Acorn Woodpecker

Melanerpes formicivorus

Order:
Piciformes
Family:
Picidae
Sections

References

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Literature Cited

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46. Freeman, B. G., and N. A. Mason (2015). The geographic distribution of a tropical montane bird is limited by a tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes. PLoS ONE 10:e0128675. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128675

47. MacRoberts, M. H., and B. R. MacRoberts (1976). Social organization and behavior of the Acorn Woodpecker in central coastal California. Ornithological Monographs 21:1–115.

48. Hannon, S. J., R. L. Mumme, W. D. Koenig, S. Spon, and F. A. Pitelka (1987). Acorn crop failure, dominance, and a decline in numbers in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Journal of Animal Ecology 56:197–207.

49. Koenig, W. D., and P. B. Stacey (1990). Acorn Woodpeckers: Group-living and food storage under contrasting ecological conditions. In Cooperative Breeding in Birds (P. B. Stacey and W. D. Koenig, Editors), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 415–453.

50. Rusk, C. L., E. I. Walters, and W. D. Koenig (2013). Cooperative breeding and long-distance dispersal: A test using vagrant records. PLoS ONE 8:e58624.

51. Stacey, P. B., and C. E. Bock (1978). Social plasticity in the Acorn Woodpecker. Science 202:1298–1300.

52. Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock (1974). Geographical ecology of the Acorn Woodpecker: Diversity versus abundance of resources. American Naturalist 108:694–698.

53. Koenig, W. D., and J. Haydock (1999). Oaks, acorns, and the geographical ecology of Acorn Woodpeckers. Journal of Biogeography 26:159–165.

54. Desante, D., R. LeValley, and R. Stallcup (1972). Middle Pacific coast region. American Birds 26:112–118.

55. Bailey, S. F. (1979). December observations. Gull 61:22–25.

56. Hoffman, R. (1931). Saw-whet Owl and California Woodpecker on Santa Cruz Island. Condor 33:171.

57. Miller, A. H. (1955). Acorn Woodpecker on Santa Catalina Island, California. Condor 57:373.

58. Jones, H. L., and J. Diamond (1976). Short-time-base studies of turnover in breeding bird populations on the California Channel Islands. Condor 78:526–549.

59. Walker, K. M. (1952). Northward extension of range of the Acorn Woodpecker in Oregon. Condor 54:315.

60. Grinnell, J., and A. H. Miller (1944). The distribution of birds of California. Pacific Coast Avifauna 27:1–608.

61. Howard, H., and A. H. Miller (1933). Bird remains from cave deposits in New Mexico. Condor 35:15–18.

62. MacTague, L. (2004). Bat predation by the Acorn Woodpecker. Western Birds 35:45–46.

63. Shuford, W. D. (1985). Acorn Woodpecker mutilates nestling Red-breasted Sapsuckers. Wilson Bulletin 97:234–236.

64. Fajer, E. D., K. J. Schmidt, and J. G. Eschler (1987). Acorn Woodpecker predation on Cliff Swallow nests. Condor 89:177–178.

65. Bryant, H. C. (1921). California Woodpecker steals eggs of Wood Pewee. Condor 23:33.

66. Flores, S. L., and D. A. Ardón (2018). Social organization and food habits of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Neotropics including observations in Central Honduras. Ornitología Neotropical 29:241–246.

67. Skutch, A. F. (1969). Life histories of Central American birds III. Pacific Coast Avifauna 35:1–580.

68. Stanback, M. T. (1989). Observations on food habits and social organization of Acorn Woodpeckers in Costa Rica. Condor 91:1005–1007.

69. MacRoberts, M. H. (1970). Notes on the food habits and food defense of the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 72:196–204.

70. Beal, F. E. L. (1911). Food of the woodpeckers of the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Biological Survey Bulletin 37.

71. Neff, J. A. (1928). Economic status of the common woodpeckers in relation to Oregon horticulture. Free Press Print, Marionville, MO, USA.

72. Koenig, W. D., and R. L. Mumme (1987). Population Ecology of the Cooperatively Breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

73. Koenig, W. D., D. J. Shaefer, S. Mambelli, and T. E. Dawson (2008). Acorns, insects, and the diet of adult vs. nestling Acorn Woodpeckers. Journal of Field Ornithology 79:280–285.

