría-Duriaux, L., D. C. Hille, and R. Dean (2018). Birds of Nicaragua: A Field Guide. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Corman, T. E., and C. Wise-Gervais (2005). Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Davis, F. W., C. M. Tyler, and B. E. Mahall (2011). Consumer control of oak demography in a mediterranean-climate savanna. Ecosphere 2:108.

Dawson, W. L. (1923). The Birds of California: A Complete, Scientific and Popular Account of the 580 Species and Subspecies of Birds Found in the State. Volume 2. South Moulton, San Diego, CA, USA.

Desante, D., R. LeValley, and R. Stallcup (1972). Middle Pacific coast region. American Birds 26:112–118.

Dickey, D. R., and A. J. van Rossem (1938). The birds of El Salvador. Field Museum of Natural History Zoology Series 23 (Publication 406):1–596.

Dickinson, E. C., and J. V. Remsen (Editors) (2013). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. 4th edition. Volume 1. Non-passerines. Aves Press, Eastbourne, UK.

Dickinson, J. L., J. Haydock, W. D. Koenig, M. T. Stanback, and F. A. Pitelka (1995). Genetic monogamy in single-male groups of Acorn Woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Molecular Ecology 4:765–769.

du Plessis, M., W. W. Weathers, and W. D. Koenig (1994). Energetic benefits of communal roosting by Acorn Woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor 96:631–637.

Dufort, M. J. (2016). An augmented supermatrix phylogeny of the avian family Picidae reveals uncertainty deep in the family tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94:313–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.08.025

Eichholz, M. W., and W. D. Koenig (1992). Gopher snake attraction to birds' nests. Southwestern Naturalist 37:293–298.

Emlen, S. T., J. M. Emlen, and S. A. Levin (1986). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers-at-the-nest. American Naturalist 127:1–8.

Fajer, E. D., K. J. Schmidt, and J. G. Eschler (1987). Acorn Woodpecker predation on Cliff Swallow nests. Condor 89:177–178.

Fitch, H. S. (1947). Predation by owls in the Sierran foothills of California. Condor 49:137–151.

Fitch, H. S., F. Swensen, and D. F. Tillotson (1946). Behavior and food habits of the Red-tailed Hawk. Condor 48:205–217.

Flores, S. L., and D. A. Ardón (2018). Social organization and food habits of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Neotropics including observations in Central Honduras. Ornitología Neotropical 29:241–246.

Freeman, B. G., and N. A. Mason (2015). The geographic distribution of a tropical montane bird is limited by a tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes. PLoS ONE 10:e0128675. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128675

Fuchs, J., and J. M. Pons (2015). A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 88:28–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.016

Fuchs, J., J. I. Ohlson, P. G. P. Ericson, and E. Pasquet (2007). Synchronous intercontinental splits between assemblages of woodpeckers suggested by molecular data. Zoologica Scripta 36:11–25.

Gallardo, R. J. (2014). Guide to the Birds of Honduras. Mountain Gem Tours, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. .

Garrett, K., and J. Dunn (1981). Birds of Southern California: Status and Distribution. Los Angeles Audubon Society, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Gilligan, J., D. Rogers, M. Smith, and A. Contreras (1994). Birds of Oregon: Status and Distribution. Cinclus Publications, McMinnville, OR, USA.

Grinnell, J., and A. H. Miller (1944). The distribution of birds of California. Pacific Coast Avifauna 27:1–608.

Grivet, D., P. E. Smouse, and V. L. Sork (2005). A novel approach to an old problem: Tracking dispersed seeds. Molecular Ecology 14:3585–3595.

Hannon, S. J., R. L. Mumme, W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1985). Replacement of breeders and within-group conflict in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17:303–312.

Hannon, S. J., R. L. Mumme, W. D. Koenig, S. Spon, and F. A. Pitelka (1987). Acorn crop failure, dominance, and a decline in numbers in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Journal of Animal Ecology 56:197–207.

Haydock, J., and W. D. Koenig (2002). Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous Acorn Woodpecker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:7178–7183.

Haydock, J., and W. D. Koenig (2003). Patterns of reproductive skew in the polygynandrous Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 162:277–289.

Haydock, J., W. D. Koenig, and M. T. Stanback (2001). Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Molecular Ecology 10:1515–1525.

Henshaw, H. W. (1921). Storage of acorns by the California Woodpecker. Condor 23:109–118.

Hilty, S. L., and W. B. Brown (1986). A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Hipp, A. L., P. S. Manos, A. González-Rodríguez, M. Hahn, M. Kaproth, J. D. McVay, S. V. Avalos, and J. Cavender-Bares (2018). Sympatric parallel diversification of major oak clades in the Americas and the origins of Mexican species diversity. New Phytologist 217:439–452.

