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Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Campephilus principalis

  • Authors: Jackson, Jerome A.
  • Published: Jan 1, 2002

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Figure 1. Historical range of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker.

Approximate boundary of the early historical range of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in the USA and Cuba. Adapted from Tanner 1942a and Jackson 2004.

Adult male Ivory-billed Woodpecker; n. Louisiana.

Colorized photograph by Arthur Allen; owned by Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

© Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Ivory-billed Woodpecker by J.J. Audubon.

Painting of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker by J.J. Audubon, showing male (left) and female plumages, and individuals involved in characteristic foraging behavior -- stripping bark from dead trees in search of beetle larvae.

© Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Editor's Note: July 2008-- Since documented (but controversial) sightings of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in the Big Woods of Arkansas in 2004 (Science: 3 June 2005), efforts to locate this bird in Florida, Arkansas, and elsewhere have proven difficult, and no unequivocal evidence of the species has emerged. An unprecedented search across the species' former range continues, with the Big Woods Conservation Partnership and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service coordinating efforts. This account will be updated to reflect any developments. Basic life history information in this account remains accurate and unchanged. This is an extraordinary species that we all hope is not lost. Read more about search efforts at the CLO website, or BNA contributer Louis Bevier's site, or on the entry for the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker in the Sibley's Field Guide.

To John James Audubon, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker brought thoughts of the “satin and lace” portraits of the genteel by the seventeenth-century artist Van Dyke. Indeed, this species is an “aristocrat” in appearance among woodpeckers: Its great stature, heavy, ivory-colored, chisel-tipped bill, pale lemon-yellow eyes, crisp black-and-white markings, distinctive crest, and lean, long appearance distinguish it from all others. Colonial naturalists Catesby ( Catesby 1731 ), Wilson ( Wilson 1811 ), Vieillot ( Vieillot 1807 ), and Audubon ( Audubon 1842 ) all expounded on this “largest” of all woodpeckers. Linnaeus, basing his description on Catesby's ( Catesby 1731 ) illustration and description, gave it the specific name principalis, believing it was the largest of woodpeckers, although the Ivory-billed in fact stands third to fifth in the hierarchy of picid size — the largest being the congeneric Imperial Woodpecker (C. imperialis) of Mexico, and the next being the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) of Southeast Asia ( Short 1982 , Winkler et al. 1995 ).

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker was once found in virgin forests throughout much of the southeastern United States and up the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at least as far north as St. Louis. It was also known from mature forests through much of Cuba. The past 100 years of this species' history link U.S. birds to bottomland swamp forests and Cuban birds to upland pines. In truth, throughout its range, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker was associated with extensive old-growth forests, the solitude of wilderness, and the availability of immense beetle larvae that were its principal food. The specific forest types in which it survived may have been an accident of human actions.

Human attention to this lord of the forest and human destruction of its realm have led to its current status as one of the rarest birds in the world, or extinct. In spite of a continued flow of unsubstantiated reports, some with tantalizing but inconclusive evidence, the scientific community has no conclusive documentation for recent occurrence of the species in the United States. The population in Cuba seems little better off, its habitat decimated and the last reported (undocumented by photos or sound recordings) sighting in 1992 (J. McNeeley pers. comm.). James Tanner ( Tanner 1942b ) took the last universally accepted photos of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in the United States in northeast Louisiana in 1938; John Dennis ( Dennis 1948a ) took the last photos of this species in Cuba in April 1948.

Recommended Citation

Jackson, Jerome A.. (2002). Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America:

DOI: 10.2173/bna.711