74. Koenig, W. D., and L. S. Benedict (2002). Size, insect parasitism, and energetic value of acorns stored by Acorn Woodpeckers. Condor 104:539–547.

75. Dawson, W. L. (1923). The Birds of California: A Complete, Scientific and Popular Account of the 580 Species and Subspecies of Birds Found in the State. Volume 2. South Moulton, San Diego, CA, USA.

76. Mumme, R. L., and A. de Queiroz (1985). Individual contributions to cooperative behaviour in the Acorn Woodpecker: Effects of reproductive status, sex, and group size. Behaviour 95:290–313.

77. Jehl, J. R., Jr. (1979). Pine cones as granaries for Acorn Woodpeckers. Western Birds 10:219–220.

78. Ritter, W. E. (1938). The California Woodpecker and I. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

79. Stacey, P. B., and R. Jansma (1977). Storage of piñon nuts by the Acorn Woodpecker in New Mexico. Wilson Bulletin 89:150–151.

80. Anonymous (1984). For the birds. Time Magazine 124 (January 10):24.

81. Miller, A. H. (1963). Seasonal activity and ecology of the avifauna of an American equatorial cloud forest. University of California Publications in Zoology 66:1–78.

82. Kattan, G. (1988). Food habits and social organization of Acorn Woodpeckers in Colombia. Condor 90:100–106.

83. Stacey, P. B. (1981). Foraging behavior of the Acorn Woodpecker in Belize, Central America. Condor 83:336–339.

84. Koenig, W. D., J. P. McEntee, and E. L. Walters (2008). Acorn harvesting by Acorn Woodpeckers: Annual variation and comparison with genetic estimates. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:811–822.

85. Grivet, D., P. E. Smouse, and V. L. Sork (2005). A novel approach to an old problem: Tracking dispersed seeds. Molecular Ecology 14:3585–3595.

86. Scofield, D. G., V. R. Alfaro, V. L. Sork, D. Grivet, E. Martinez, J. Papp, A. R. Pluess, W. D. Koenig, and P. E. Smouse (2011). Foraging patterns of Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands. Oecologia 166:187–196.

87. MacRoberts, M. H. (1974). Acorns, woodpeckers, grubs, and scientists. Pacific Discovery 27:9–15.

88. Koenig, W. D., and M. K. Heck (1988). Ability of two species of oak woodland birds to subsist on acorns. Condor 90:705–708.

89. Koenig, W. D. (1991). The effects of tannins and lipids on digestion of acorns by Acorn Woodpeckers. Auk 108:79–88.

90. du Plessis, M., W. W. Weathers, and W. D. Koenig (1994). Energetic benefits of communal roosting by Acorn Woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor 96:631–637.

91. Williams, P. L., and W. D. Koenig (1980). Water dependence of birds in a temperate oak woodland. Auk 97:339–350.

92. Yao, Y. (2008). Studies of vocal communications in cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

93. Pardo, M. A., E. A. Sparks, T. S. Kuray, N. D. Hagemeyer, E. L. Walters, and W. D. Koenig (2018). Wild Acorn Woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285:20181017. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1017

94. Koenig, W. D. (1981). Space competition in the Acorn Woodpecker: Power struggles in a cooperative breeder. Animal Behaviour 29:396–409.

95. Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, P. N. Hooge, and R. L. Mumme (1991). Distress calls in the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 93:637–643.

96. Högstedt, G. (1983). Adaptation unto death: Function of fear screams. American Naturalist 121:562–570.

97. Stanback, M. T. (1994). Dominance within broods of the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 47:1121–1126.

98. Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2011). Fitness consequences of within-brood dominance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:2229–2238.

99. Hannon, S. J., R. L. Mumme, W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1985). Replacement of breeders and within-group conflict in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17:303–312.

100. Troetschler, R. G. (1976). Acorn Woodpecker breeding strategy as affected by starling nest-hole competition. Condor 78:151–165.

101. Koenig, W. D. (2003). European Starlings and their effect on native cavity-nesting birds. Conservation Biology 17:1134–1140.