Hoffman, R. (1931). Saw-whet Owl and California Woodpecker on Santa Cruz Island. Condor 33:171.

Hooge, P. N. (1989). Movement patterns and nest site selection in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus. M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Hooge, P. N. (1995). Dispersal dynamics of the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Hooge, P. N., M. T. Stanback, and W. D. Koenig (1999). Nest-site selection in the Acorn Woodpecker. Auk 116:45–54.

Howard, H., and A. H. Miller (1933). Bird remains from cave deposits in New Mexico. Condor 35:15–18.

Howell, S. N. G. (2010). Peterson Reference Guide to Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company, Boston, MA, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press, NY, USA.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2003). The first basic problem: A review of molt and plumage homologies. Condor 105:635–653.

Howell, S. N. G., C. Corben, P. Pyle, and D. I. Rogers (2004). The first basic problem revisited: Reply to commentaries on Howell et al. (2003). Condor 106:206–210.

Humphrey, P. S., and K. C. Parkes (1959). An approach to the study of molts and plumages. Auk 76:1–31.

Högstedt, G. (1983). Adaptation unto death: Function of fear screams. American Naturalist 121:562–570.

Jehl, J. R., Jr. (1979). Pine cones as granaries for Acorn Woodpeckers. Western Birds 10:219–220.

Jones, H. L. (2003). Birds of Belize. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Jones, H. L., and J. Diamond (1976). Short-time-base studies of turnover in breeding bird populations on the California Channel Islands. Condor 78:526–549.

Joste, N. E., J. D. Ligon, and P. B. Stacey (1985). Shared paternity in the Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17:39–41.

Joste, N. E., W. D. Koenig, R. L. Mumme, and F. A. Pitelka (1982). Intragroup dynamics of a cooperative breeder: An analysis of reproductive roles in the Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 11:195–201.

Kattan, G. (1988). Food habits and social organization of Acorn Woodpeckers in Colombia. Condor 90:100–106.

Koenig, W. D. (1980). The determination of runt eggs in birds. Wilson Bulletin 92:103–107.

Koenig, W. D. (1980). The incidence of runt eggs in woodpeckers. Wilson Bulletin 92:169–176.

Koenig, W. D. (1980). Variation and age determination in a population of Acorn Woodpeckers. Journal of Field Ornithology 51:10–16.

Koenig, W. D. (1981). Reproductive success, group size, and the evolution of cooperative breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 117:421–443.

Koenig, W. D. (1981). Space competition in the Acorn Woodpecker: Power struggles in a cooperative breeder. Animal Behaviour 29:396–409.

Koenig, W. D. (1982). Ecological and social factors affecting hatchability of eggs. Auk 99:526–536.

Koenig, W. D. (1986). Geographical ecology of clutch size variation in North American woodpeckers. Condor 88:499–504.

Koenig, W. D. (1990). Opportunity of parentage and nest destruction in polygynandrous Acorn Woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Behavioral Ecology 1:55–61.

Koenig, W. D. (1991). The effects of tannins and lipids on digestion of acorns by Acorn Woodpeckers. Auk 108:79–88.

Koenig, W. D. (2003). European Starlings and their effect on native cavity-nesting birds. Conservation Biology 17:1134–1140.

Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2012). An experimental study of chick provisioning in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ethology 118:566–574.

Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2012). Brooding, provisioning, and compensatory care in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology 23:181–190.

Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2014). What we don’t know, and what needs to be known, about the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus. Acta Ornithologica 49:221–232.

Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2016). Provisioning patterns in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Does feeding behaviour serve as a signal? Animal Behaviour 119:125–134.

Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2018). Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Journal of Avian Biology 49:e01874. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01784

Koenig, W. D., and F. A. Pitelka (1979). Relatedness and inbreeding avoidance: Counterploys in the communally nesting Acorn Woodpecker. Science 206:1103–1105.

Koenig, W. D., and J. Haydock (1999). Oaks, acorns, and the geographical ecology of Acorn Woodpeckers. Journal of Biogeography 26:159–165.

Koenig, W. D., and J. T. Stahl (2007). Late summer and fall nesting in the Acorn Woodpecker and other North American terrestrial birds. Condor 109:334–350.

Koenig, W. D., and L. S. Benedict (2002). Size, insect parasitism, and energetic value of acorns stored by Acorn Woodpeckers. Condor 104:539–547.

Koenig, W. D., and M. K. Heck (1988). Ability of two species of oak woodland birds to subsist on acorns. Condor 90:705–708.

