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Comparison of demographic parameters in Pacific and Atlantic colonies of Black-legged Kittiwakes (mean + SE).

ParameterAlaskaEngland
Adult survival (% per year)92.6 ± 0.01a81.0 ± 1.5b
Adult life expectancy (years)13.0c4.8c
Productivity (chicks/pair/year)0.3 ± 0.03d1.2 ± 0.03e