Mean percentage of day (06:00–22:00) spent in different activities for adult breeding Cassin’s Sparrows in w.-central Texas (from Schnase et al. 1991 ).

Breeding phaseSample sizeGround activityFlight songPerched (singing)Perched (silent)Flying
Unmated
Male464.31.07.727.50.0
Preincubation
Male458.512.03.224.71.3
Female293.53.53.0
Incubation
Male319.31.01.177.31.3
Female297.02.01.0
Nestling care
Male320.71.01.077.30.3
Female298.21.00.8
Fledgling care
Male319.04.07.065.05.0
Female290.05.05.0