Koenig, W. D., and P. B. Stacey (1990). Acorn Woodpeckers: Group-living and food storage under contrasting ecological conditions. In Cooperative Breeding in Birds (P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig, Editors), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 415–453.

Koenig, W. D., and R. L. Mumme (1987). Population Ecology of the Cooperatively Breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Koenig, W. D., D. J. Shaefer, S. Mambelli, and T. E. Dawson (2008). Acorns, insects, and the diet of adult vs. nestling Acorn Woodpeckers. Journal of Field Ornithology 79:280–285.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2009). Helpers and egg investment in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Testing the concealed helper effects hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1659–1665.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2011). Fitness consequences of within-brood dominance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:2229–2238.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2011). Variable helper effects, ecological conditions, and the evolution of cooperative breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 178:145–158.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2016). Acorn Woodpeckers: Helping at the nest, polygynandry, and dependence on a variable acorn crop. In Cooperative Breeding in Verteberates: Studies of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (W. D. Koenig and J. L. Dickinson, Editors), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 217–236.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, J. M. H. Knops, and W. J. Carmen (2015). Acorns and Acorn Woodpeckers: Ups and downs in a long-term relationship. In Proceedings of the 7th California Oak Symposium: Managing Oak Woodlands in a Dynamic World (R. B. Standiford and K. L. Purcell, Technical Coordinators). Pacific Southwest Forest & Range Experimental Station General Technical Report PSW-GTR-251. pp. 23–33.

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, J. R. Walters, J. S. Kellam, K. G. Michalek, and M. S. Schrader (2005). Seasonal body weight variation in five species of woodpeckers. Condor 107:810–822.

Koenig, W. D., F. A. Pitelka, W. J. Carmen, R. L. Mumme, and M. T. Stanback (1992). The evolution of delayed dispersal in cooperative breeders. Quarterly Review of Biology 67:111–150.

Koenig, W. D., J. Haydock, and M. T. Stanback (1998). Reproductive roles in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Incest avoidance versus reproductive competition. American Naturalist 151:243–255.

Koenig, W. D., J. P. McEntee, and E. L. Walters (2008). Acorn harvesting by Acorn Woodpeckers: Annual variation and comparison with genetic estimates. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:811–822.

Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, and J. Haydock (1999). Demographic consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 57:1287–1293.

Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, and J. Haydock (2006). Abbreviated inner primaries: A sex-linked dimorphism in the Acorn Woodpecker. Journal of Field Ornithology 77:157–162.

Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, J. Haydock, and F. Kraaijeveld-Smit (2001). Nestling sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49:357–365.

Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, P. N. Hooge, and R. L. Mumme (1991). Distress calls in the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 93:637–643.

Koenig, W. D., P. N. Hooge, M. T. Stanback, and J. Haydock (2000). Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 102:492–502.

Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, and F. A. Pitelka (1984). The breeding system of the Acorn Woodpecker in central coastal California. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 65:289–308.

Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, M. T. Stanback, and F. A. Pitelka (1995). Patterns and consequences of egg destruction among joint-nesting acorn woodpeckers. Animal Behaviour 50:607–621.

Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, W. J. Carmen, and M. T. Stanback (1994). Acorn production by oaks in central coastal California: Variation within and among years. Ecology 75:99–109.

Kueppers, L. M., M. A. Snyder, L. C. Sloan, E. S. Zavaleta, and B. Fulfrost (2005). Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:16281–16286.

Ligon, J. D., and P. B. Stacey (1996). Land use, lag times and the detection of demographic change: An example provided by the Acorn Woodpecker. Conservation Biology 10:840–846.

Ligon, J. S. (1961). New Mexico Birds and Where to Find Them. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Lockwood, M. W., and B. Freeman (2014). The Texas Ornithological Society Handbook of Texas Birds. Louise Lindsey Merrick Natural Environment Series, volume 47. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, USA.

MacRoberts, M. H. (1970). Notes on the food habits and food defense of the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 72:196–204.

MacRoberts, M. H. (1974). Acorns, woodpeckers, grubs, and scientists. Pacific Discovery 27:9–15.

MacRoberts, M. H., and B. R. MacRoberts (1976). Social organization and behavior of the Acorn Woodpecker in central coastal California. Ornithological Monographs 21:1–115.

MacTague, L. (2004). Bat predation by the Acorn Woodpecker. Western Birds 35:45–46.

McMahon, D. E., I. S. Pearse, W. D. Koenig, and E. L. Walters (2015). Tree community shifts and Acorn Woodpecker population increases over three decades in a California oak woodland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45:1113–1120.

