AudioDateDownLeftRightUpCloseReportGallerySettingsGiftLanguageGridListMapMenuPhotoPlayPlusSearchStarUserIconVideo

Great Horned Owl

Bubo virginianus

Order:
Strigiformes
Family:
Strigidae
Sections
  • Authors: Houston, C. Stuart, Dwight G. Smith and Christoph Rohner
  • Revisors: Artuso, Christian and C. Stuart Houston
  • Published: May 30, 2013
Listen

Free Introduction Article Access

The Introduction Article is just the first of 11 articles in each species account that provide life history information for the species. The remaining articles provide detailed information regarding distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status and conservation. Each species account also includes a multimedia section that displays the latest photos, audio selections and videos from Macaulay Library’s extensive galleries. Written and continually updated by acknowledged experts on each species, Birds of North America accounts include a comprehensive bibliography of published research on the species.

A subscription is needed to access the remaining account articles and multimedia content. Rates start at $5 USD for 30 days of complete access.

Subscribe Now

Already a subscriber? Sign In
Enlarge
Figure 1. Distribution of the Great Horned Owl in North and Central America.

This species is also resident in parts of South America.

Enlarge
Adult Great Horned Owl, Fields, Oregon, June 2003.

; photographer Gerrit Vyn

© Cornell Lab of Ornithology

The Great Horned Owl - large, powerful, and long-lived - is adapted by its anatomy, physiology, and behavior to survive in any climate but arctic-alpine regions. Equally at home in desert, grassland, suburban, and forest habitats, north to the tree line, it has a diverse prey base and the most extensive range with the most variation in nesting sites of any American owl.

Its large eyes are equipped with many rods for night vision and pupils that open widely in the dark. Although its eyes do not move, flexibility in the atlanto-occipital joint enables this owl to swivel its head more than 180° and to look in any direction. Its hearing is acute, assisted by facial disc feathers that direct sound waves to its ears. Its feathers are exceptionally soft, providing superb insulation and allowing for silent flight. Females are able to maintain their eggs at incubating temperature near 37 °C, even when the ambient temperature is more than 70° colder. This species is a perch-and-pounce hunter. Although its short, wide wings allow maneuverability among trees of the forest, the resulting high wing-loading makes aerial foraging less efficient. Its strong talons, which take a force of 13 kg to open, allow it to sever the spinal column of prey even larger than itself. Its hooked beak efficiently tears meat from bones.

Early field studies on the Great Horned Owl focused on territoriality in Kansas ( Baumgartner 1939b Baumgartner 1939b ) and on diet in Iowa and Wisconsin ( Errington et al. 1940 ). Long-term banding efforts and subsequent analyses of recoveries were made in Saskatchewan ( Houston and Francis 1995 Houston and Francis 1995 ) and Ohio ( Holt 1996b ). Major field studies, with an emphasis on breeding biology and diet in relation to predator-prey dynamics, were conducted in Alberta (L. B. Keith and coworkers e.g., Adamcik et al. 1978 ), Wisconsin ( Petersen 1979a ), and southwestern Yukon Territory (e.g., Rohner 1996 ).

Recommended Citation

Artuso, Christian, C. Stuart Houston, Dwight G. Smith and Christoph Rohner. (2013). Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), The Birds of North America (P. G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/grhowl

DOI: 10.2173/bna.372