The Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (formerly Black-bellied Tree Duck) is a highly gregarious Neotropical duck that is restricted to the New World. Distinguished from all other whistling-ducks by its red bill, pink feet, and white wing-patch, it is more arboreal than other whistling-ducks and vocal in flight, often repeating a whistling pe-che-che-ne. It nests primarily in natural cavities in trees but will readily use nest boxes.
In North America, this species breeds mainly along coastal regions of Mexico and southern Texas. Only the northernmost populations appear to be migratory, with wintering individuals found along both coasts of Mexico. The Black-bellied Whistling-Duck forms lifelong pair bonds and breeds in its first year. It often lays its eggs in the nests of conspecifics. The diet of this species is comprised of plant materials, especially Bermuda grass and sorghum seeds. Individuals are attracted to areas where corn and rice are grown and can cause damage to crops. The status of this species appears to be secure due in part to its secluded habitats and its lack of importance as a game species. It is showing signs of range expansion in the United States.
Important information is available from studies in Texas ( Bolen 1967b , Delnicki 1973 , Delnicki and Bolen 1975 , Cain 1976 , Mccamant and Bolen 1979 , James 2000a ) concerning nesting, brood parasitism, and development of young. Nest-box programs have contributed to much of the nesting data collected for this species. Additional studies of reproductive biology and behavior, and of migratory behavior, are needed.