Michael, E. (1927). Plurality of mates. Yosemite Nature Notes 6:78.

Miller, A. H. (1955). Acorn Woodpecker on Santa Catalina Island, California. Condor 57:373.

Miller, A. H. (1963). Seasonal activity and ecology of the avifauna of an American equatorial cloud forest. University of California Publications in Zoology 66:1–78.

Moore, W. S., A. C. Weibel, and A. Agius (2006). Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the woodpecker genus Veniliornis (Picidae, Picinae) and related genera implies convergent evolution of plumage patterns. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87:611–624. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00586.x.

Moskovits, D. (1978). Winter territorial and foraging behavior of Red-headed Woodpecker in Florida. Wilson Bulletin 90:521–535.

Mumme, R. L. (1984). Competition and cooperation in the communally breeding Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Mumme, R. L., and A. de Queiroz (1985). Individual contributions to cooperative behaviour in the Acorn Woodpecker: Effects of reproductive status, sex, and group size. Behaviour 95:290–313.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1983). Mate guarding in the Acorn Woodpecker: Within-group reproductive competition in a cooperative breeder. Animal Behaviour 31:1094–1106.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1983). Reproductive competition in the communal Acorn Woodpecker: Sisters destroy each other's eggs. Nature 306:583–584.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1988). Costs and benefits of joint nesting in the Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 131:654–677.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1990). Individual contributions to cooperative nest care in the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 92:360–368.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. L. W. Ratnieks (1989). Helping behaviour, reproductive value, and the future component of indirect fitness. Animal Behaviour 38:331–343.

Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, R. M. Zink, and J. A. Marten (1985). Genetic variation and parentage in a California population of Acorn Woodpeckers. Auk 102:312–320.

Neff, J. A. (1928). Economic status of the common woodpeckers in relation to Oregon horticulture. Free Press Print, Marionville, MO, USA.

Oberholser, H. C. (1974). The Bird Life of Texas. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Overton, L. C., and D. D. Rhoads (2006). Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Xiphidiopicus percussus, Melanerpes, and Sphyrapicus (Aves: Picidae) based on cytochrome b sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41:288–294.

Pardieck, K. L., D. J. Ziolkowski Jr., M. Lutmerding, and M.-A. R. Hudson (2018). North American Breeding Bird Survey Dataset 1966–2017, version 2017.0. U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD, USA. https://doi.org/10.5066/F76972V8

Pardo, M. A., E. A. Sparks, T. S. Kuray, N. D. Hagemeyer, E. L. Walters, and W. D. Koenig (2018). Wild Acorn Woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285:20181017. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1017

Pesendorfer, M. B., and W. D. Koenig (2018). Does aggression avoidance drive oak tree attendance by corvid scatter-hoarders? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72:85.

Peters, J. L. (1948). Check-List of the Birds of the World. Volume VI. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Phillips, A. R., J. T. Marshall Jr., and G. B. Monson (1964). The Birds of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Pyle, P. (1997). Identification Guide to North American Birds, Part I: Columbidae to Ploceidae. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA, USA.

Pyle, P., and S. N. G. Howell. (1995). Flight-feather molt patterns and age in North American woodpeckers. Journal of Field Ornithology 66:564–581.

Rahn, H., C. V. Paganelli, and A. Ar (1975). Relation of avian egg weight to body weight. Auk 92:750–765.

Ridgely, R. S., and J. Gwynne (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Panama, with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. 2nd edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Ridgway, R. (1914). The Birds of North and Middle America. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 50(6):1–882. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Ritter, W. E. (1938). The California Woodpecker and I. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Root, T. R. (1988). Atlas of Wintering North American Birds: An Analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Rosenberg, K. V., J. A. Kennedy, R. Dettmers, R. P. Ford, D. Reynolds, J. D. Alexander, C. J. Beardmore, P. J. Blancher, R. E. Bogart, G. S. Butcher, A. F. Camfield, A. Couturier, D. W. Demarest, W. E. Easton, J. J. Giocomo, R. H. Keller, A. E. Mini, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, T. D. Rich, J. M. Ruth, H. Stabins, J. Stanton, and T. Will (2016). Partners in Flight Landbird Conservation Plan: 2016 Revision for Canada and Continental United States. Partners in Flight Science Committee. https://www.partnersinflight.org/resources/the-plan/

Rusk, C. L., E. I. Walters, and W. D. Koenig (2013). Cooperative breeding and long-distance dispersal: A test using vagrant records. PLoS ONE 8:e58624.

Russell, A. F., N. E. Langmore, A. Cockburn, L. B. Astheimer, and R. M. Kilner (2007). Reduced egg investment can conceal helper effects in cooperatively breeding birds. Science 317:941–944.