102. Pesendorfer, M. B., and W. D. Koenig (2018). Does aggression avoidance drive oak tree attendance by corvid scatter-hoarders? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 72:85.

103. Stacey, P. B. (1979). Habitat saturation and communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 27:1153–1166.

104. Hooge, P. N. (1995). Dispersal dynamics of the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

105. Stacey, P. B. (1978). Communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

106. Stacey, P. B. (1979). Kinship, promiscuity, and communal breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 6:53–66.

107. Barve, S., W. D. Koenig, J. Haydock, and E. L. Walters (2019). Habitat saturation results in joint-nesting female coalitions in a social bird. American Naturalist 193:830–840.

108. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1983). Reproductive competition in the communal Acorn Woodpecker: Sisters destroy each other's eggs. Nature 306:583–584.

109. Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, M. T. Stanback, and F. A. Pitelka (1995). Patterns and consequences of egg destruction among joint-nesting acorn woodpeckers. Animal Behaviour 50:607–621.

110. Brownson, A. C. (2015). The behavioral causes of reproductive skew in cooperatively polygynandrous Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). M.S. thesis, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA.

111. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1983). Mate guarding in the Acorn Woodpecker: Within-group reproductive competition in a cooperative breeder. Animal Behaviour 31:1094–1106.

112. Stacey, P. B., and T. C. Edwards (1983). Possible cases of infanticide by immigrant females in a group-breeding bird. Auk 100:731–733.

113. Koenig, W. D. (1990). Opportunity of parentage and nest destruction in polygynandrous Acorn Woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Behavioral Ecology 1:55–61.

114. Stanback, M. T. (1991). Causes and consequences of nestling size variation in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

115. Emlen, S. T., J. M. Emlen, and S. A. Levin (1986). Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers-at-the-nest. American Naturalist 127:1–8.

116. Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, J. Haydock, and F. Kraaijeveld-Smit (2001). Nestling sex ratio variation in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49:357–365.

117. Michael, E. (1927). Plurality of mates. Yosemite Nature Notes 6:78.

118. Joste, N. E., J. D. Ligon, and P. B. Stacey (1985). Shared paternity in the Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17:39–41.

119. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, R. M. Zink, and J. A. Marten (1985). Genetic variation and parentage in a California population of Acorn Woodpeckers. Auk 102:312–320.

120. Dickinson, J. L., J. Haydock, W. D. Koenig, M. T. Stanback, and F. A. Pitelka (1995). Genetic monogamy in single-male groups of Acorn Woodpeckers, Melanerpes formicivorus. Molecular Ecology 4:765–769.

121. Haydock, J., W. D. Koenig, and M. T. Stanback (2001). Shared parentage and incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Molecular Ecology 10:1515–1525.

122. Henshaw, H. W. (1921). Storage of acorns by the California Woodpecker. Condor 23:109–118.

123. Fitch, H. S., F. Swensen, and D. F. Tillotson (1946). Behavior and food habits of the Red-tailed Hawk. Condor 48:205–217.

124. Fitch, H. S. (1947). Predation by owls in the Sierran foothills of California. Condor 49:137–151.

125. Eichholz, M. W., and W. D. Koenig (1992). Gopher snake attraction to birds' nests. Southwestern Naturalist 37:293–298.

126. Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2018). Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Journal of Avian Biology 49:e01874. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.01784

127. Koenig, W. D., and J. T. Stahl (2007). Late summer and fall nesting in the Acorn Woodpecker and other North American terrestrial birds. Condor 109:334–350.

128. Hooge, P. N. (1989). Movement patterns and nest site selection in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus. M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

129. Hooge, P. N., M. T. Stanback, and W. D. Koenig (1999). Nest-site selection in the Acorn Woodpecker. Auk 116:45–54.

130. Koenig, W. D. (1980). The determination of runt eggs in birds. Wilson Bulletin 92:103–107.

131. Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2009). Helpers and egg investment in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Testing the concealed helper effects hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1659–1665.

132. Russell, A. F., N. E. Langmore, A. Cockburn, L. B. Astheimer, and R. M. Kilner (2007). Reduced egg investment can conceal helper effects in cooperatively breeding birds. Science 317:941–944.