Scofield, D. G., V. R. Alfaro, V. L. Sork, D. Grivet, E. Martinez, J. Papp, A. R. Pluess, W. D. Koenig, and P. E. Smouse (2011). Foraging patterns of Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands. Oecologia 166:187–196.

Short, L. L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the World. Monograph Series 4, Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, DE, USA.

Shuford, W. D. (1985). Acorn Woodpecker mutilates nestling Red-breasted Sapsuckers. Wilson Bulletin 97:234–236.

Shunk, S. A. (2016). Peterson Reference Guide to Woodpeckers of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA.

Sibley, C. G. (1957). The abbreviated inner primaries of nestling woodpeckers. Auk 74:102–103.

Siegel, R. B., M. W. Tingley, R. L. Wilkerson, C. A. Howell, M. Johnson, and P. Pyle (2016). Age structure of Black-backed Woodpecker populations in burned forests. Auk 133:69–78. https://doi.org/10.1642/auk-15-137.1

Skutch, A. F. (1969). Life histories of Central American birds III. Pacific Coast Avifauna 35:1–580.

Small, A. (1994). California Birds: Their Status and Distribution. Ibis Publishing Company, Vista, CA, USA.

Sork, V. L., F. W. Davis, R. Westfall, A. Flint, M. Ikegami, H. Wang, and D. Grivet (2010). Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Neé) in the face of climate change. Molecular Ecology 19:3806–3823.

Spray, C., and M. H. MacRoberts (1975). Notes on molt and juvenal plumage in the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 77:342–345.

Stacey, P. B. (1978). Communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

Stacey, P. B. (1979). Habitat saturation and communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 27:1153–1166.

Stacey, P. B. (1979). Kinship, promiscuity, and communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 6:53–66.

Stacey, P. B. (1981). Foraging behavior of the Acorn Woodpecker in Belize, Central America. Condor 83:336–339.

Stacey, P. B., and C. E. Bock (1978). Social plasticity in the Acorn Woodpecker. Science 202:1298–1300.

Stacey, P. B., and J. D. Ligon (1987). Territory quality and dispersal options in the Acorn Woodpecker, and a challenge to the habitat-saturation model of cooperative breeding. American Naturalist 130:654–676.

Stacey, P. B., and J. D. Ligon (1991). The benefits of philopatry of the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds: Habitat variance and group size effects. American Naturalist 137:831–846.

Stacey, P. B., and M. Taper (1992). Environmental variation and the persistence of small populations. Ecological Applications 2:18–29.

Stacey, P. B., and R. Jansma (1977). Storage of piñon nuts by the Acorn Woodpecker in New Mexico. Wilson Bulletin 89:150–151.

Stacey, P. B., and T. C. Edwards (1983). Possible cases of infanticide by immigrant females in a group-breeding bird. Auk 100:731–733.

Stanback, M. T. (1989). Observations on food habits and social organization of Acorn Woodpeckers in Costa Rica. Condor 91:1005–1007.

Stanback, M. T. (1991). Causes and consequences of nestling size variation in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Stanback, M. T. (1994). Dominance within broods of the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 47:1121–1126.

Stiles, F. G., and A. Skutch (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Trail, P. W. (1980). Ecological correlates of social organization in a communally breeding bird, the Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 7:83–92.

Troetschler, R. G. (1976). Acorn Woodpecker breeding strategy as affected by starling nest-hole competition. Condor 78:151–165.

Tyler, C. M., B. Kuhn, and F. W. Davis (2006). Demography and recruitment limitations of three oak species in California. Quarterly Review of Biology 81:127–152.

Walker, K. M. (1952). Northward extension of range of the Acorn Woodpecker in Oregon. Condor 54:315.

Weathers, W. W., W. D. Koenig, and M. T. Stanback (1990). Breeding energetics and thermal ecology of the Acorn Woodpecker in central coastal California. Condor 92:341–359.

Wiebe, K. L., W. D. Koenig, and K. Martin (2007). Costs and benefits of nest reuse versus excavation in cavity-nesting birds. Annales Zoologici Fennici 44:209–217.

Williams, P. L., and W. D. Koenig (1980). Water dependence of birds in a temperate oak woodland. Auk 97:339–350.

Yao, Y. (2008). Studies of vocal communications in cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Additional References

Stacey, P. B., and W. D. Koenig (1984). Cooperative breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Scientific American 251:114–121.

Recommended Citation

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, P. B. Stacey, M. T. Stanback, and R. L. Mumme (2019). Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.acowoo.02