133. Rahn, H., C. V. Paganelli, and A. Ar (1975). Relation of avian egg weight to body weight. Auk 92:750–765.

134. Koenig, W. D. (1980). The incidence of runt eggs in woodpeckers. Wilson Bulletin 92:169–176.

135. Koenig, W. D. (1986). Geographical ecology of clutch size variation in North American woodpeckers. Condor 88:499–504.

136. Wiebe, K. L., W. D. Koenig, and K. Martin (2007). Costs and benefits of nest reuse versus excavation in cavity-nesting birds. Annales Zoologici Fennici 44:209–217.

137. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1990). Individual contributions to cooperative nest care in the Acorn Woodpecker. Condor 92:360–368.

138. Mumme, R. L. (1984). Competition and cooperation in the communally breeding Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

139. Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2014). What we don’t know, and what needs to be known, about the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus. Acta Ornithologica 49:221–232.

140. Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2012). Brooding, provisioning, and compensatory care in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Behavioral Ecology 23:181–190.

141. Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2012). An experimental study of chick provisioning in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Ethology 118:566–574.

142. Koenig, W. D., and E. L. Walters (2016). Provisioning patterns in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Does feeding behaviour serve as a signal? Animal Behaviour 119:125–134.

143. Stacey, P. B., and J. D. Ligon (1987). Territory quality and dispersal options in the Acorn Woodpecker, and a challenge to the habitat-saturation model of cooperative breeding. American Naturalist 130:654–676.

144. Koenig, W. D., and F. A. Pitelka (1979). Relatedness and inbreeding avoidance: Counterploys in the communally nesting Acorn Woodpecker. Science 206:1103–1105.

145. Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, and F. A. Pitelka (1984). The breeding system of the Acorn Woodpecker in central coastal California. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 65:289–308.

146. Koenig, W. D., J. Haydock, and M. T. Stanback (1998). Reproductive roles in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: Incest avoidance versus reproductive competition. American Naturalist 151:243–255.

147. Haydock, J., and W. D. Koenig (2002). Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous Acorn Woodpecker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:7178–7183.

148. Haydock, J., and W. D. Koenig (2003). Patterns of reproductive skew in the polygynandrous Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 162:277–289

149. Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2016). Acorn Woodpeckers: Helping at the nest, polygynandry, and dependence on a variable acorn crop. In Cooperative Breeding in Verteberates: Studies of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (W. D. Koenig and J. L. Dickinson, Editors), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 217–236

150. Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, and J. Haydock (1999). Demographic consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Animal Behaviour 57:1287–1293.

151. Stacey, P. B., and J. D. Ligon (1991). The benefits of philopatry of the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds: Habitat variance and group size effects. American Naturalist 137:831–846.

152. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. L. W. Ratnieks (1989). Helping behaviour, reproductive value, and the future component of indirect fitness. Animal Behaviour 38:331–343.

153. Mumme, R. L., W. D. Koenig, and F. A. Pitelka (1988). Costs and benefits of joint nesting in the Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 131:654–677.

154. Moskovits, D. (1978). Winter territorial and foraging behavior of Red-headed Woodpecker in Florida. Wilson Bulletin 90:521–535.

155. Koenig, W. D., F. A. Pitelka, W. J. Carmen, R. L. Mumme, and M. T. Stanback (1992). The evolution of delayed dispersal in cooperative breeders. Quarterly Review of Biology 67:111–150.

156. Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, and J. Haydock (2011). Variable helper effects, ecological conditions, and the evolution of cooperative breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. American Naturalist 178:145–158

157. Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, W. J. Carmen, and M. T. Stanback (1994). Acorn production by oaks in central coastal California: Variation within and among years. Ecology 75:99–109.

158. Ligon, J. D., and P. B. Stacey (1996). Land use, lag times and the detection of demographic change: An example provided by the Acorn Woodpecker. Conservation Biology 10:840–846.

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Additional References

Stacey, P. B., and W. D. Koenig (1984). Cooperative breeding in the Acorn Woodpecker. Scientific American 251:114–121.

Recommended Citation

Koenig, W. D., E. L. Walters, P. B. Stacey, M. T. Stanback, and R. L. Mumme (2019). Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.acowoo.02